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EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY Module 21 Information Processing

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EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY Module 21 Information Processing Powered By Docstoc
					Myers’ EXPLORING
  PSYCHOLOGY



                    Module 21
                   Information
                    Processing
• Memory: Any evidence of the persistence of
  learning over time via the storage and retrieval
  of information.
   – Any sign that something learned has been
     retained.
• Flashbulb Memory: A clear memory of an
  emotionally significant moment or event.
                          Memory

• Memory as Information Processing: Three
  stage processing model of memory.
  – Similar to a
    computer
     • Write to file
       (encoding)
     • Save to disk
       (storage)
     • Read from
       disk (retrieval)
       Memory as Information Processing



• Encoding: The processing of information
  into the memory system.
• Storage: The retention of encoded
  information over time.
• Retrieval: Process of getting information
  out of memory.
                     Encoding


                External events are
                initially recorded as
                sensory memory


                       Which is either




Iconic Memory               or           Echoic Memory
 Encoding



 If we pay attention
 to the information,
 it is encoded into




Short-Term Memory
                       Encoding


To get information
into storage, we
must encode it.




               The relatively limitless,
               permanent memory
               where information is
               stored is long-term
               memory.
                                    Storage


                               Long-term memory
                               may be categorized as


   Conscious memory                              Automatic memory
   of facts or events, or                        of skills and behaviors,
   explicit memory                               or implicit memory
    Which consists of                                  Which consists of



General              Life history         Procedures,          Automatic
knowledge,           memory,              or skills            reactions,
or semantic          or episodic                               or dispositions
memory               memory
                        Retrieval


To get information                To get information
into storage, we                  out of storage, we
must encode it.                   must retrieve it.



          “Forgetting” Can Occur at either Process

               The relatively limitless,
               permanent memory
               where information is
               stored is long-term
               memory.
                    Memory

 Sensory Memory: The immediate, initial
  recording of sensory information in the memory
  system.
 Working Memory: Focuses more on the
  processing of briefly stored information.
 Short-Term Memory: Activated memory that
  holds a few items briefly.
    Look up a phone number, then quickly dial
     before the information is forgotten.
 Long-Term Memory: The relatively permanent
  and limitless storehouse of the memory system.
                       Encoding
• Automatic Processing: Unconscious encoding of
  incidental information, such as space, time, frequency,
  and well-learned information, such as word meanings.
• Effortful Processing: Encoding that requires attention
  and conscious effort.
• Rehearsal: Conscious repetition of information.
      • To maintain it in consciousness.
      • To encode it for storage.
                     Encoding
               Effortful Processing

• Ebbinghaus used nonsense syllables because
  there was no previous learning with them.
  – TUV ZOF GEK WAV
  – The more times practiced on Day 1, the fewer
    repetitions to relearn on Day 2 (savings).
• Spacing Effect: Distributed practice yields better
  long-term retention than massed practice.
      Encoding
Effortful Processing
      Encoding
Effortful Processing
                   Encoding
               Encoding Strategies

• Encoding Meaning: Including meaning of
  words.
• Acoustic Encoding: Encoding of sound.
   – Especially sound of words
• Visual Encoding: Encoding of picture images.
• Memory improves when there is an increase in
  the depth of processing.
  – The more elements of a memory that are encoded,
    the richer the memory.
                    Encoding
                Encoding Strategies

• Imagery
   – Mental pictures
   – A powerful aid to effortful processing, especially
     when combined with semantic encoding.
• Mnemonics
   – Memory aids
   – Especially those techniques that use vivid
     imagery and organizational devices.
                  Encoding
              Encoding Strategies


• Chunking: Organizing items into familiar,
 manageable units.
     • Like horizontal organization-
       1776149218121941
  – Often occurs automatically
  – Use of acronyms
     • HOMES-Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie,
       Superior
     • Roy G. Biv
                  Encoding
                  Chunking

• Organized information is more easily recalled
                 Encoding
                 Chunking

• Chunking for
  those who
  read Chinese
               Encoding
           Encoding Strategies

• Organization benefits memory
                    Storage
                 Sensory Memory
• Sensory Memory: The immediate, initial recording
  of sensory information in the memory system.
• Iconic Memory: A momentary sensory memory of
  visual stimuli.
   – A photographic or picture image memory lasting
     no more that a few tenths of a second.
   – registration of exact representation of a scene
• Echoic Memory: Momentary sensory memory of
  auditory stimuli.
   Storage
Sensory Memory
                    Storage
               Short-term Memory


• If information in Sensory Register is actively
  attended then it may come here
• Limited in duration and capacity
• “Magical” number 7 +/- 2
• Lasts 5-30 seconds
• Key to Short-term memory is active attention,
  rehearsal, practice, THOUGHT!
     Storage
Short-term Memory
World Memory Records
                    Storage
             How Does Storage Work?

• Karl Lashley (1950)
  – Trained rats to solve maze, then cut out pieces of
    their cortex and retested their memory of maze.
  – Partial memory retained
• Long-Term Potentiation
  – Increase in synapse’s firing potential after brief,
    rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for
    learning and memory.
• Strong emotions make for stronger memories
  – Some stress hormones boost learning and
    retention.
     Storage
Long-term Memory
     Storage
Long-term Memory
                      Storage
                 Long-term Memory

• Amnesia: The loss of memory
• Implicit Memory (a.k.a. Nondeclarative memory)
   – Retention without conscious recollection
   – Skills and dispositions
• Explicit Memory (a.k.a. Declarative Memory or
  Semantic Memory)
   – Memory of facts and experiences that one can
     consciously know and declare.
   – Hippocampus: Neural center in limbic system that
     helps process explicit memories for storage.
     Storage
Long-term Memory
The Hippocampus




           Hippocampus
                        Retrieval
                 Measures of Memory
• Recall: Measure of memory in which the person
  must retrieve information learned earlier.
   – As on a fill-in-the-blank test
• Recognition: A measure of memory in which the
  person need only identify items previously
  learned.
   – As on a multiple-choice test
• Relearning: A measure of memory that
  assesses the amount of time saved when
  relearning material.
   – Savings
                    Retrieval
                  Retrieval Cues

• Reminders of information we could not
  otherwise recall
• Guides to where to look for info
   – Priming: The activation, often unconsciously,
     of particular associations in memory.
   – Context Effects: Memory works better in the
     context of original learning.
      • Going back somewhere will often trigger
        memories from the place.
Retrieval
Priming
  Retrieval
Context Effect
                    Retrieval
                  Retrieval Cues

• Deja Vu: (French) already seen: Eerie sense
  that "I've experienced this before“.
   – Cues from the current situation may
     subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier
     similar experience.
• Mood-Congruent Memory: Tendency to recall
  experiences that are consistent with one’s
  current mood.
   – Memory, emotions, or moods serve as
     retrieval cues.
              Improving Memory

• Study often and space out the sessions to
  increase LT recall
• Spend more time rehearsing or actively
  practicing
• Make material personally meaningful
• Use mnemonic devices to remember unfamiliar
  information
• Refresh memory by activating retrieval cues
  (quiz yourself!)
• Test your knowledge – do those practice tests
• Minimize interference

				
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