Omega Fatty Acids 3 _amp; 6

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Omega Fatty Acids 3 _amp; 6 Powered By Docstoc
					Omega Fatty Acids
           Essential Fatty Acids

   Used as an energy source

   Used in the production of hormones

   Are incorporated in cell membranes
       DeNovo Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

   Birds can synthesize saturated fatty acids de
    novo and oxidize them to mono- and
    diunsaturated fatty acids up to C-9 in from the
    carboxyl end ( delta 9).
        DeNovo Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

   Birds can synthesize saturated fatty acids de
    novo and oxidize them to mono- and
    diunsaturated fatty acids up to C-9 in from the
    carboxyl end ( delta 9).

   For example, avian liver cells can synthesize
    stearic acid (C 18) and introduce a double bond
    between C-9 and C-10 to give oleic acid
    ( C 18 : 1^ 9 ).
      DeNovo Fatty Acid Biosynthesis


Acetate  16:0  18:0
    +    palmitic     stearic
Malonate
         ------------------------
              elongation
       DeNovo Fatty Acid Biosynthesis


Acetate 16:0  18:0  ^9 desaturase 18:1
   + palmitic stearic                oleic
Malonate

        ------------------------
           elongation
   Birds cannot introduce double bonds past the ^
    9 so they cannot use stearic acid to synthesize
    linoleic acid (C 18:2 ^ 9, 12) or
    a – linolenic acid (C 18:3 ^ 9, 12, 15 ).
   Birds cannot introduce double bonds past the ^
    9 so they cannot use stearic acid to synthesize
    linoleic acid (C 18:2 ^ 9, 12) or
    a – linolenic acid (C 18:3 ^ 9, 12, 15 ).

    Only plants have the enzymes capable of
    inserting ^ 12 or ^15 double bonds into C 18 fatty
    acids, hence linoleic and linolenic acids are
    essential fatty acids for birds.
       DeNovo Fatty Acid Biosynthesis


Acetate     16:0  18:0  18:1 18:2 18:3
    +       palmitic   stearic   oleic     linoleic   linolenic
Malonate
                                 ^9     ^ 12       ^ 15
  ------------------------          -------------------------
 --
      elongation                      desaturation
                                         plants
   It is common to name fatty acids by referring to
    the position of double bonds relative to the
    methyl end of the molecule.
   It is common to name fatty acids by referring to
    the position of double bonds relative to the
    methyl end of the molecule.
   This is appropriate because the methyl end is
    not subject to elongation and desaturation and
    determines nutritional essentiality.
   It is common to name fatty acids by referring to
    the position of double bonds relative to the
    methyl end of the molecule.
   This is appropriate because the methyl end is
    not subject to elongation and desaturation and
    determines nutritional essentiality.
   Linoleic acid and its elongation products are
    referred to as the n-6 or omega 6 family of fatty
    acids.
Linoleic Acid (18:2)
                Nomenclature
    The n –designation indicates the number of
    carbons from the methyl end.
                Nomenclature
    The n –designation indicates the number of
    carbons from the methyl end.

   The ^ (delta) designation indicates the number
    of carbons from the carboxyl end.
                Nomenclature
    The n –designation indicates the number of
    carbons from the methyl end.

   The ^ (delta) designation indicates the number
    of carbons from the carboxyl end.

   Birds can introduce double bonds at the
     ^ 5, ^ 6, and ^ 9 positions.
Linoleic Acid (18:2)
   Once consumed, linoleic can be desaturated
    between C-6 and C-7 to yield gamma-linolenic
    (C 18:3 ^ 6, 9, 12) which can be further elongated
    (+ 2 C) and desaturated to give arachidonic acid
    (C 20: 4 ^ 5, 8, 12, 14 ).
   Once consumed, linoleic can be desaturated between C-
    6 and C-7 to yield gamma-linolenic (C 18:3 ^ 6, 9, 12)
    which can be further elongated (+ 2 C) and desaturated
    to give arachidonic acid
    (C 20: 4 ^ 5, 8, 11, 14 ).

    Arachidonic can be further metabolized to
    C 22 fatty acids such as prostaglandins.
C 18:2 ^ 9, 12, n-6 (linoleic acid) ^6 desaturase 

C 18:3 ^ 6, 9, 12, n-6 (gamma-linolenic) + 2 C 

C 20:3^ 8, 11, 14, n-6  ^ 5 desaturase 

 C 20:4 ^ 5, 8, 11, 14, n-6 (arachidonic acid)
               Sources of Omega 6
   Sunflower oil

   Corn oil

   Poultry fat

   Pork fat
a-Linolenic Acid 18:3
   Dietary a-linolenic acid can be elongated and
    desaturated by hepatocytes to give
    eicosapentanoic acid ( C 20: 5 ^ 5, 8, 11, 14, 17) which
    can be further elaborated to other C 22 fatty
    acids.
   C 18:3 ^ 9, 12, 15, n-3 (a-linolenic acid) 
       ^ 6 desaturase  18:4 ^ 6, 9, 12, 15, n-3 + 2 C

    C 20:4 ^ 8, 11, 14, 17, n-3  ^ 5 desaturase 

C 20:5 ^ 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, n-3 (eicosapentanoic acid)
               C 22:6, n-3 (docosahexanoic acid)
               Sources of Omega 3
   Fish oils from cold-water fish
          Can be unpalatable and contain contaminates


   Flaxseed
          Must be processed with added pyridoxine


   Salvia Hispanica
          Very palatable, contains antioxidants
   The C-18, C-20, and C-22 PUFA are stored in
    phospholipids of cell membranes where they
    contribute to membrane structural integrity and
    fluidity.
   The C-18, C-20, and C-22 PUFA are stored in
    phospholipids of cell membranes where they
    contribute to membrane structural integrity and
    fluidity.
   They are released by the action of
    phospholipases and become the precursors for
    the eicosanoids: prostaglandins, leukotrienes,
    and thrombaxanes.
   The ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids in the diet is
    an important modulator of many physiologic
    processes and often more relevant than their
    absolute concentrations.
   The ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids in the diet is
    an important modulator of many physiologic
    processes and often more relevant than their
    absolute concentrations.
   The ratio of n-3 to n-6 is reflected in the
    composition of membranes and consequently
    the type and rate of different eicosanoids
    produced for regulatory purposes.
        Avian Immune Response
   High ratios of n-6 to n-3 are proinflammatory,
    low ratios are anti-inflammatory.

   Young chickens, n-3 fatty acids from fish oil
    enhances the immune response to sheep red
    blood cells.
           Omega-6 Fatty Acids
   The precursor – product relationship means that
    the dietary requirement for linoleic acid is
    decreased with the consumption of other
    n-6 PUFA such as gamma-linolenic or
    arachidonic acids.
           Omega-3 Fatty Acids
   a- linolenic acid and its elongation products are
    members of the omega-3 family of fatty acids.
   The fat from marine animals is high in C20 and C
    22 PUFA of the omega-3 family and this
    diminishes the need for a-linolenic acid.
   Dietary n-3 PUFA do not decrease the
    requirement for n-6 PUFA because these
    families are not interchangeable.
      Deficiencies of Omega 6 & 3

   Dull, greasy coat

   Skin inflammation

   Dry flaky skin

   Amplified allergic
    responses
             Pet Food Industry
   The pet food Industry has realized the benefits
    of balancing Omega 6’s & 3’s in pet diets

   Many companies now advertise on their labels

   High end quality diets can be purchased with an
    increase in cost
Purina One Dog Food Label
              Carotenoid Pigments

   Birds are the most colorful of all vertebrates.
              Carotenoid Pigments

   Birds are the most colorful of all vertebrates.
   The unique colors of feathers, eyes, beaks, and
    egg yolks are often dependent upon pigments of
    dietary origin.
              Carotenoid Pigments

   Birds are the most colorful of all vertebrates.
   The unique colors of feathers, eyes, beaks, and
    egg yolks are often dependent upon pigments of
    dietary origin.
   Dietary pigments are chemically called polyenes,
    as a class are called carotenoids.
              Carotenoid Pigments

   Birds are the most colorful of all vertebrates.
   The unique colors of feathers, eyes, beaks, and
    egg yolks are often dependent upon pigments of
    dietary origin.
   Dietary pigments are chemically called polyenes,
    as a class are called carotenoids.
   Each carotenoid has a specific color ranging
    from brilliant reds, oranges, and yellows to
    violet.
                Carotenoids, cont’d

   Carotenoids are synthesized only by plants and
    are conspicuous in blossoms, seeds, fruits,
    leaves.
                Carotenoids, cont’d

   Carotenoids are synthesized only by plants and
    are conspicuous in blossoms, seeds, fruits,
    leaves.
   Many animals (insects, fish) concentrate and
    further metabolize cartenoids providing a rich
    source for birds.
                 Carotenoids, cont’d

   Carotenoids are synthesized only by plants and
    are conspicuous in blossoms, seeds, fruits,
    leaves.
   Many animals (insects, fish) concentrate and
    further metabolize cartenoids providing a rich
    source for birds.
   Other animals (lab rats, mice) selectively excrete
    carotenoids.
                   Carotenoids

   Carotenes – unmodified cyclohexenyl rings
       a – carotene

       b – carotene = precursor for Vitamin A
       in all species, pigment in some
                   Carotenoids

   Xanthophylls – oxycarotenoids, have alcohol,
    keto, or ester groups on their terminal
    cyclohexenyl rings.
                   Carotenoids

   Xanthophylls – oxycarotenoids, have alcohol,
    keto, or ester groups on their terminal
    cyclohexenyl rings.
   The positioning and types of groups determine
    the color of xanthophylls
                   Carotenoids

   Xanthophylls – oxycarotenoids, have alcohol,
    keto, or ester groups on their terminal
    cyclohexenyl rings.
   The positioning and types of groups determine
    the color of xanthophylls
   Complexing of xanthophylls with proteins may
    shift the color or give iridescence
                   Carotenoids

   Dietary carotenoids may be used directly to to
    pigment tissues or they may be metabolized to
    other carotenoids prior to incorporation into
    tissues.
                   Carotenoids

   Dietary carotenoids may be used directly to to
    pigment tissues or they may be metabolized to
    other carotenoids prior to incorporation into
    tissues.
                   Carotenoids

   Dietary carotenoids may be used directly to to
    pigment tissues or they may be metabolized to
    other carotenoids prior to incorporation into
    tissues.
   Lutein, zeaxanthin, astaxanthin, capsanthin are
    prevalent xanthophylls consumed by captive and
    free-living birds.
                   Carotenoids

   Dietary carotenoids may be used directly to to
    pigment tissues or they may be metabolized to
    other carotenoids prior to incorporation into
    tissues.
   Lutein, zeaxanthin, astaxanthin, capsanthin are
    prevalent xanthophylls consumed by captive and
    free-living birds.
   Canthaxanthin, red pigment found in flamingo
    feathers, not produced in plants
                    Carotenoids

   Carotenoids are found in the diet in the free
    form or esterified to fatty acids.
                    Carotenoids

   Carotenoids are found in the diet in the free
    form or esterified to fatty acids.
   Most carotenoids in fruits and seeds are in the
    esterified form and less digestible than those in
    the free form (stems and leaves).
                    Carotenoids

   Carotenoids are found in the diet in the free
    form or esterified to fatty acids.
   Most carotenoids in fruits and seeds are in the
    esterified form and less digestible than those in
    the free form (stems and leaves).
   Carotenoid esters must be hydrolyzed by
    specific intestinal esterases prior to absorption,
    this is a rate-limiting step.
                    Carotenoids

   Factors which influence fat digestion will also
    influence carotenoid digestion.
   Each carotenoid appears to have its own
    individual pattern of absorption, plasma
    transport, and metabolism.
   Species differences in types of carotenoids that
    are preferentially absorbed, metabolized.
                   Carotenoids

   Canaries, chickens – efficiently absorb and
    utilize xanthophylls to pigment tissues but do
    not efficiently absorb B-carotene and metabolize
    it to the appropriate xanthophylls.
   Flamingos – effectively absorb and utilize
    B-carotene as a precursor for skin and feather
    pigments but no not readily utilize many other
    dietary xanthophylls.
                   Carotenoids

   In some species, the deposition of specific
    carotenoids into newly synthesized tissue may
    differ within different parts of the body.
        -different feather colors, skin pigments
                 Carotenoids

In some species, the deposition of specific
 carotenoids into newly synthesized tissue may
 differ within different parts of the body.
     -different feather colors, skin pigments
Some species are not very specific in the type or
 quantity of carotenoids absorbed. The color of
 a chicken’s skin, adipose, and egg yolk are
 directly reflective of the type and level of
 dietary xanthophyll.
                   Carotenoids

   Changing the proportion of specific
    xanthophylls can change the color of yolks from
    lemon yellow to golden yellow to orange-red.
                    Carotenoids

   Changing the proportion of specific
    xanthophylls can change the color of yolks from
    lemon yellow to golden yellow to orange-red.
   Xanthophylls in feed or tissues loses their color
    after oxidation so adequate antioxidants help
    maintain pigmentation potential.
                      Carotenoids

   Changing the proportion of specific xanthophylls can
    change the color of yolks from lemon yellow to golden
    yellow to orange-red.
   Xanthophylls in feed or tissues loses their color after
    oxidation so adequate antioxidants help maintain
    pigmentation potential.
   The antioxidant activity of some carotenoids is superior
    to Vitamin E though distribution limits their
    functionality.
 Oxidation Destruction Begins
During Ingredient Manufacturing


    MEAL/       FEED MILL         FEED
     FAT


    RENDERING
                             GROW OUT
      PLANT


                PROCESSING
     DAF/         PLANT          LIVE
    OFFAL                        BIRDS

				
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posted:4/7/2013
language:English
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