white_pepper_1_ by zhangsshaohui123


                PEPPER (Pepper nigrum L.)
                                                 Current status
White pepper is obtained by
removing the outer skin, namely                  There are chemical, biological and
pericarp and outer portion of the                physical methods for the conversion
mesocarp of the ripe or matured                  of pepper into white pepper. Natural
green berries or dried black pepper              retting can be used to remove the
(Piper nigrum L.). The white pepper              skin, but requires long time (7-15
berries are light yellow greyish in              days) steeping the pepper in stagnant
colour; nearly globular in shape;                or running waters. Major limitations
around 5mm or less in diameter;                  of this retting process include quality
smooth; striated with small                      deterioration of the product.
protuberance at the base.
 Scope of White Pepper
                                               During the process pectin, the
 India is the 4th largest pepper               intercellular cementing substance
 producer in the world, production of          present     in    the  pulpy    upper
 67,000 metric tons in 2008. Annual            mesocarpic area of pepper skin is
 white pepper contribution in India is         degraded and breaks apart from the
 less than 250 metric tones against the        core.     The pectin degradation is
 world demand of more than 1,50,000            effected      through   release    of
 metric tones. Indonesia is the largest        pectinases by the bacteria grown in
 white pepper producing country,               the anaerobic system. The best
 converts about 50 % of its pepper to          operational conditions for biological
 white. Malaysia and Brazil convert            skin removal through the anaerobic
 about 10 % and 5% of their pepper to          process are in temperature between
 white respectively.                           30 to 37 C and neutral pH.

                                               This pectin fermentation begins from
CLEAN PRODUCTION OF WHITE                      the day one and completes on 2nd or
PEPPER- A SUCCESSFUL BIOPROCESS                3rd in green pepper and 4th day in
                                               black pepper.
The hard outer skin is loosened in 2
to 4 days using the general purpose            In the process of white pepper
“leach-bed    anaerobic      digestion”        preparation volatile fatty acids (VFA)
process developed by NIIST-CSIR.               are generated from the degradation
The in-situ microbial production of            of pectin. This VFA is not
hydrolytic enzymes is responsible for          accumulated in the system because
the degradation of the skin.                   of the growth of methanogens that
                                               convert the short chain fatty acids

         National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, CSIR,
                          THIRUVANANTHAPURM 695 019
into methane and thus removed                                White Pepper

Cleaning & Drying

The loosened and partially degraded
skin is removed with the help of a
fruit pulping machine and water
washing. The decorticated pepper is
sun dried or in a hot air drier
adjusted at 450C to brings down the
moisture content <15% (w/w) in
pepper.                                        The process yields better quality white
                                               pepper and is operational at different scales,
                                               hitherto impossible.
 Quality of the product
                                               Plants using this process are operated at
                                               different places from 0.5 ton to 1.0 in Kerala
 The white pepper obtained from
                                               and Karnataka.
 fermentative decortication of green
                                               No wastes and pollution
 pepper is brilliant creamy white, has
                                               Solid wastes: Bio-manure
 no extraneous matters. The white
                                               Biogas generation: 25,000 litre per tonne
 pepper from black pepper also has
                                               black pepper
 better colour, less than 2 % light
                                               Yield: 700 kg white pepper per tonne of
 berries and no extraneous matter
                                               black pepper
 compared to commercial grade white
 pepper. The cleaning and removal of
 light berries from green and black
                                               Major equipment
 pepper before the bioprocess could
                                                  1. Leaching tank
 result in white pepper with uniform
                                                  2. UASB reactor
 size and better quality.
                                                  3. Pulper cum cleaner
                                                  4. Dryer

Advantages of the new process                    Capital investment 1 t white pepper/d
       Value addition to pepper                               Rs .1.5 crore
       Achieves good quality product
       Inexpensive                               2009 price in India
       Easy operation                            Black pepper : Rs 130-150/kg
       Higher earnings to farmers                White pepper: Rs 240-250/kg
       Means of higher export earnings
       Pollution free                           For more information:
       Value recovers from wastes               The Director
                                                National Institute for Interdisciplinary
                                                Science & Technology, CSIR
                                                Thiruvananthapuram 695 019 INDIA
                                                Phone 0091 471 2490674
                                                Fax 0091 471 249 1712

         National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, CSIR,
                          THIRUVANANTHAPURM 695 019

To top