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					Introduction to Information and Computer Science: Computer Software

Audio Transcript

Slide 1
Welcome to Introduction to Information and Computer Science: Computer
Software. This is Lecture (a).
The component, Introduction to Information and Computer Science, provides a
basic overview of computer architecture; data organization, representation and
structure; structure of programming languages; networking and data communication. It
also includes basic terminology of computing.

Slide 2
The objectives for this unit, Computer Software, are to:
       Define application versus system software.
       Give examples of application software focusing on healthcare systems.
       Describe the functions of system software.
       List different types of operating systems.
       Explain the purpose and usage of file systems.

Slide 3
This lecture will discuss application and system software, with a focus on healthcare
systems. It also describes the functions of operating systems, presents different
operating systems, and defines the purpose and usage of file systems.
Software is what makes a computer usable. Without software, a computer would simply
be hardware that does not do anything. Computer users run application software to help
them be productive, entertain them, and communicate with others. The system software
is the software that interacts directly with the hardware. System software includes the
operating system and utility programs. It makes the computer run and serves as a layer
between the application software and the hardware, and it makes sure that the
hardware does everything that the applications want it to and helps coordinate all the
tasks that all the running programs need to do.

Slide 4
Application software is available in different forms:
       Licensed software refers to mass-produced, commercially available, copyrighted
        software that is available for purchase in a store or online as a download.
        Microsoft Office software and Adobe Photoshop are some examples of packaged
        software.
       Custom software is software that is created for a particular purpose; generally, it
        is created when no commercially available application has the needed

Health IT Workforce Curriculum            Introduction to Information and Computer Science                                   1
Version 3.0 / Spring 2012                          Computer Software
                                                          Lecture a

 This material (Comp4_Unit4a) was developed by Oregon Health and Science University funded by the Department of Health and
  Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number IU24OC000015.
        functionality. The Informatics Shared Resource at Oregon Health Science
        University often creates custom applications for clinical researchers such as
        applications for electronic surveys.
       Web applications are software that runs on particular websites. Sometimes these
        are free, such as email applications (Yahoo, Google, and MSN); others, such as
        online tax preparation software, are available for a fee.
       Open-source software is software that does not have a copyright; it can be used,
        modified, and redistributed without any restrictions. Open-source software is
        often available online for free.
       Shareware is copyrighted software that is free for a trial period. After the trial
        period is up, the user must send a payment to the developer to continue using
        the software. Sometimes, the shareware version of a product is a scaled down
        version of the software and does not have the full functionality of the software
        available for purchase.
       Freeware is copyrighted software available at no cost, but the company or
        developer of the software retains rights to it, which means that it cannot be
        changed or redistributed.
       Public domain software is software that has been donated for public use and has
        no copyright restrictions. The software can be copied and redistributed.


Slide 5
Listed here are roughly six categories of application software. Each category can
certainly be subdivided into smaller categories. Also, categories are not exclusive or
distinct—some business applications are used for home purposes as well.
       Business applications include word processing, spreadsheets, database
        applications, presentation software, project management software, and
        accounting applications, to name a few.
       Science and mathematical software includes statistical software, mathematical
        modeling software, and computational science software.
       Graphics and multimedia applications are used to create graphics, edit images,
        create and edit videos, create and edit audio, and create video games.
       Home and personal use applications comprise the broadest category—it includes
        business software for use at home, home editions of desktop publishing, image-
        editing software, video creation software, tax preparation software, home design
        and landscaping, recipe managers, and personal finance. Also, depending on
        users’ interests and background, they may use any software in any of the other
        categories at home as well.
       Communications software is the software that helps users communicate with
        others through the network. This includes browsers, email, IM (eye-em)
        applications, file transfer, voice over IP [eye-pee] (Internet Protocol), and video
        conferencing, among others.

Health IT Workforce Curriculum            Introduction to Information and Computer Science                                   2
Version 3.0 / Spring 2012                          Computer Software
                                                          Lecture a

 This material (Comp4_Unit4a) was developed by Oregon Health and Science University funded by the Department of Health and
  Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number IU24OC000015.
       Artificial intelligence applications use knowledge, reasoning, learning, and other
        human characteristics for approximating human intelligence. Some examples are
        voice recognition software, automated online help, and expert systems, among
        others.
       Healthcare software includes electronic medical records, healthcare information
        systems, medical office management systems, imaging, and telemedicine.


Slide 6
Word processing software is commonly used in businesses and at home. It is the most
popular and frequently used software application. A word processor has many powerful
features that make it far more useful than a simple text editor such as NotePad. Word
processors can auto-correct spelling and formatting; perform spell-check and grammar-
check on documents; perform mail merges to generate and print form letters, mailing
labels, and more; track changes to documents, which is useful when multiple people are
reviewing and editing the same document; create tables to display data; and create
templates for documents. Some word processors will convert documents to web pages.
There are many word processors available. Some of the most popular are Microsoft
Word, OpenOffice Writer, Corel WordPerfect, and Google Docs. The screenshot shown
here is of OpenOffice Writer.
OpenOffice is a free, open-source office suite of productivity software available for
download. It includes word processing and spreadsheet applications as well as
presentation software, similar to Microsoft Office. OpenOffice is available for download
from www.openoffice.org. Google Docs is similar, but the software and the documents
are stored online. Users must have a Google/gmail account. Go to www.google.com for
more information.

Slide 7
Spreadsheets are applications used at home and at work for organizing data and
performing calculations. These calculations can be performed using built-in functions
and user-defined formulas. Also, users can generate graphs or charts representing the
data in the spreadsheet. Spreadsheets can be used for anything from tracking simple
home expenses to performing complex, powerful calculations on very large datasets.
Some examples of spreadsheet applications are Microsoft Excel, Lotus 1-2-3, Corel
Quattro-Pro, Google Docs, and OpenOffice Calc. Pictured is a screenshot from
OpenOffice Calc.

Slide 8
Presentation software creates visual aids for a presentation, just like the PowerPoint
presentation currently being viewed. The presentation is developed as a series of slides
with text and/or images, tables, videos, and graphs. The presentations can have special
features such as animations and automatic transitions. The resulting presentation can
be displayed and viewed during a lecture with a human speaker; it can be viewed as a
Health IT Workforce Curriculum            Introduction to Information and Computer Science                                   3
Version 3.0 / Spring 2012                          Computer Software
                                                          Lecture a

 This material (Comp4_Unit4a) was developed by Oregon Health and Science University funded by the Department of Health and
  Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number IU24OC000015.
standalone display that continually loops on a kiosk; or it can be published as a Flash
file, like the one being viewed now. Some examples of presentation software are
Microsoft PowerPoint, OpenOffice Impress, and Apple Keynote. Displayed here is a
screenshot from OpenOffice Impress.

Slide 9
Project management software helps aid in the planning and scheduling of a business
project. It keeps track of deadlines, deliverables, timelines, resources, and events. For
complex projects with many contributors, project management software is a must. The
most popular project management software is Microsoft Project. Other examples are
Fast Track Schedule and SEER-SEM [see-er S-E-M]. This slide shows a screenshot
from SEER-SEM [see-er S-E-M]. There are many other project management software
products, some available as a free downloads online.

Slide 10
Many applications are used in science and mathematics; they are number-crunching
applications designed to work on large amounts of data. These applications include
statistical packages such as SPSS and Gretl [greh-tl] (an open-source version pictured
here). Matlab is a mathematical package that provides numerical computing for
matrices of large data; it is often used in engineering for the design of complex systems.
Mathematica software is also a mathematical package that provides computational
support for engineering, science, and mathematical problems.

Slide 11
Desktop publishing software is professional-grade software used to produce high-quality
print documents such as textbooks, brochures, and catalogs. It provides far more
powerful formatting and high-resolution output than a word processor can. There are
several options available for software—Adobe PageMaker, Adobe FrameMaker, and
Microsoft Publisher are a few examples. Scribus [skri-buhs] is an open-source option.

Slide 12
This is a screen shot of Scribus [skri-buhs]. Notice the complex formatting and layout
tools. They are far more powerful and precise than a word processor.

Slide 13
Professional versions of image-editing, photo-editing, and paint software are used in the
workplace by graphic artists and designers. Paint software is for drawing shapes and
pictures. Image-editing software allows users to edit existing images and photos. Photo-
editing software is a type of image-editing software specifically for digital photographs.
This software can retouch photos and add or remove elements from a photo. Some
examples are Adobe Photoshop, GIMP [gimp], and Inkscape.



Health IT Workforce Curriculum            Introduction to Information and Computer Science                                   4
Version 3.0 / Spring 2012                          Computer Software
                                                          Lecture a

 This material (Comp4_Unit4a) was developed by Oregon Health and Science University funded by the Department of Health and
  Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number IU24OC000015.
Slide 14
This is a screenshot of Inkscape, an open-source image-editing application, and shows
different effects applied to a single image.

Slide 15
Video editing is another example of graphics and multimedia software. It breaks video
into segments called clips. The user can then modify a clip, delete it, reorder the clips
and add special effects to the clips. Some examples are Adobe Premiere Elements,
Pinnacle Studio, and OpenShot. Displayed is a screenshot from OpenShot.

Slide 16
There are many different types of communication software including email, instant
messaging, FTP (for file transfers), web browsers, voice over IP, blogs, and wikis.
Anything that allows users to communicate over a network would be considered
communications software. The screenshot displayed is of Mozilla Thunderbird, an email
application.

Slide17
Artificial intelligence or (AI for short) is an area of research and development in
computer science that attempts to approximate human intelligence. It involves several
subareas that include:
       Reasoning and deduction. Programming a computer to solve problems quickly is
        vital for AI.
       Knowledge representation and retrieval. In order for computers to act
        intelligently, they must have extensive knowledge. This knowledge must be
        represented in a way that it can be easily retrieved.
       Natural language processing refers to computers being able to "read" and
        understand written text.
       Perception is the ability to recognize different inputs. Some examples of
        perception are facial recognition, spatial recognition, and voice recognition.
       Learning is the ability to add new knowledge from existing knowledge.
       Planning involves understanding the current state and predicting changes based
        on computer actions.
       Motion is used by intelligent robots to interact with the physical world around
        them and to navigate and manipulate the environment.


Slide 18
There are many applications that use AI:
       Expert systems use rules and directed input from the user to identify possible
        solutions to a problem. Expert systems are used in medicine for diagnoses,
        prescribing medication, and for decision making.
Health IT Workforce Curriculum            Introduction to Information and Computer Science                                   5
Version 3.0 / Spring 2012                          Computer Software
                                                          Lecture a

 This material (Comp4_Unit4a) was developed by Oregon Health and Science University funded by the Department of Health and
  Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number IU24OC000015.
       Voice recognition is used by many devices today such as cell phones and
        Bluetooth wireless devices. Instead of typing commands into a computer or cell
        phone, users interact with a computing device through voice recognition software
        by talking to it.
       Robots use AI to move themselves, perform tasks, navigate, plan, and make
        decisions.
       Even email spam filtering uses AI for identifying and learning which email is
        spam.
       Video games widely use AI to program game behavior.
       There is even automated online help for websites that replaces a human
        customer service representative. The AI helps find answers to users’ questions
        through a "conversation.”

IBM Watson is an example of a recent computer system that uses AI to simulate human
intelligence. Watson was a contestant on Jeopardy and won against two human
Jeopardy champions using natural language processing to understand the Jeopardy
clue and identify possible solutions from an extremely large knowledge base. It then
evaluated which one was the correct answer (or correct question in the case of
Jeopardy). All of this had to be done quickly; Watson averaged 3 to 6 seconds of
response times to the clues. AI algorithms combined with very fast computers made this
possible. Watson is now being applied to business and healthcare environments. In
healthcare, Watson will assist medical personnel in making decisions by being able to
process large amounts of medical data and knowledge quickly.

Slide 19
There are many different applications available for healthcare. They include electronic
health records (EHRs) and electronic medical records (EMRs), which pertain to the
medical and health information for an individual. Health Information Systems are larger
systems, typically used in a hospital or large clinic, that include an EMR as well as other
features such as physician ordering, medications, decision support, billing, and
scheduling. Expert systems and decision-support systems use AI to analyze knowledge
and make decisions as a human expert would. Medical Office management systems
also include management features such as scheduling and billing. Patient registries are
datasets relating to a particular medical issue or population that are used to track
changes in patients over time. They provide a much more global view over all patients
than EMRs often can. Imaging and telemedicine are technologies available in
healthcare to improve care.

Slide 20
Displayed here are some examples of EHRs: EpicCare, GE's Centricity, and VistA.
Included are URLs for more information.



Health IT Workforce Curriculum            Introduction to Information and Computer Science                                   6
Version 3.0 / Spring 2012                          Computer Software
                                                          Lecture a

 This material (Comp4_Unit4a) was developed by Oregon Health and Science University funded by the Department of Health and
  Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number IU24OC000015.
Slide 21
VistA is one of the first healthcare information systems that included an EMR. This is a
VistA screenshot showing lab result values graphed over time for a particular patient.

Slide 22
There are many expert systems used in healthcare; here are just a few examples.
IBM Watson, IBM's intelligent computer system, is being adapted to be an expert
decision support system in healthcare. It will analyze massive amounts of up-to-date
information: journal articles, studies, similar cases, and clinical and laboratory findings,
among other information, to help medical personnel make decisions in patient care.
For over two decades, DxPlain has provided doctors with diagnosis support in the form
of case analysis and an electronic medical textbook. In a clinical setting, given a set of
signs, symptoms, and laboratory values, DxPlain can provide a list of possible
diagnoses along with explanations. As a medical textbook, it provides detailed
information about over 2400 diseases.
MYCIN was developed at Stanford in the 1970s and was one of the first expert systems
used in a medical setting. It was capable of identifying bacteria and recommending
antibiotics and dosages for treatment.

Slide 23
Medical office management systems provide scheduling and billing support. This is a
screenshot from OpenEMR that demonstrates the scheduling feature of the software.

Slide 24
Medical imaging is what it sounds like—capturing, storing, and viewing images of
human structures. These images can be generated from diagnostic tools such as X-
rays, MRIs, and CAT scans. The software then displays the images for viewing by
medical personnel.

Slide 25
Telemedicine is the ability to consult or manage medical procedures remotely. Software
that supports telemedicine is crucial—it must be able to display whatever is needed so
that the remote work can be done. This is an example of a chest scan used in
teleradiology.

Slide 26
The basis of all software is code. Code contains the programming
statements/instructions that make the program work. Files may be used by software for
storing and retrieving data that is stored on disk. For example, Microsoft Word creates,
opens, and edits files called documents. Databases may or may not be part of software;
databases are optimized for storing and retrieving large amounts of data quickly,
correctly, and securely. An example of a database application is an EMR [ee-em-are].
Health IT Workforce Curriculum            Introduction to Information and Computer Science                                   7
Version 3.0 / Spring 2012                          Computer Software
                                                          Lecture a

 This material (Comp4_Unit4a) was developed by Oregon Health and Science University funded by the Department of Health and
  Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number IU24OC000015.
Slide 27
Not all software is created equal—each uses different features in the hardware of the
computer. For example, any high-resolution graphics and video software (including the
latest video games) requires a good graphics card with its own memory, a fast
processor with a large amount of memory, or RAM [ram], a good monitor, good
speakers and large secondary storage (presuming that the high-resolution graphics and
video are large files).
On the other hand, data intensive applications such as statistical software packages
also need a fast processor with large RAM [ram] and large secondary storage but not
the high-end graphics card.
Look at the software specs before purchasing any software to learn the minimum
system requirements. Will a system upgrade be necessary before installing the
software? Keep in mind that the minimum requirements are not necessarily the desired
requirements for speed; upgrades to hardware may be necessary even if the system
meets minimum requirements.

Slide 28
Installing software can be done by installing from a disk or downloading from the
Internet. Once the install disk is inserted into the computer, the software installer should
run automatically. Downloading the software requires also downloading an installer.
Uninstalling is a bit more complicated. In Windows, users go to the Add/Remove
Programs on the control panel and select which program to uninstall. Mac users just
drag the program's icon to the trash, which uninstalls the software.

Slide 29
Installing software without having rights to that software can be problematic. If it does
have a copyright, then the user must purchase a license unless the software is free or
shareware. Most software comes with only one license, which allows installation of one
instance of the software, but it may be possible that it may allow for more installations.
However, copying the software and distributing it to friends is almost always in violation
of the copyright.

Slide 30
This concludes Lecture (a) of Computer Software. In summary, This lecture covered
software that makes a computer useful. There are two main types of software—
application and system. There are many, many different software applications that are
all available in different forms.

Slide 31
References slide. No audio.


Health IT Workforce Curriculum            Introduction to Information and Computer Science                                   8
Version 3.0 / Spring 2012                          Computer Software
                                                          Lecture a

 This material (Comp4_Unit4a) was developed by Oregon Health and Science University funded by the Department of Health and
  Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number IU24OC000015.
Slide 32
References slide. No audio.

Slide 33
References slide. No audio.




Health IT Workforce Curriculum            Introduction to Information and Computer Science                                   9
Version 3.0 / Spring 2012                          Computer Software
                                                          Lecture a

 This material (Comp4_Unit4a) was developed by Oregon Health and Science University funded by the Department of Health and
  Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number IU24OC000015.

				
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