Five Themes of Geography by dffhrtcv3

VIEWS: 8 PAGES: 33

									Geography

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What is Geography?
• Geography is the study of the Earth, its
  features, & the ways people live and work
  on Earth!


Geographers ask:
• Where are things located?
• Why are they there?
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Five Themes
of Geography
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First Theme of Geography



      Where something is found.


Key Question: How do people know where
               they are?
                                         4
• Where is a place?
• Two ways to talk about it
  – Absolute:
     • Deals with measurement.
  –Relative:
    • Determining and describing a place.
                                            5
• The exact location of a
  place on earth.
• Latitude &
   Longitude
• Address                   6
• Example: Philadelphia, PA is located
  at 40° N 75° W




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• How one place is related
  to another place.



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• Examples:
 •This home is near the city.
 • SRMS is north the Route 72.
• Now come up with your own example!




                                       9
   Second Theme of Geography




Describes the kinds of FEATURES that make a
 location different from any other on Earth.
Key Question: What makes this place different from
                  that place?

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• Geographers try to show how each
  place is unique.
• Place deals with similarities and
  differences

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                   Example: this place is rural




while this place is urban.

                                            12
   Place deals with physical & human
               characteristics.
• Physical characteristics - Landforms,
  elevation, soil, plant, & animals
• Human characteristics - population,
  housing, language, economy, & beliefs

                                      13
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      Third Theme of Geography




Describes how people affect the environment
 and how the environment affects people.
    Key Question: How do people use the
               environment?

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• How people interact or change
  with the land.




                                  16
• Can be positive or negative
• Example: humans cut down forest to make
  more farm land
• Example: humans pollute the land and
  water.
• Example: humans recycle materials or
  conserve scarce resources

                                            17
        Fourth Theme of Geography



Explains how people, goods, information, & ideas
           move from place to place.


 Key Question: How do people, things, and ideas
           travel from place to place?
                                                   18
• Physical movement
  of the people, goods,
  and ideas on Earth.




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Examples:
• People commuting to work
• Communication of ideas though TV,
      Radio, and the Internet
• International Trade


                                      20
 Fifth Theme of Geography



   Areas that share one or more features
Key Question: What are some things that make
              an area unique?


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• Area with common
  geographic & cultural features
  that set it apart from other
  areas.               Kids today!
                      What can
     Excuse me,      you expect.
     does anyone
    speak English?

                                     22
• Example: The Middle East is a region
  of Asia.
  – The area has similar climate, customs, governments,
    vegetation, and most people are Muslim.




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   These five themes fit together!
• Every place has a location on the Earth.
• The combination of natural environment and
  human activities gives each place a special quality.
• The way people live in one place shows us how
  they have adapted to the environment. Technology
  allows people to make great changes in the
  environment.
• Movement connects places and allow products,
  people and ideas to travel.
• Similar kinds of places can be grouped into
  regions.
                                                     24
                          Directions        Prime
     • Globe=Model of the Earth            Meridian:
                                        Imaginary longitude line;
           Shaped like sphere or ball              0°
                                          Runs north to south;
                                        breaks Earth into Eastern
                                         & Western Hemispheres



Equator
   Imaginary
  latitude line;
        0°
Runs east-west;
  breaks Earth                                 Hemisphere:
 into Northern
   & Southern
                                               ½ sphere/ball
 Hemispheres
                                                          25
Directions

               Compass Rose:
                Special symbol helps
                 you find directions




             Cardinal Directions:
             N, S, E, W

             Intermediate Directions:
             Directions between Cardinal Directions
             NE, SE, NW, SW

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                 North Pole:
                 Farthest point
                 north on Earth




South Pole:
Farthest point
south on Earth
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         Symbols and Legends
Political Map:
Show boundaries
separating states
  & countries

    Title:
   Tells you
purpose of map
   Legend:
explains what
symbols mean
                             Symbol:
                    represents something on Earth   28
State Boundary:
      shows where one state ends and
another begins.

International Boundary:
      shows where one country ends and
another begins.



 http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&tab=ll


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Map Scale




                 Compares distance on a map with
                    distance in the real world.

Shortest distance between two points is a straight line!

                                                           30
                      Physical Map
Combines elevation,
 landforms, water
      depth


Elevation: height
of land above sea
level.

Sea Level: level
of ocean surface




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     Latitude
       Parallels

• Big Shot: Equator
  – Imaginary line
  – 0°
  – Divides globe into Northern &
     Southern hemispheres
  – All latitude lines measured
     N & S of Equator
  – Never Intersect
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      Longitude
        meridians
• Big Shot: Prime Meridian
  – Imaginary line
  – 0°
  – Divides Earth into Eastern
      & Western Hemispheres
  – All longitude lines measured
     E & W of Prime Meridian
  – Intersect at North & South Poles
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