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                What is medicine?

 1. Medicine – used to treat or prevent diseases or
 other health conditions

 2. Drugs – substances other than food that change
  the structure or function of the body or mind
     a. all medicines are drugs, but not all   drugs
  are medicine!
               What is medicine?

 3. Four major reasons people take medicine
     a. Help prevent disease
     b. Help fight pathogens
     c. Relieve pain and other symptoms
     d. Manage chronic conditions, help
      maintain or restore health, and regulate body’s
        Medicines that Prevent Disease

 1. Vaccine – a preparation that prevents a person
  from contracting a specific disease.
      Ex. Flu shot – required every year
   a. vaccine produces antibodies that fight the
    pathogens associated with the disease.
   b. basically, a smaller, weakened dosage of the
       Medicines that Prevent Disease

 Some common Vaccinations:
 1.MMR (Measles, Mumps, and
 2. Polio

 3. Hepatitis B

 4. Varicella (Chickenpox)
                 Include the following!

 What disease is this vaccine meant to prevent?
 Describe the disease this vaccine prevents: What are the
    symptoms? Who is most susceptible? Is the disease
    caused by a virus or bacteria?
   Who should be vaccinated? Who should not be
   How does the vaccine work? How often should a person
    be vaccinated?
   What are some possible side effects of the vaccine?
   What are some other interesting facts about this vaccine?
      Medicines that Prevent Disease

 2. Antitoxins – similar to a vaccine,
 they fight the bacteria that produce
 substances which are toxic to the body.
      Medicines that Fight Pathogens

1. Pathogens – any substance that causes

2. Antibiotics – drugs that destroy disease-
causing microorganisms called bacteria
    Ex. Penicillin – ear infections
       Medicines that Fight Pathogens

 3. Antivirals and Antifungals – suppress
 illnesses caused by viruses, not bacteria

 *** You need to finish a whole prescription.
 If you don’t, you may not kill all the bacteria,
 or viruses will develop a resistance to the
           Medicines that Relieve Pain

 1. Analgesics – Pain relievers.
 a. range from aspirin, ibuprofen, acetaminophen,
  naproxen (reduces inflammation), to opium-based
  morphine and codeine (which is much stronger)
 b. Acetaminophen is the recommended analgesic for
  children! Aspirin may cause Reye’s syndrome in
  children (illness of brain and liver)
 c. These drugs can be addictive. Patients may
  become physically or psychologically dependent on
  these drugs.
   Medicines that Promote Health and Manage
               Chronic Conditions

 1. Allergy Medicines – also known as antihistamines
 a. reduce sneezing, runny nose, itchy/watery eyes
  b. block chemicals released by immune system that cause
  allergic response
 c. Epinephrine – may be prescribed by a doctor
  incase of a severe allergic reaction
            - peanut allergy, bee sting
 - self-administered shot with single dose injector
  Medicines that Promote Health and Manage
              Chronic Conditions

 2. Body Regulating Medicines – regulate body
  chemistry and balance
 a. Insulin is an example
 b. people with diabetes use this to regulate the
  amount of sugar in their blood
 c. asthma sufferers use inhalers to help respiratory
  Medicines that Promote Health and Manage
              Chronic Conditions

 3. Antidepressants – help people suffering
  from mental illnesses
 a. example – Prozac – taken to help enhance
  mood and eliminate depression
                Taking Medications

 1. Oral Medicines – Taken by mouth, pass from the
 digestive system into bloodstream

 2. Topical Medicines – applied to skin, transdermal

 3. Inhaled Medicines – delivered in fine mist or powder
 such as asthma medications

 4. Injected Medications – delivered through a shot and
 go directly to bloodstream
Over the Counter (OTC)/Prescription Drugs

 1. All medicines in US must meet standards
  set by FDA – Food and Drug Administration
 2. Prescription Meds – given only with the
  written approval of a licensed physician

 3. OTC Meds – medicines you can buy
 without a prescription
Over the Counter (OTC)/Prescription Drugs

 4. Medicine Misuse – using a med in ways other
  than the intended use
     Ex. Taking too much or too little of a med

 5. Medicine abuse – intentionally taking
 medications for nonmedical reasons

 6. Drug Overdose – a strong, sometimes fatal
 reaction to taking a large amount of a drug
            Reactions to Medications

 1. Side Effects – reactions to medicine other than the
 ones intended

 2. Additive interaction – medicines work together in
  a positive way
     Ex. An anti-inflammatory and a muscle relaxant
     May be prescribed to treat joint pain
            Reactions to Medications

 3. Synergistic Effect – occurs when one medicine
 increases the strength of another

 4. Antagonistic Interaction – the effect of one
 medicine is cancelled or reduced when taken with
 another med.
            Reactions to Medications

 5. Tolerance – body becomes used to the effect of a
 med. The body requires an increase in dosage to
 produce the same effect

 6. Withdrawal – when a person stops using a med
  that he/she has become physiologically dependant
 Ex. Symptoms include insomnia, nervousness,
  headaches, vomiting, chills

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