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					     计算机组织与结构

Computer Organization
  and Architecture


      教师: 王练

wanglian@cqupt.edu.cn
   William Stallings
   Computer Organization
   and Architecture
Architecture(those     attributes visible to the
programmer)
 Organization (the operational units and their
interconnections that realize the
architecture)

This hierarchical organization is described in this book from
the top down: Computer system, Processor, Control unit

The  examples of this book are drawn from two computer
families: the Intel Pentium II, and the PowerPC.
   William Stallings
   Computer Organization
   and Architecture
The book is organized into five parts:

  Part One — Overview
  a preview and context for the remainder of the book.


 Part Two — The computer system
A computer system consists of processor, memory, and I/O
modules, plus the interconnections among these major components.
      William Stallings
      Computer Organization
      and Architecture
       Part Three —The central processing unit
The CPU consists of a control unit, registers, the arithmetic and
logic unit, the instruction execution unit, and the
interconnections among these components.
       Part Four — The control unit
The control unit is that part of the processor that activates the
various components of the processor. This part looks at the
functioning of the control unit and its implementation using
microprogramming.
      William Stallings
      Computer Organization
      and Architecture
              Part Five — Parallel organization
This final part looks at some of the issues involved in multiple
processor and vector processing organizations.
William Stallings
Computer Organization
and Architecture

Chapter 1
Introduction
 1.1 Architecture & Organization 1

Computer architecture is those attributes visible
 to the programmer, or, those attributes that have
 a direct impact on the logical execution of a
 program.
  Architectural attributes: instruction set, number of
   bits used for data representation, I/O mechanisms,
   addressing techniques.
  e.g. Is there a multiply instruction?
Computer organization is how features are
 implemented, in other words, computer
 organization refers to the operational units and
 their interconnections that realize the architectural
 specifications.
  Organization attributes: those hardware details
   transparent to the programmer ( control signals,
   interfaces, memory technology).
  e.g. Is there a hardware multiply unit or is it done by
   repeated addition?
Architecture & Organization 2

All Intel x86 family share the same basic
 architecture
The IBM System/370 family share the same basic
 architecture
This gives code compatibility
  At least backwards


Organization differs between different versions
1.2 STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

Structure: The way in which the components
 are interrelated.
Function: The operation of each individual
 components as part of the structure.
Function

A computer’s basic functions :
  Data processing
  Data storage
  Data movement
  Control
   Functional view

    Functional view of a computer
                                          Data
 OPERATING                                Storage
ENVIROMENT                                Facility

              Data            Control
              Movement        Mechanism
              Apparatus

Source and
Destination                               Data
                                          Processing
  of Data                                 Facility
Operations (1)

Data movement
  e.g. keyboard to screen
                                         Data
                                         Storage
                                         Facility

         Data                Control
         Movement            Mechanism
         Apparatus


                                         Data
                                         Processing
                                         Facility
Operations (2)

Storage
  e.g. Internet download to disk
                                          Data
                                          Storage
                                          Facility

         Data                 Control
         Movement             Mechanism
         Apparatus


                                          Data
                                          Processing
                                          Facility
Operation (3)

Processing from/to storage
  e.g. updating bank statement
                                        Data
                                        Storage
                                        Facility

       Data                 Control
       Movement
                            Mechanism
       Apparatus


                                        Data
                                        Processing
                                        Facility
Operation (4)

Processing from storage to I/O
  e.g. printing a bank statement
                                          Data
                                          Storage
                                          Facility

         Data                 Control
         Movemen              Mechanism
         t
         Apparatus

                                          Data
                                          Processing
                                          Facility
  Structure - Top Level


 Peripherals              Computer

                   Central           Main
                   Processing        Memory
                   Unit

   Computer
                        Systems
                        Interconnection


                            Input
                            Output
Communication
lines
Structure - The CPU


                              CPU

  Computer                             Arithmetic
                 Registers             and
I/O
                                       Login Unit
  System   CPU
   Bus
                      Internal CPU
Memory                Interconnection


                             Control
                             Unit
Structure - The Control Unit


                             Control Unit

      CPU
                        Sequencing
ALU                     Logic
              Control
   Internal
               Unit
     Bus
                               Control Unit
Registers                      Registers and
                               Decoders


                                     Control
                                     Memory
Outline of the Book (1)

Computer Evolution and Performance
Computer Interconnection Structures
Internal Memory
External Memory
Input/Output
Operating Systems Support
Computer Arithmetic
Instruction Sets
Outline of the Book (2 )

CPU Structure and Function
Reduced Instruction Set Computers
Superscalar Processors
Control Unit Operation
Microprogrammed Control
Multiprocessors and Vector Processing
Digital Logic (Appendix)
Internet Resources
- Web site for book

http://www.shore.net/~ws/COA5e.html
  links to sites of interest
  links to sites for courses that use the book
  errata list for book
  information on other books by W. Stallings
Internet Resources
- Web sites to look for

WWW Computer Architecture Home Page
CPU Info Center
ACM Special Interest Group on Computer
 Architecture
IEEE Technical Committee on Computer
 Architecture
Intel Technology Journal
Manufacturer’s sites
  Intel, IBM, etc.
Internet Resources
- Usenet News Groups

comp.arch
comp.arch.arithmetic
comp.arch.storage

				
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