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					                                        MULTIMEDIA TRAINING KIT

                                                           Developed by: APC

MULTIMEDIA TRAINING KIT ................................................................................................................. 1
About this document ............................................................................................................................... 1
Copyright information .............................................................................................................................. 1
Why should CSOs become involved? ..................................................................................................... 1
A globalised world and networking ......................................................................................................... 2
So what should we do with the new technologies? ................................................................................ 3
Act now, before it is too late .................................................................................................................... 5

About this document1
These materials are part of the Multimedia Training Kit (MMTK). The MMTK provides an integrated
set of multimedia training materials and resources to support community media, community
multimedia centres, telecentres, and other initiatives using information and communications
technologies (ICTs) to empower communities and support development work.

Copyright information
This unit is made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. To find out
how you may use these materials please read the copyright statement included with this unit or see

Why should CSOs become involved?
Why should we, as citizens, become involved in ICT policymaking? The obvious answer is that, as
shown above, ICTs are so central to contemporary society that they affect us continually in many
ways. So, for example, if a government decides to promote free software, we are more likely to enjoy
the benefits of free software (better security, lower cost, easy adaptation to local conditions and
needs, etc). This is because it will be more extended throughout society, the monopoly of Microsoft
software and its file formats will be broken, and our lives will improve. If a government decides to
introduce a new form of censorship on the internet, or fails to protect citizens’ rights to privacy, then
we will suffer too. If the telephone companies keep prices artificially high for broadband, or refuse to
introduce a cheap flat rate for modem access, then we may have to pay too much to access the
internet, the same as everyone else. If telecommunications companies are not encouraged or obliged
by regulation to roll out services in rural areas, people there will have to rely on more expensive
mobile phone services. If governments do not make it legal for wireless internet services to operate,
development and community workers in ‘unconnected’ parts of the world will not be able to benefit

 This handout has been taken from APC’s ICT Policy: A Beginner's Handbook:
b75d9230-e5de-4fa0-bc0c-40ef74086087.doc                                                                                                            1
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from the power of online communication and information access. The internet makes it possible for
local voices to be heard throughout the world but, if policy and regulation limit their access, they will
also limit their reach.

These self-interested reasons are not the main ones. Other reasons have to do with the nature of
global society. If we want to promote social justice, then ICT policy will be a key factor in this battle,
and we cannot afford to remain outside the ICT policy-making process.

A globalised world and networking
Globalisation is a historical reality, not just a catch phrase. The world we live in has changed
enormously in the last 15 to 20 years. While a global economy has existed for centuries, in the form of
colonialism and world trade, a new form of unregulated expansion has taken shape in the last
decade. The basis of the new economy has been free trade, unrestricted investment, deregulation,
balanced budgets, low inflation and privatisation of state-owned enterprises and infrastructures. At the
same time, restrictions on financial markets were lifted. A large number of mergers and company
takeovers mean that many industries have become dominated by a few multinationals, while smaller,
local companies have gone under or been forced to depend on the larger ones.

ICTs have been a fundamental part of this process. Without instantaneous, global, electronic
telecommunications, the world financial market could not exist, nor could companies coordinate their
production strategies on a global level. Today’s competition between companies depends on such
global communications, as does the production of new ideas and research, whether at universities,
private institutes or company laboratories. Although it is not true to say that ICTs have caused these
radical changes, they have been a prerequisite and are now fundamental to the functioning of the
global economy.
Manuel Castells, in his three-volume work on the information age , has suggested that this modern,
globalised, deregulated and privatised form of capitalism is not only based on modern ICTs, but on
the forms of social organisation that these permit: networks. A networked society is one in which “the
entire planet is organised around telecommunicated networks of computers at the heart of information
systems and communication processes.” This dependence on the power of information reaches us
all. Furthermore, “the availability and use of information and communication technologies are a
prerequisite for economic and social development in our world. They are the functional equivalent of
electricity in the industrial era.” Castells goes so far as to state that ICTs can allow countries to
“leapfrog stages of economic growth by being able to modernise their production systems and
increase their competitiveness faster than in the past.” Whether or not one shares his optimism for
the possibility of ICTs furthering social development, he develops a compelling case that this modern
economic and social system is not only the most productive one ever but also the most exclusionary.
What, and who, it does not need, it casts aside. If you are not part of the networking system, then you
are excluded and forced to survive on the outskirts of it, marginalised, powerless and poor. While the
powerful use networks to go beyond the traditional restrictions of space and time, most people all over
the world cannot. People, workers, citizens, do not function on a day-to-day level in a global network,
but at a local level in a closer human web of human relationships.

The conclusion is clear: we have to use the networks in a new way, for the benefit of human beings
and not for the efficient functioning of the international money market and multinational companies. If
global, networked systems are the new basis of power, and if ICTs are the technical foundation of
globalisation, they have become a terrain of struggle. The main challenge is to adapt them to become

  M. Castells, The Rise of the Network Society, End of Millennium and the Power of Identity, 1996-
 Castells, M. 1999. Information Technology, Globalization and Social Development.
  This argument is explained at length in The Rise of the Network Society (2000), where Castells
develops his notion of ‘the space of flows’, as distinct from the traditional ‘space of places’.
b75d9230-e5de-4fa0-bc0c-40ef74086087.doc                                                                     2
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the technical foundation of the struggle against the negative impacts of globalisation and for social
justice. Those who remain inside the networked society, with access to the systems that make it
function so effectively, will be able to fight to change it. Those who are excluded will find it so much
more difficult.

Yoshio Utsumi, Secretary-General of the International Telecommunication Union
(coorganiser of the WSIS), in an address to the UN General Assembly, New York,
17-18 June, 2002:

“Of course people cannot live on information alone, but it is quite obvious that humanity, for
better or worse, is now entering an age where information oriented activities are a major part
of GDP (national income). Information is a key to competitive advantage both for businesses
and modern states. Therefore, it becomes all the more urgent to build the basic
telecommunication infrastructure, to develop capable human resources and to make the best
use of information technologies for every aspect of human activity. We must extend the
benefits of information and telecommunication technologies to every citizen in the world. We
must bridge the digital divide and turn it into a digital opportunity.”


So what should we do with the new technologies?
What does this mean in practice? It means using ICTs to do several things. First, to spread alternative
information in a new way, to millions of people instantly and without the confines of traditional
limitations such as distance. Second, to create new forms of organisation and coordination, new
structures and new modes of operation. Third, to foster new forms of solidarity among the powerless,
new ways of sharing experience and of learning from one another. And finally, to incorporate more
and more people into these alternative global networks.

People are already doing it. The Web allows anybody to publish news and information, and the effects
of this can be seen everywhere, not just on the millions of websites that anyone can access. No
longer can the powerful tell lies and get away with it so easily. For example, when a politician justifies
a war with lies, alternative versions immediately appear on thousands of electronic mailing lists,
websites, blogs, and internet radio and TV. Websites like the Indymedias provide alternative sources
of information, which are instantaneous, open to the participation of anyone who has interesting news,
and where information, opinion and debate coexist. Information can now be made available instantly
all over the Web. This forces the traditional media, such as the mainstream press and TV, to respond,
changing the style of information gathering but showing, as they compete for momentary exclusives
and news-breaking stories, that their news and information are still controlled by the editors, the
directors, and frequently the owners. Counter information on the internet is usually unpaid, and allows
other viewpoints to be heard.

But it is not only the information flows that are changing. The way we work together is also changing.
New tools allow new ways of organising, often without the vertical hierarchies, rigidly formal structures
and entrenched office bearers that previously allowed those who controlled the information flows to
control the structures. A mailing list makes it just as easy to send a message to hundreds or even
thousands of people as to one person. When activities are organised through a list, everyone can
have all the information, not just chosen bits. Thus a coalition of activists can be not just a few
representatives who go to a meeting once a week, but hundreds of people who can voice their ideas.
A campaign for mass demonstrations, or to protest a political trial, can quickly involve thousands of
people in a matter of weeks, when previously it would have taken months or years. This makes
grassroots organising easier, allows more people to be involved, but also may mean that the political
structures that are developed in this manner are not so stable as they used to be. A network may
develop for a particular campaign, involve a dozen, hundreds or thousands of people, and then
dissolve or

b75d9230-e5de-4fa0-bc0c-40ef74086087.doc                                                                   3
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change into another form when the campaign finishes.

A unionist comments on the use of email

“Before, when information arrived by fax to the local union office, I never knew what was
going on. If I made the effort to go into the office, the fax might be on the notice board, but
half the time it had fallen off and been put into the bin, or someone had taken it home, etc.
Then we started using email in the office and the first thing I used to do when I arrived was
look in the computer to see the new emails. Now that we are all on the Net, I have a copy of
everything that reaches the local office. I can comment on it through the list and we can
discuss things before the meetings, which makes them quicker and less boring. Now I get too
much information, quite the opposite from before.

Source: Personal communication

One challenge faced by those working for social justice in the era of globalisation is how to operate on
a global scale, to link people and communities in different countries around causes that affect us all.
Apart from email and mailing lists, Web forums, news groups, intranets, online group work spaces,
Webs, blogs, video conferences, instant messenger services, and a host of new tools mean that the
possibilities for international, national or local collaboration are infinitely greater with the new
technologies. In the same way that injustice has become globally organised, the struggle against it
must be global, not only local. This means that people from rich countries can learn from those from
poorer countries, and vice versa. Of course, ICTs are no substitute for real, face-to-face interaction,
but when this is not possible they can provide alternatives. And they often make closer human
communication easier by bringing people together.

Examples of global campaigns using ICTs

The international campaign to ban the use of land mines is a pioneering example of the use of
the internet to reach a world-wide audience and bring together various NGOs in a coalition. It
culminated in 1997 in an international agreement not to use these weapons.


Since 1996, Amnesty International has mounted campaigns around human rights in Nigeria
which put enormous pressure on the Nigerian dictatorship. Recently these campaigns have
included saving the lives of women sentenced to death by stoning under Islamic law. Email
petitions have been widely distributed.


But to use the new ICTs in these ways, you need to be able to access them, and most of humanity
cannot do so at the moment. Access to ICTs for all is thus a key demand for concerned citizens, an
essential aspect of ICT policy, and an issue for us all. The new technologies offer enormous
possibilities for increasing human freedom and social justice. The origin of the internet, designed as a
way of collaborating without any central control, makes it an excellent tool for this, and because the
internet has developed in an unregulated way on the basis of collaboration, it is not controlled. Not
yet. But this situation is unlikely to last. In fact, it is under threat from governments and multinational
companies, through legislation, regulation, monopoly control, legal pressures, and intellectual
property restrictions. The new ICTs will not be new for very long, and they might not continue to be as
free as they are now. The possibilities they offer can be taken away from us, unless we actively
participate in the inevitable regulatory process that any new technology experiences.

b75d9230-e5de-4fa0-bc0c-40ef74086087.doc                                                                  4
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Act now, before it is too late
Now is the time to act, when all is not yet decided. If we wait until the restrictions on ICTs are
consolidated, it will be much more difficult to reverse policies than to create better ones in the first
place. Policy varies from country to country, especially from rich to poor, and the priorities are
different. In poorer countries, where ICTs are less developed, the key issues are access to ICTs for
the majority of the population and outright restrictions such as internet filters and lack of freedom of
expression. In the developed countries, many of these issues have already been decided, such as
telephone access, or have a long tradition, such as the lack of censorship. But new issues are arising
as restrictions are imposed: privacy, censorship, intellectual property restrictions, broadband, 3G cell
phones, wireless connectivity, infrastructure monopolies, media concentration, etc. The result of these
new struggles to impose the power of governments and multinationals will inevitably be extended to
the rest of the world, so people in less developed countries should actively engage with these issues,
because their future will be decided for them.

So why should we be interested in ICT policy? Because the way ICTs develop will have an enormous
impact on the possibilities of working for social justice and sustainable development. If we do not take
an active part in ICT policy-making, we will have no say in how our societies develop and how the
future unfolds.


The use of wireless to connect to the internet is another rapidly expanding Information and
Communication Technology. It is another example of an area of freedom, not yet fully
regulated, which could become more controlled. Already the US Defence Department is
complaining that the 802.11 protocols use bandwidth that the military needs. Lawrence Lessig
argues that wireless should be available to everyone, and that users will lose
out if it is controlled, sold off, restricted and regulated. “Wi-Fi is the first successful example of
these spectrum sharing technologies. Within thin slices of the spectrum bands, the
government has permitted “unlicensed” spectrum use. The 802.11 family of protocols has
jumped on these slivers to deliver surprisingly robust data services. These protocols rely on a
hobbled version of spread-spectrum technology. Even in this crude implementation,
the technology is exploding like wildfire. And this is just the beginning. If the Federal
Communications Commission frees more spectrum to such experimentation, there is no end
to wireless technologies’ potential. Especially at a time when broadband competition
has all but stalled, using the commons of a spectrum to invite new competitors is a strategy
that looks increasingly appealing to policy makers.”

Source: L Lessig, Wireless Spectrum: Defining the ‘Commons’ in Cyberspace,,3959,1151656,00.asp

b75d9230-e5de-4fa0-bc0c-40ef74086087.doc                                                                 5
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