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Introduction to Information and Computer Science: Computer Software Audio Transcript Slide 1 Welcome to Introduction to Information and Computer Science: Computer Software. This is Lecture (a). The component, Introduction to Information and Computer Science, provides a basic overview of computer architecture; data organization, representation and structure; structure of programming languages; networking and data communication. It also includes basic terminology of computing. Slide 2 The objectives for this unit, Computer Software, are to: Define application versus system software. Give examples of application software focusing on healthcare systems. Describe the functions of system software. List different types of operating systems. Explain the purpose and usage of file systems. Slide 3 This lecture will discuss application and system software, with a focus on healthcare systems. It also describes the functions of operating systems, presents different operating systems, and defines the purpose and usage of file systems. Software is what makes a computer usable. Without software, a computer would simply be hardware that does not do anything. Computer users run application software to help them be productive, entertain them, and communicate with others. The system software is the software that interacts directly with the hardware. System software includes the operating system and utility programs. It makes the computer run and serves as a layer between the application software and the hardware, and it makes sure that the hardware does everything that the applications want it to and helps coordinate all the tasks that all the running programs need to do. Slide 4 Application software is available in different forms: Licensed software refers to mass-produced, commercially available, copyrighted software that is available for purchase in a store or online as a download. Microsoft Office software and Adobe Photoshop are some examples of packaged software. Custom software is software that is created for a particular purpose; generally, it is created when no commercially available application has the needed Health IT Workforce Curriculum Introduction to Information and Computer Science 1 Version 3.0 / Spring 2012 Computer Software Lecture a This material (Comp4_Unit4a) was developed by Oregon Health and Science University funded by the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number IU24OC000015. functionality. The Informatics Shared Resource at Oregon Health Science University often creates custom applications for clinical researchers such as applications for electronic surveys. Web applications are software that runs on particular websites. Sometimes these are free, such as email applications (Yahoo, Google, and MSN); others, such as online tax preparation software, are available for a fee. Open-source software is software that does not have a copyright; it can be used, modified, and redistributed without any restrictions. Open-source software is often available online for free. Shareware is copyrighted software that is free for a trial period. After the trial period is up, the user must send a payment to the developer to continue using the software. Sometimes, the shareware version of a product is a scaled down version of the software and does not have the full functionality of the software available for purchase. Freeware is copyrighted software available at no cost, but the company or developer of the software retains rights to it, which means that it cannot be changed or redistributed. Public domain software is software that has been donated for public use and has no copyright restrictions. The software can be copied and redistributed. Slide 5 Listed here are roughly six categories of application software. Each category can certainly be subdivided into smaller categories. Also, categories are not exclusive or distinct—some business applications are used for home purposes as well. Business applications include word processing, spreadsheets, database applications, presentation software, project management software, and accounting applications, to name a few. Science and mathematical software includes statistical software, mathematical modeling software, and computational science software. Graphics and multimedia applications are used to create graphics, edit images, create and edit videos, create and edit audio, and create video games. Home and personal use applications comprise the broadest category—it includes business software for use at home, home editions of desktop publishing, image- editing software, video creation software, tax preparation software, home design and landscaping, recipe managers, and personal finance. Also, depending on users’ interests and background, they may use any software in any of the other categories at home as well. Communications software is the software that helps users communicate with others through the network. This includes browsers, email, IM (eye-em) applications, file transfer, voice over IP [eye-pee] (Internet Protocol), and video conferencing, among others. Health IT Workforce Curriculum Introduction to Information and Computer Science 2 Version 3.0 / Spring 2012 Computer Software Lecture a This material (Comp4_Unit4a) was developed by Oregon Health and Science University funded by the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number IU24OC000015. Artificial intelligence applications use knowledge, reasoning, learning, and other human characteristics for approximating human intelligence. Some examples are voice recognition software, automated online help, and expert systems, among others. Healthcare software includes electronic medical records, healthcare information systems, medical office management systems, imaging, and telemedicine. Slide 6 Word processing software is commonly used in businesses and at home. It is the most popular and frequently used software application. A word processor has many powerful features that make it far more useful than a simple text editor such as NotePad. Word processors can auto-correct spelling and formatting; perform spell-check and grammar- check on documents; perform mail merges to generate and print form letters, mailing labels, and more; track changes to documents, which is useful when multiple people are reviewing and editing the same document; create tables to display data; and create templates for documents. Some word processors will convert documents to web pages. There are many word processors available. Some of the most popular are Microsoft Word, OpenOffice Writer, Corel WordPerfect, and Google Docs. The screenshot shown here is of OpenOffice Writer. OpenOffice is a free, open-source office suite of productivity software available for download. It includes word processing and spreadsheet applications as well as presentation software, similar to Microsoft Office. OpenOffice is available for download from www.openoffice.org. Google Docs is similar, but the software and the documents are stored online. Users must have a Google/gmail account. Go to www.google.com for more information. Slide 7 Spreadsheets are applications used at home and at work for organizing data and performing calculations. These calculations can be performed using built-in functions and user-defined formulas. Also, users can generate graphs or charts representing the data in the spreadsheet. Spreadsheets can be used for anything from tracking simple home expenses to performing complex, powerful calculations on very large datasets. Some examples of spreadsheet applications are Microsoft Excel, Lotus 1-2-3, Corel Quattro-Pro, Google Docs, and OpenOffice Calc. Pictured is a screenshot from OpenOffice Calc. Slide 8 Presentation software creates visual aids for a presentation, just like the PowerPoint presentation currently being viewed. The presentation is developed as a series of slides with text and/or images, tables, videos, and graphs. The presentations can have special features such as animations and automatic transitions. The resulting presentation can be displayed and viewed during a lecture with a human speaker; it can be viewed as a Health IT Workforce Curriculum Introduction to Information and Computer Science 3 Version 3.0 / Spring 2012 Computer Software Lecture a This material (Comp4_Unit4a) was developed by Oregon Health and Science University funded by the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number IU24OC000015. standalone display that continually loops on a kiosk; or it can be published as a Flash file, like the one being viewed now. Some examples of presentation software are Microsoft PowerPoint, OpenOffice Impress, and Apple Keynote. Displayed here is a screenshot from OpenOffice Impress. Slide 9 Project management software helps aid in the planning and scheduling of a business project. It keeps track of deadlines, deliverables, timelines, resources, and events. For complex projects with many contributors, project management software is a must. The most popular project management software is Microsoft Project. Other examples are Fast Track Schedule and SEER-SEM [see-er S-E-M]. This slide shows a screenshot from SEER-SEM [see-er S-E-M]. There are many other project management software products, some available as a free downloads online. Slide 10 Many applications are used in science and mathematics; they are number-crunching applications designed to work on large amounts of data. These applications include statistical packages such as SPSS and Gretl [greh-tl] (an open-source version pictured here). Matlab is a mathematical package that provides numerical computing for matrices of large data; it is often used in engineering for the design of complex systems. Mathematica software is also a mathematical package that provides computational support for engineering, science, and mathematical problems. Slide 11 Desktop publishing software is professional-grade software used to produce high-quality print documents such as textbooks, brochures, and catalogs. It provides far more powerful formatting and high-resolution output than a word processor can. There are several options available for software—Adobe PageMaker, Adobe FrameMaker, and Microsoft Publisher are a few examples. Scribus [skri-buhs] is an open-source option. Slide 12 This is a screen shot of Scribus [skri-buhs]. Notice the complex formatting and layout tools. They are far more powerful and precise than a word processor. Slide 13 Professional versions of image-editing, photo-editing, and paint software are used in the workplace by graphic artists and designers. Paint software is for drawing shapes and pictures. Image-editing software allows users to edit existing images and photos. Photo- editing software is a type of image-editing software specifically for digital photographs. This software can retouch photos and add or remove elements from a photo. Some examples are Adobe Photoshop, GIMP [gimp], and Inkscape. Health IT Workforce Curriculum Introduction to Information and Computer Science 4 Version 3.0 / Spring 2012 Computer Software Lecture a This material (Comp4_Unit4a) was developed by Oregon Health and Science University funded by the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number IU24OC000015. Slide 14 This is a screenshot of Inkscape, an open-source image-editing application, and shows different effects applied to a single image. Slide 15 Video editing is another example of graphics and multimedia software. It breaks video into segments called clips. The user can then modify a clip, delete it, reorder the clips and add special effects to the clips. Some examples are Adobe Premiere Elements, Pinnacle Studio, and OpenShot. Displayed is a screenshot from OpenShot. Slide 16 There are many different types of communication software including email, instant messaging, FTP (for file transfers), web browsers, voice over IP, blogs, and wikis. Anything that allows users to communicate over a network would be considered communications software. The screenshot displayed is of Mozilla Thunderbird, an email application. Slide17 Artificial intelligence or (AI for short) is an area of research and development in computer science that attempts to approximate human intelligence. It involves several subareas that include: Reasoning and deduction. Programming a computer to solve problems quickly is vital for AI. Knowledge representation and retrieval. In order for computers to act intelligently, they must have extensive knowledge. This knowledge must be represented in a way that it can be easily retrieved. Natural language processing refers to computers being able to "read" and understand written text. Perception is the ability to recognize different inputs. Some examples of perception are facial recognition, spatial recognition, and voice recognition. Learning is the ability to add new knowledge from existing knowledge. Planning involves understanding the current state and predicting changes based on computer actions. Motion is used by intelligent robots to interact with the physical world around them and to navigate and manipulate the environment. Slide 18 There are many applications that use AI: Expert systems use rules and directed input from the user to identify possible solutions to a problem. Expert systems are used in medicine for diagnoses, prescribing medication, and for decision making. Health IT Workforce Curriculum Introduction to Information and Computer Science 5 Version 3.0 / Spring 2012 Computer Software Lecture a This material (Comp4_Unit4a) was developed by Oregon Health and Science University funded by the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number IU24OC000015. Voice recognition is used by many devices today such as cell phones and Bluetooth wireless devices. Instead of typing commands into a computer or cell phone, users interact with a computing device through voice recognition software by talking to it. Robots use AI to move themselves, perform tasks, navigate, plan, and make decisions. Even email spam filtering uses AI for identifying and learning which email is spam. Video games widely use AI to program game behavior. There is even automated online help for websites that replaces a human customer service representative. The AI helps find answers to users’ questions through a "conversation.” IBM Watson is an example of a recent computer system that uses AI to simulate human intelligence. Watson was a contestant on Jeopardy and won against two human Jeopardy champions using natural language processing to understand the Jeopardy clue and identify possible solutions from an extremely large knowledge base. It then evaluated which one was the correct answer (or correct question in the case of Jeopardy). All of this had to be done quickly; Watson averaged 3 to 6 seconds of response times to the clues. AI algorithms combined with very fast computers made this possible. Watson is now being applied to business and healthcare environments. In healthcare, Watson will assist medical personnel in making decisions by being able to process large amounts of medical data and knowledge quickly. Slide 19 There are many different applications available for healthcare. They include electronic health records (EHRs) and electronic medical records (EMRs), which pertain to the medical and health information for an individual. Health Information Systems are larger systems, typically used in a hospital or large clinic, that include an EMR as well as other features such as physician ordering, medications, decision support, billing, and scheduling. Expert systems and decision-support systems use AI to analyze knowledge and make decisions as a human expert would. Medical Office management systems also include management features such as scheduling and billing. Patient registries are datasets relating to a particular medical issue or population that are used to track changes in patients over time. They provide a much more global view over all patients than EMRs often can. Imaging and telemedicine are technologies available in healthcare to improve care. Slide 20 Displayed here are some examples of EHRs: EpicCare, GE's Centricity, and VistA. Included are URLs for more information. Health IT Workforce Curriculum Introduction to Information and Computer Science 6 Version 3.0 / Spring 2012 Computer Software Lecture a This material (Comp4_Unit4a) was developed by Oregon Health and Science University funded by the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number IU24OC000015. Slide 21 VistA is one of the first healthcare information systems that included an EMR. This is a VistA screenshot showing lab result values graphed over time for a particular patient. Slide 22 There are many expert systems used in healthcare; here are just a few examples. IBM Watson, IBM's intelligent computer system, is being adapted to be an expert decision support system in healthcare. It will analyze massive amounts of up-to-date information: journal articles, studies, similar cases, and clinical and laboratory findings, among other information, to help medical personnel make decisions in patient care. For over two decades, DxPlain has provided doctors with diagnosis support in the form of case analysis and an electronic medical textbook. In a clinical setting, given a set of signs, symptoms, and laboratory values, DxPlain can provide a list of possible diagnoses along with explanations. As a medical textbook, it provides detailed information about over 2400 diseases. MYCIN was developed at Stanford in the 1970s and was one of the first expert systems used in a medical setting. It was capable of identifying bacteria and recommending antibiotics and dosages for treatment. Slide 23 Medical office management systems provide scheduling and billing support. This is a screenshot from OpenEMR that demonstrates the scheduling feature of the software. Slide 24 Medical imaging is what it sounds like—capturing, storing, and viewing images of human structures. These images can be generated from diagnostic tools such as X- rays, MRIs, and CAT scans. The software then displays the images for viewing by medical personnel. Slide 25 Telemedicine is the ability to consult or manage medical procedures remotely. Software that supports telemedicine is crucial—it must be able to display whatever is needed so that the remote work can be done. This is an example of a chest scan used in teleradiology. Slide 26 The basis of all software is code. Code contains the programming statements/instructions that make the program work. Files may be used by software for storing and retrieving data that is stored on disk. For example, Microsoft Word creates, opens, and edits files called documents. Databases may or may not be part of software; databases are optimized for storing and retrieving large amounts of data quickly, correctly, and securely. An example of a database application is an EMR [ee-em-are]. Health IT Workforce Curriculum Introduction to Information and Computer Science 7 Version 3.0 / Spring 2012 Computer Software Lecture a This material (Comp4_Unit4a) was developed by Oregon Health and Science University funded by the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number IU24OC000015. Slide 27 Not all software is created equal—each uses different features in the hardware of the computer. For example, any high-resolution graphics and video software (including the latest video games) requires a good graphics card with its own memory, a fast processor with a large amount of memory, or RAM [ram], a good monitor, good speakers and large secondary storage (presuming that the high-resolution graphics and video are large files). On the other hand, data intensive applications such as statistical software packages also need a fast processor with large RAM [ram] and large secondary storage but not the high-end graphics card. Look at the software specs before purchasing any software to learn the minimum system requirements. Will a system upgrade be necessary before installing the software? Keep in mind that the minimum requirements are not necessarily the desired requirements for speed; upgrades to hardware may be necessary even if the system meets minimum requirements. Slide 28 Installing software can be done by installing from a disk or downloading from the Internet. Once the install disk is inserted into the computer, the software installer should run automatically. Downloading the software requires also downloading an installer. Uninstalling is a bit more complicated. In Windows, users go to the Add/Remove Programs on the control panel and select which program to uninstall. Mac users just drag the program's icon to the trash, which uninstalls the software. Slide 29 Installing software without having rights to that software can be problematic. If it does have a copyright, then the user must purchase a license unless the software is free or shareware. Most software comes with only one license, which allows installation of one instance of the software, but it may be possible that it may allow for more installations. However, copying the software and distributing it to friends is almost always in violation of the copyright. Slide 30 This concludes Lecture (a) of Computer Software. In summary, This lecture covered software that makes a computer useful. There are two main types of software— application and system. There are many, many different software applications that are all available in different forms. Slide 31 References slide. No audio. Health IT Workforce Curriculum Introduction to Information and Computer Science 8 Version 3.0 / Spring 2012 Computer Software Lecture a This material (Comp4_Unit4a) was developed by Oregon Health and Science University funded by the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number IU24OC000015. Slide 32 References slide. No audio. Slide 33 References slide. No audio. Health IT Workforce Curriculum Introduction to Information and Computer Science 9 Version 3.0 / Spring 2012 Computer Software Lecture a This material (Comp4_Unit4a) was developed by Oregon Health and Science University funded by the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number IU24OC000015.
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