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					Forestry Department
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations




  GLOBAL FOREST RESOURCES
      ASSESSMENT 2010

           COUNTRY REPORT



          COOK ISLANDS




                                           FRA2010/046
                                            Rome, 2010
                     The Forest Resources Assessment Programme
Sustainably managed forests have multiple environmental and socio-economic functions important at
the global, national and local scales, and play a vital part in sustainable development. Reliable and up-
to-date information on the state of forest resources - not only on area and area change, but also on
such variables as growing stock, wood and non-wood products, carbon, protected areas, use of
forests for recreation and other services, biological diversity and forests’ contribution to national
economies - is crucial to support decision-making for policies and programmes in forestry and
sustainable development at all levels.

FAO, at the request of its member countries, regularly monitors the world’s forests and their
management and uses through the Forest Resources Assessment Programme. This country report
forms part of the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 (FRA 2010).

The reporting framework for FRA 2010 is based on the thematic elements of sustainable forest
management acknowledged in intergovernmental forest-related fora and includes variables related to
the extent, condition, uses and values of forest resources, as well as the policy, legal and institutional
framework related to forests. More information on the FRA 2010 process and the results - including all
the country reports - is available on the FRA Web site (www.fao.org/forestry/fra ).

The Global Forest Resources Assessment process is coordinated by the Forestry Department at FAO
headquarters in Rome. The contact person for matters related to FRA 2010 is:

Mette Løyche Wilkie
Senior Forestry Officer
FAO Forestry Department
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
Rome 00153, Italy

E-mail: Mette.LoycheWilkie@fao.org

Readers can also use the following e-mail address: fra@fao.org


                                             DISCLAIMER

         The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not
imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its
authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

          The Global Forest Resources Assessment Country Report Series is designed to document
and make available the information forming the basis for the FRA reports. The Country Reports have
been compiled by officially nominated country correspondents in collaboration with FAO staff. Prior to
finalisation, these reports were subject to validation by forestry authorities in the respective countries.




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FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands


Contents

INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................................... 5
1       TABLE T1 – EXTENT OF FOREST AND OTHER WOODED LAND....................................................... 6
2       TABLE T2 – FOREST OWNERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT RIGHTS..................................................... 9
3       TABLE T3 – FOREST DESIGNATION AND MANAGEMENT ................................................................ 12
4       TABLE T4 – FOREST CHARACTERISTICS ............................................................................................. 16
5       TABLE T5 – FOREST ESTABLISHMENT AND REFORESTATION..................................................... 20
6       TABLE T6 – GROWING STOCK.................................................................................................................. 21
7       TABLE T7 – BIOMASS STOCK................................................................................................................... 21
8       TABLE T8 – CARBON STOCK .................................................................................................................... 21
9       TABLE T9 – FOREST FIRES ....................................................................................................................... 22
10      TABLE T10 – OTHER DISTURBANCES AFFECTING FOREST HEALTH AND VITALITY .............. 24
11      TABLE T11 – WOOD REMOVALS AND VALUE OF REMOVALS ....................................................... 27
12      TABLE T12 – NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS REMOVALS AND VALUE OF REMOVALS..... 29
13      TABLE T13 – EMPLOYMENT ...................................................................................................................... 32
14      TABLE T14 – POLICY AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK ............................................................................... 33
15      TABLE T15 – INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ........................................................................................ 35
16      TABLE T16 – EDUCATION AND RESEARCH.......................................................................................... 37
17      TABLE T17 – PUBLIC REVENUE COLLECTION AND EXPENDITURE ............................................. 39




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FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands


Report preparation and contact persons

The present report was prepared by the following person(s):

 Name
 (FAMILY NAME,             Institution / address   E-mail                      Fax                Tables
 First name)
                           Ministry of
                           Agriculture
 Nooroa TOKARI             P.O. Box 96
                                                   noot@agriculture.gov.ck     +(682) 21881   1-17
 Senior Project Officer    Arorangi
                           Rarotonga
                           COOK ISLANDS
                           Office of the
                           Minister for Island
 Otheniel                  Administrations
 TANGIANAU                 (OMIA)
                                                   Otheniel@omia.gov.ck        +(682) 24321   1-17
 Secretary                 P.O. Box 383
 OMIA                      Avarua
                           Rarotonga
                           COOK ISLANDS
                           Ministry of
                           Agriculture
 Ngai ARATANGI             P.O. Box 96
                                                   quaran@oyster.net.ck        +(682) 21881   9
 Quarantine Office         Arorangi
                           Rarotonga
                           COOK ISLANDS
                           Ministry of
                           Agriculture
 Nga MATAIO
                           P.O. Box 96
 Secretary                                         mataio@agriculture.gov.ck   +(682) 21881   Introduction
                           Arorangi
 Ministry of Agriculture
                           Rarotonga
                           COOK ISLANDS




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FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands




Introduction


Forestry in the Cook Islands is for conservation and local cottage-type industry use, such as
hand crafts, firewood, and land management in areas prone to erosion, such as rivers, streams,
and the beach front. There is no commercial harvest. Apart from 1,110 hectares of planted
forest, the rest is natural forest comprising of a number of tropical species. Protection of the
water lends by the country’s forest cover is seen as critical to ensuring quality water supply for
domestic use.

This report presents the current status of forestry in the Cook Islands, both natural and planted.
It provides data where this is known. Because there is no commercial forestry in the country, a
lot of the required data are therefore not known, or does not apply.




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FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands




1        Table T1 – Extent of Forest and Other wooded land


1.1       FRA 2010 Categories and definitions
 Category                       Definition
 Forest                         Land spanning more than 0.5 hectares with trees higher than 5 meters and
                                a canopy cover of more than 10 percent, or trees able to reach these
                                thresholds in situ. It does not include land that is predominantly under
                                agricultural or urban land use.
 Other wooded land              Land not classified as “Forest”, spanning more than 0.5 hectares; with trees
                                higher than 5 meters and a canopy cover of 5-10 percent, or trees able to
                                reach these thresholds in situ; or with a combined cover of shrubs, bushes
                                and trees above 10 percent. It does not include land that is predominantly
                                under agricultural or urban land use.
 Other land                     All land that is not classified as “Forest” or “Other wooded land”.
 Other land with tree cover     Land classified as “Other land”, spanning more than 0.5 hectares with a
 (Subordinated to “Other        canopy cover of more than 10 percent of trees able to reach a height of 5
 land”)                         meters at maturity.
 Inland water bodies            Inland water bodies generally include major rivers, lakes and water
                                reservoirs.


1.2       National data

1.2.1    Data sources
 References to sources of information                    Quality    Variable(s)    Year(s)    Additional
                                                        (H/M/L)                               comments
 OLIVER. W. 1992
 Plantation forestry in the South Pacific: A                        Plantation
                                                                                     1991
 compilation and assessment of Practices. Project                   area
 RAS/86/036, UNDP/FAO, Rome
 OLIVER.W. 1999. An update of plantation
                                                                    Land cover
 forestry in the South Pacific RAS/97/330.                                           1998
                                                                    types
 Working paper, UNDP/FAO, Rome
 Cook Islands Natural Heritage Project- Cook                        Names of
                                                                                     2000
 Islands Biodiversity Database                                      trees
 Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands by Craig                   Names of
                                                                                     2000
 R, Elevich and Kim M. Wilkinson                                    trees


1.2.2    Classification and definitions
 National class    Definition
                   The littoral zone in the Cook Islands, where not pre-empted by human modification,
                   includes coastal forest dominated by some combination of the trees Barringtonia
                   asiatica, Calophyllum inophyllum, Cordia subcordata, Guettararda speciosa,
 Littoral forest   Hernandia nympheaifolia, Hibiscus tiliances, Pandanus tectoria, Pisonia grandis,
                   sphora tomentosa, Timonius polygramus, and Tournefortia agentea, and the shrubs
                   Morinda citrifolia, Pemphis acidula, Pipturus argentues, Scaevola taccada,
                   Schleinitzia insularum, Melia azedarach, and Suriana maritime.
                   The vegetation of makatea is generally well preserved because the rough surface is
                   unsuitable for cultivation or human habitation. Examples can be seen on the islands of
                   Mangaia, Atiu, Mauke and Mitiaro. The vegetation becomes more species-rich with
 Makatea forest    distance inland. The coastal makatea forest changes with distance inland from a
                   combination of Cocos nucifers, Hernandia nymphaeifilia, Hibiscus tiliaceus, and
                   Panadanus tectorias, with occasionally Barringtonia asiatica, and Casuarina
                   equisetifolia, to a tree assemblage in which Elaeocarpus tonganus, Guettarda


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FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands


                       speciosa, Pisonia grandis, Schleinitzia insularum, and Sophora tomentosa, become
                       dominant. Fronting the forest is a shrub layer dominated by Scaevola taccarda, with
                       Euphorbia atoto, Timonius polygamus, and Wollastonia biflora. Pephis acidula
                       forms a narrow belt closest to the coast. The inland makatea includes all of the woody
                       species from the coastal makatea except Pephis acidula, and includes in additiona
                       trees of Aleurite moluccana, Calophyllum inopphyllum, and Hernandia
                       moerenhoutian. That from higher canopy. Other woody species includes
                       Cyclophyllum barbatum, Ficus prolixa, Ficus tinctoria, Glochidion sp, Morinda
                       citrifolia, and Pipturus argenteus.
 Other natural         Includes montane forest and cloud forest. This come from an assumption since no
 forest                further explanation is given in the source.
 Plantation            Santalum sp, Pinus sp
 Other land            Mainly agriculture



1.2.3 Original data
Source: Oliver, W. 1999. Reference year – 1998
National Classification            Area (ha)
Littoral Forest                    4900
Makatea Forest                     5000
Other Natural Forest               4500
Plantations                        1100
Other Land                         7800

Source: Oliver. W. 1992. Reference Year – 1991.
Area occupied by plantations = 510 ha.


1.3       Analysis and processing of national data

1.3.1 Calibration
No calibration required. Other land calculated as the difference between total land area and the
sum of forest plus other wooded land.

1.3.2 Estimation and forecasting
The area of natural forests (14400 ha) is assumed to be constant and is used for all reporting
years.

The plantation area for 1998 (1100 ha) is used for reporting years 2000, 2005 and 2010.

The plantation area for 1991 (510 ha) is used for reporting year 1990.


1.3.3    Reclassification into FRA 2010 categories
                                                                   FRA CLASSIFICATION
              National class
                                                      Forest           Other Wooded land            Other land
Littoral forest                                100%
Makatea forest                                 100%
Other natural forest                           100%
Plantations                                    100%
Other land                                                                                      100%




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FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands


1.4       Data for Table T1
                                                        Area (1000 hectares)
 FRA 2010 categories
                                          1990           2000         2005             2010
 Forest                                      14.9           15.5          15.5            15.5
 Other wooded land                               0              0            0                0
 Other land                                    9.1            8.5          8.5              8.5
   ...of which with tree cover                n.a.           n.a.          n.a.            n.a.
 Inland water bodies                             0              0            0                0
 TOTAL                                       24.0           24.0          24.0            24.0




1.5       Comments to Table T1
 Variable / category     Comments related to data, definitions,       Comments on the reported trend
                         etc.
 Forest                  It is assumed that the natural forest area   Due to the absence of additional
                         reported for 1998 by Oliver (1999) can       information, the size of forest in 2000, 2005
                         be used as a valid estimate for 1990.        and 2010 were assumed to be the same as
                                                                      the reported values for 1998.
                         Oliver (1992) reports the plantation area
                         in 1992. As no date was provided the
                         value given is assumed to refer to 1991,
                         and is used for 1990
 Other wooded land

 Other land

 Other land with tree
 cover
 Inland water bodies




 Other general comments to the table
 Other land with tree cover (agriculture land) planted with oranges or citrus sp in the 1950-80’s are being used
 by land owners as private house sites, accommodations or units for tourism purposes. These are the only
 changes that is happening here mainly in the Southern Cook Islands, however data is not available to report on
 the area of Other land with tree cover.

 As for the Northern Cook Islands forest remains the same except during the 5 cyclones that hit them but
 according to them forest has grown back and almost to its peak again. The datas used above are the same datas
 used in the FRA 2005 report for the Cook Islands, no changes.

 Expected year for completion of ongoing/planned national
 forest inventory and/or RS survey / mapping
 Field inventory                                     n.a.

 Remote sensing survey / mapping                     n.a.




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FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands




2        Table T2 – Forest ownership and management rights


2.1       FRA 2010 Categories and definitions

 Category                           Definition
 Public ownership                   Forest owned by the State; or administrative units of the public
                                    administration; or by institutions or corporations owned by the public
                                    administration.
 Private ownership                  Forest owned by individuals, families, communities, private co-operatives,
                                    corporations and other business entities, private religious and educational
                                    institutions, pension or investment funds, NGOs, nature conservation
                                    associations and other private institutions.
    Individuals                     Forest owned by individuals and families.
    (sub-category of Private
    ownership)
    Private business entities and   Forest owned by private corporations, co-operatives, companies and other
    institutions                    business entities, as well as private non-profit organizations such as NGOs,
    (sub-category of Private        nature conservation associations, and private religious and educational
    ownership)                      institutions, etc.
    Local communities               Forest owned by a group of individuals belonging to the same community
    (sub-category of Private        residing within or in the vicinity of a forest area. The community members
    ownership)                      are co-owners that share exclusive rights and duties, and benefits contribute
                                    to the community development.
  Indigenous / tribal               Forest owned by communities of indigenous or tribal people.
  communities
  (sub-category of Private
  ownership)
 Other types of ownership           Other kind of ownership arrangements not covered by the categories above.
                                    Also includes areas where ownership is unclear or disputed.


 Categories related to the holder of management rights of public forest resources

 Public Administration              The Public Administration (or institutions or corporations owned by the
                                    Public Administration) retains management rights and responsibilities
                                    within the limits specified by the legislation.
 Individuals/households             Forest management rights and responsibilities are transferred from the
                                    Public Administration to individuals or households through long-term
                                    leases or management agreements.
 Private institutions               Forest management rights and responsibilities are transferred from the
                                    Public Administration to corporations, other business entities, private co-
                                    operatives, private non-profit institutions and associations, etc., through
                                    long-term leases or management agreements.
 Communities                        Forest management rights and responsibilities are transferred from the
                                    Public Administration to local communities (including indigenous and
                                    tribal communities) through long-term leases or management agreements.
 Other form of management           Forests for which the transfer of management rights does not belong to any
 rights                             of the categories mentioned above.




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FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands


2.2       National data

2.2.1    Data sources

 References to sources of information                   Quality       Variable(s)     Year(s)   Additional
                                                       (H/M/L)                                  comments
 Oliver.W. 1999
                                                                     Land
 Plantation forestry in the South Pacific: A
                                                                     ownership,
 compilation and assessment of Practices.                  H                           1998
                                                                     Land cover
 Project RAS/86/036.
                                                                     area.
 UBDP/FAO, Rome.
 Space. J. 2000                                                      Plantation
                                                                                       2000
 Submission to FRA 2000                                              forest area


2.2.2    Classification and definitions

 National class              Definition
                             Forest owned by State; or Administrative units of the public administration; or
 Public ownership
                             by institutions or corporations owned by the public administration.
                             Forest owned by individuals, families, communities, private co-operatives,
                             corporations and other business entities, private religious and educational
 Private ownership
                             institutions, pension or investment funds, NGO’s, nature conservation
                             associations and other private institutions.
 Individuals                 Forest owned by individuals and families.
                             Forest owned by private corporations, co-operatives,, companies and other
 Private Business            business entities, as well as private non-profit organizations such as NGO’s,
 entities and institutions   nature conservation associations, and private religious and educational
                             institutions..
 Local communities,          As of public ownership.
 Indigenous/tribal
 communities, other
 types




2.2.3 Original data
According to Oliver (1999), land ownership varies from island to island although most land is
owned by families. The government does not own land.


2.3       Analysis and processing of national data

2.3.1 Reclassification into FRA 2010 categories
All forest area is privately owned.




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FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands



2.4       Data for Table T2

Table 2a - Forest ownership

                                                                            Forest area (1000 hectares)
 FRA 2010 Categories
                                                                           1990        2000        2005
 Public ownership                                                                0           0            0
 Private ownership                                                            14.9        15.5        15.5
  ...of which owned by individuals                                               0           0            0
  ...of which owned by private business entities and institutions              2.0         2.0          2.0
  ...of which owned by local communities                                         0           0            0
  ...of which owned by indigenous / tribal communities                        12.9        13.5        13.5
 Other types of ownership                                                        0           0            0
 TOTAL                                                                         14.9        15.5       15.5
Note: If other types of ownership is reported, please specify details in comment to the table.


 Does ownership of trees coincide with ownership of the             X   Yes
 land on which they are situated?                                       No
 If No above, please describe below how the two differ:




Table 2b - Holder of management rights of public forests
                                                      Forest area (1000 hectares)
 FRA 2010 Categories
                                                     1990        2000        2005
 Public Administration                                     0           0               0
 Individuals                                              0            0               0
 Private corporations and institutions                     0           0               0
 Communities                                              0            0               0
 Other                                                     0           0               0
 TOTAL                                                     0               0           0



2.5       Comments to Table T2
 Variable / category            Comments related to data,               Comments on the reported trend
                                definitions, etc.
 Public ownership
 Private ownership
 Other types of ownership
 Management rights



 Other general comments to the table
 Ownership of forest land is privately owned and controlled by families. e.g. Takitumu Conservation Area is
 owned by the Karika family and they can do whatever/anything to it if they wants to, but in this instant they
 want it for conservation for Kakerori (bird) rehabilitation program etc, and on the island of Pukapuka there are
 3 islets (motus) and three tribes and each island is controlled by each tribes. The datas used above are the same
 datas reported in the FRA 2005 report for the Cook Islands, no changes.




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FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands




3        Table T3 – Forest designation and management


3.1      FRA 2010 Categories and definitions

Term                        Definition
Primary designated function The primary function or management objective assigned to a management unit
                            either by legal prescription, documented decision of the landowner/manager, or
                            evidence provided by documented studies of forest management practices and
                            customary use.
Protected areas              Areas especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological
                             diversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through
                             legal or other effective means.
 Categories of primary designated functions
 Production                     Forest area designated primarily for production of wood, fibre, bio-energy
                                and/or non-wood forest products.
 Protection of soil and water   Forest area designated primarily for protection of soil and water.
 Conservation of                Forest area designated primarily for conservation of biological diversity.
 biodiversity                   Includes but is not limited to areas designated for biodiversity conservation
                                within the protected areas.
 Social services                Forest area designated primarily for social services.
 Multiple use                   Forest area designated primarily for more than one purpose and where none of
                                these alone is considered as the predominant designated function.
 Other                          Forest areas designated primarily for a function other than production,
                                protection, conservation, social services or multiple use.
 No / unknown                   No or unknown designation.
 Special designation and management categories
 Area of permanent forest       Forest area that is designated to be retained as forest and may not be converted
 estate (PFE)                   to other land use.
 Forest area within             Forest area within formally established protected areas independently of the
 protected areas                purpose for which the protected areas were established.
 Forest area under sustain-     To be defined and documented by the country.
 able forest management
 Forest area with               Forest area that has a long-term (ten years or more) documented management
 management plan                plan, aiming at defined management goals, which is periodically revised.




3.2      National data

3.2.1    Data sources

 References to sources of information                   Quality       Variable(s)       Year(s)    Additional
                                                       (H/M/L)                                     comments
 BROWN. C. 1997. Regional Study- the South
 Pacific: Asia-Pacific forestry Sector Outlook
                                                                   Forest categories      1996
 Study Working paper Series, WP No.
 APFSOS/WP/01, FAO, Rome.
                                                                   Pacific Forest
 Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands by Craig
                                                                   trees and their        1997
 R. Elevitch and Kim M. Wilkinson
                                                                   uses
 Cook Islands Biodiversity Database by the Cook
                                                                   Names of trees         2000
 Islands Natural Heritage Project.


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FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands


3.2.2   Classification and definitions

 National class           Definition
                          Areas especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological
                          diversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed
                          through legal or other effective means. Albizia lebbeck, Aleurites moluccana,
                          Inocarpus fagifer, Leucaena leucocephala, Mangifera indica, Morinda
                          citrifolia, Musa spp, Pemphis acidula, Persia Americana, Pometia piñata,
                          Psidium guajava, Spondias dulcis, Syzygum malaccense, Tamatindus indica,
 Protected Areas          Terminalis catappa, Cocos nucifera, Carica papaya, Barringtonia edulis,
                          Averrhoa carambola, Artocarpus altilis, Annona squamosa, Pisonia grandis,
                          Ceiba pendantra, Scaevola taccada, Thesoesia populnea, Tournefotia
                          argentea, Acacia spp, Hernandia nympgaeifolia, Hibiscus tiliaceus,
                          Calophyllum inophyllum, Cananga odorata, Cordia subcodata, Fagraea
                          berteroana, Casuarina equisetifolia, Guettarda speciosa, Scaevola taccada,
                          Allyxia spp, Codyline spp ,Derris elliptica,
                          Forest area designated primarily for conservation of biological diversity.
                          Includes but is not limited to areas designated for diversity conservations with
                          the protected areas. Albizia lebbeck, Aleurites moluccana, Inocarpus fagifer,
                          Leucaena leucocephala, Mangifera indica, Morinda citrifolia, Musa spp,
                          Pemphis acidula, Persia Americana, Pometia piñata, Psidium guajava,
                          Spondias dulcis, Syzygum malaccense, Tamatindus indica, Terminalis
 Conservation of
                          catappa, Cocos nucifera, Carica papaya, Barringtonia edulis, Averrhoa
 Biodiversity
                          carambola, Artocarpus altilis, Annona squamosa, Pisonia grandis, Ceiba
                          pendantra, Scaevola taccada, Thesoesia populnea, Tournefotia argentea,
                          Acacia spp, Hernandia nympgaeifolia, Hibiscus tiliaceus, Calophyllum
                          inophyllum, Cananga odorata, Cordia subcodata, Fagraea berteroana,
                          Casuarina equisetifolia, Guettarda speciosa, Scaevola taccada, Allyxia spp,
                          Codyline spp ,Derris elliptica
                          Forest area designated primarily for production of wood, fibre, bio-energy
 Production
                          and/or non-wood forest products. Acacia mangium,
                          Forest area designated primarily for protection of soil and water. Aleurites
                          moluccana, Inocarpus fagifer, Leucaena leucocephala, Mangifera indica,
                          Morinda citrifolia, Musa spp, Pemphis acidula, Persia Americana, Pometia
                          piñata, Psidium guajava, Spondias dulcis, Syzygum malaccense, Tamatindus
                          indica, Terminalis catappa, Cocos nucifera, Carica papaya, Barringtonia
 Protection of soil and
                          edulis, Averrhoa carambola, Artocarpus altilis, Annona squamosa, Pisonia
 water
                          grandis, Ceiba pendantra, Scaevola taccada, Thesoesia populnea,
                          Tournefotia argentea, Acacia spp, Hernandia nympgaeifolia, Hibiscus
                          tiliaceus, Calophyllum inophyllum, Cananga odorata, Cordia subcodata,
                          Fagraea berteroana, Casuarina equisetifolia, Guettarda speciosa, Scaevola
                          taccada, Allyxia spp, Codyline spp ,Derris elliptica
                          Forest area designated primarily for more than one purpose and where none of
                          these alone is considered as the predominant designated functions. Aleurites
                          moluccana, Inocarpus fagifer, Leucaena leucocephala, Mangifera indica,
                          Morinda citrifolia, Musa spp, Pemphis acidula, Persia Americana, Pometia
                          piñata, Psidium guajava, Spondias dulcis, Syzygum malaccense, Tamatindus
                          indica, Terminalis catappa, Cocos nucifera, Carica papaya, Barringtonia
 Multiple use
                          edulis, Averrhoa carambola, Artocarpus altilis, Annona squamosa, Pisonia
                          grandis, Ceiba pendantra, Scaevola taccada, Thesoesia populnea,
                          Tournefotia argentea, Acacia spp, Hernandia nympgaeifolia, Hibiscus
                          tiliaceus, Calophyllum inophyllum, Cananga odorata, Cordia subcodata,
                          Fagraea berteroana, Casuarina equisetifolia, Guettarda speciosa, Scaevola
                          taccada, Allyxia spp, Codyline spp ,Derris elliptica




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FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands


3.2.3    Original data
                                         Area (‘000 ha)
                                        1991        1998
Natural forest                       14.4        14.4
Plantation forest                    0.5         1.1

Source: Brown. C. 1997.

                                          Primary use
Natural forest           Multiple use (Conservation and Watershed
                         Protection)
Plantation forest        Soil and Watershed Conservation




3.3       Analysis and processing of national data

Plantation forests have been classified as “Protection of soil and water” using the figures
reported in T1 for each reporting year.

Natural forests have been classified as “Multiple purpose” using the figures reported in T1 for
each reporting year.


3.4       Data for Table T3

Table 3a – Primary designated function

                                                                Forest area (1000 hectares)
 FRA 2010 Categories
                                                           1990      2000        2005       2010
 Production                                                     0           0          0         0
 Protection of soil and water                                 0.5         1.1        1.1       1.1
 Conservation of biodiversity                                   0           0          0         0
 Social services                                                0           0          0         0
 Multiple use                                                14.4        14.4       14.4      14.4
 Other (please specify in comments below the table)             0           0          0         0
 No / unknown                                                   0           0          0         0
 TOTAL                                                       14.9       15.5        15.5      15.5



Table 3b – Special designation and management categories

                                                                Forest area (1000 hectares)
 FRA 2010 Categories
                                                           1990      2000        2005       2010
 Area of permanent forest estate
 Forest area within protected areas
 Forest area under sustainable forest management
 Forest area with management plan




                                                      14
FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands


3.5       Comments to Table T3

 Variable /           Comments related to data, definitions,      Comments on the reported trend
 category             etc.
 Production
 Protection of soil
 and water
 Conservation of
 biodiversity
 Social services
 Multiple use         In the Cook Islands all these tables
                      serves as the same purposes either for
                      conservation, protection, social services
                      etc they are all the same and does the
                      same responsibilities in uses.
 Other
 No / unknown
 designation
 Area of permanent
 forest estate
 Forest area within
 protected areas
 Forest area under
 sustainable forest
 management

 Forest area with
 management plan

 Other general comments to the table
    1. Takitumu Conservation Area – Managed by the Karika Family.
    2. Suvarrow Island - Government under NES
    3. Takutea Island – Managed by the people of Atiu
    4. Highland Paradise – Managed by the Raymond Pirangi family
    5. Pukapuka Atoll – Under the controlled of local island councils and village tribes – 60 Hectares
    6. Nassau Atoll – under the control of island councils etc

 The datas used in the Cook Islands FRA 2005 report are the same datas used above, no changes.




                                                       15
FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands




4       Table T4 – Forest characteristics


4.1       FRA 2010 Categories and definitions
 Term / category                        Definition
 Naturally regenerated forest           Forest predominantly composed of trees established through natural
                                        regeneration.
 Introduced species                     A species, subspecies or lower taxon, occurring outside its natural range
                                        (past or present) and dispersal potential (i.e. outside the range it occupies
                                        naturally or could occupy without direct or indirect introduction or care
                                        by humans).
 Characteristics categories
 Primary forest                         Naturally regenerated forest of native species, where there are no clearly
                                        visible indications of human activities and the ecological processes are
                                        not significantly disturbed.
 Other naturally regenerated forest     Naturally regenerated forest where there are clearly visible indications of
                                        human activities.
 Other naturally regenerated forest     Other naturally regenerated forest where the trees are predominantly of
 of introduced species                  introduced species.
 (sub-category)
 Planted forest                         Forest predominantly composed of trees established through planting
                                        and/or deliberate seeding.
 Planted forest of introduced species   Planted forest, where the planted/seeded trees are predominantly of
 (sub-category)                         introduced species.
 Special categories
 Rubber plantations                     Forest area with rubber tree plantations.

 Mangroves                              Area of forest and other wooded land with mangrove vegetation.

 Bamboo                                 Area of forest and other wooded land with predominant bamboo
                                        vegetation.


4.2       National data

4.2.1   Data sources
 References to sources of information                   Quality     Variable(s)     Year(s)     Additional
                                                       (H/M/L)                                  comments
 Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands by Craig                  Pacific trees
                                                                                      1997
 R. Elevich and Kim M> Wilkinson                                   and its uses
                                                                   Names of
 Cook Islands Biodiversity Database by the Cook
                                                                   Trees and its      2000
 Islands Natural Heritage Project.
                                                                   uses
 OLIVER. W. 1992
 Plantation forestry in the South Pacific: A                       Plantation
                                                                                      1991
 compilation and assessment of Practices. Project                  area
 RAS/86/036, UNDP/FAO, Rome
 OLIVER.W. 1999. An update of plantation
                                                                   Land cover
 forestry in the South Pacific RAS/97/330.                                            1998
                                                                   types
 Working paper, UNDP/FAO, Rome




                                                         16
FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands



4.2.2    Classification and definitions

 National class          Definition
                         Trees established through natural regeneration such as: Aleurites moluccana,
                         Barringtonia asiatica, Calophyllum inophyllum, Casurina equisetifilia, Ceiba
                         pentandra, Cocos nicufera, Deloniox regia, Guettarda speciosa, Inocarpus
 Naturally generated     fagifer, Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, Morinda citrifolia, Pometia
 forest                  pinnata, Pritchardia pacifica, Pisonia grandis,Thespersia populnea,
                         Tournefortia argentea, Terminalia catappa, Spondias dulcis, Melia
                         azedarach, Homalium acuminatum, Syzycium cumini, Incarpus fagifer,Albizia
                         lebbeck, Spathodea campanulata,Hernandia nymphaeifolia, etc
                         A species, sub-species or lower taxon, occurring outside its natural range (past
                         and present) and dispersal potential (i.e. outside the range it occupies naturally
                         or could occupy without direct or indirect introduction or care by human).
 Introduced species      Tectona grandis, Albizia lebbeck, Bamboo vulgaris, Azadarichta indica,
                         Acacia mangium, Delonix regia, Ficus bengalensis, Ficus benjamina, Ficus
                         carica, Litchi sinensis, Macadamia integrifolia, Morinda citrifolia, Persia
                         Americana ,Pinus caribean, etc.
                         Naturally regenerated forest of native species, where are no clearly visible
                         indications of human activities and the ecological process are not significantly
                         disturbed. Aleurites moluccana, Inocarpus fagifer, Leucaena leucocephala,
                         Mangifera indica, Morinda citrifolia, Musa sp, Pemphis acidula, Persia
                         Americana, Pometia piñata, Psidium guajava, Spondias dulcis, Syzygum
                         malaccense, Tamatindus indica, Terminalis catappa, Cocos nucifera, Carica
 Primary forests
                         papaya, Barringtonia edulis, Averrhoa carambola, Artocarpus altilis, Annona
                         squamosa, Pisonia grandis, Ceiba pendantra, Scaevola taccada, Thesoesia
                         populnea, Tournefotia argentea, Acacia spp, Hernandia nympgaeifolia,
                         Hibiscus tiliaceus, Calophyllum inophyllum, Cananga odorata, Cordia
                         subcodata, Fagraea berteroana, Casuarina equisetifolia, Guettarda speciosa,
                         Scaevola taccada, Allyxia spp, Codyline spp ,Derris elliptica
 Other natural
                         Other naturally regenerated forest where the trees are predominantly of
 regenerated forest of
                         introduced species. Santalum sp, Accasia sp, pinus sp, Macardamia sp etc.
 introduced species
                         Forest predominantly composed of trees established through planting and/or
 Planted forest          deliberate seeding. Pinus caribean, Eucalyptus citriodola, Leucaena
                         leucocephala, Spathodea campanulata, Acacia mangium,




4.2.3    Original data
                                          Area (‘000 ha)
                                         1991        1998
Natural forest                        14.4        14.4
Plantation forest                     0.5         1.1

4.3       Analysis and processing of national data

Plantation forest = Planted forest
Natural forest = Other naturally regenerated forest




                                                      17
FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands



4.4      Data for Table T4

Table 4a

                                                               Forest area (1000 hectares)
 FRA 2010 Categories
                                                1990              2000           2005                2010
 Primary forest                                         0                 0              0                 0
 Other naturally regenerated forest                  14.4              14.4           14.4              14.4
 ...of which of introduced species                    n.a.              n.a.           n.a.              n.a.
 Planted forest                                       0.5               1.1            1.1               1.1
 ...of which of introduced species                    n.a.              n.a.           n.a.              n.a.
 TOTAL                                               14.9              15.5           15.5              15.5



Table 4b

                                                                  Area (1000 hectares)
 FRA 2010 Categories
                                                1990              2000           2005                2010
 Rubber plantations (Forest)                             0               0              0                     0
 Mangroves (Forest and OWL)                              0               0              0                     0
 Bamboo (Forest and OWL)                               n.s.            n.s.           n.s.                  n.s.




4.5      Comments to Table T4
 Variable /        Comments related to data, definitions, etc.                                         Comments on
 category                                                                                              the reported
                                                                                                       trend
 Primary forest
 Other naturally   All forest in the Cook Islands except the planted forests are in this category.
 regenerating
 forest            These trees are still the main species established through natural
                   regenerations. Aleurites moluccana, Inocarpus fagifer, Leucaena
                   leucocephala, Mangifera indica, Morinda citrifolia, Musa sp, Pemphis
                   acidula, Persia Americana, Pometia piñata, Psidium guajava, Spondias
                   dulcis, Syzygum malaccense, Tamatindus indica, Terminalis catappa,
                   Cocos nucifera, Carica papaya, Barringtonia edulis, Averrhoa carambola,
                   Artocarpus altilis, Annona squamosa, Pisonia grandis, Ceiba pendantra,
                   Scaevola taccada, Thesoesia populnea, Tournefotia argentea, Acacia spp,
                   Hernandia nympgaeifolia, Hibiscus tiliaceus, Calophyllum inophyllum,
                   Cananga odorata, Cordia subcodata, Fagraea berteroana, Casuarina
                   equisetifolia, Guettarda speciosa, Scaevola taccada, Allyxia spp, Codyline
                   spp ,Derris elliptica
 Planted forest                                                                                              .
 Rubber            Rubber plantations do not exist in the Cook Islands.
 plantations
 Mangroves         No mangroves in the Cook Islands. No body seems to be interested in it.
 Bamboo            Only small plantations no use mentioning as there is no value on them.
                   Mainly used for fishing rods and beautification.




                                                          18
FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands



 Other general comments to the table
 There is no record of the Cook Islands of having rubber plantations, mangroves and bamboo plantations. They
 did introduced Tectona grandis but used for land boundaries by Europeans, windbreaks such as Erythrina
 variegate for citrus sp plantations etc.

 These introduced species were introduced for various reasons but some of these are now invasive sp. e.g.
 Albizia lebbeck, Acacia sp,
 These were introduced for the purpose of;

         1.  Albizia lebbeck – by the Ministry of Agriculture for the purpose of making patterns for export
             boxes of oranges to NZ
         2. Acacia sp – these were introduced by the Government of the Cook Islands for the purpose of
             wood-burning generators
         3. Pinus sp – were introduced mainly for the purpose of soil erosion and timber, mainly on the
             islands of Mangaia and Atiu, whereby most of the hillsides on these two islands were planted with
             pineapples before, and also on Rarotonga mainly on fernlands where the kids have burn these
             fernlands.
         4. Santalum sp – were introduced for the islands of Mangaia, Mitiaro, Atiu and Mauke for soil
             erosion, craft, oil and many other uses.
         5. Erythrina variegate (Ngatae) – were introduce mainly for the purpose of citrus plantations
             windbreaks
 Tectona grandis – were introduced for the purpose of land boundaries by Europeans.




                                                       19
FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands




5       Table T5 – Forest establishment and reforestation


5.1      FRA 2010 Categories and definitions

 Term                                  Definition
 Afforestation                         Establishment of forest through planting and/or deliberate seeding on
                                       land that, until then, was not classified as forest.
 Reforestation                         Re-establishment of forest through planting and/or deliberate seeding on
                                       land classified as forest.
 Natural expansion of forest           Expansion of forests through natural succession on land that, until then,
                                       was under another land use (e.g. forest succession on land previously
                                       used for agriculture).


5.2      National data

5.2.1 Data sources
Quantitative information is not available for reporting on this table.


5.2.2   Classification and definitions
 National        Definition
 class
                 Establishment of forest through planting and/or deliberate seeding on land that, until then, was
 Afforestation   not classified as forest. Fern lands planted with introduced tree species e.g. Pinus sp, Acacia
                 sp,
                 Re-establishment of forest through planting and/of deliberate seeding on land classified as
 Reforestation
                 forest.
                 Expansion of forests through natural succession on land that, until then, was under another
                 land use, (e.g. forest succession on land previously used for agriculture). Agriculture land
                 being planted with pineapples in the 1950s’ to 60s’on the islands of Mangaia, Atiu, and
 Natural
                 Rarotonga, but in the 1970s’ export of pineapples ceased even. So to stop soil erosions these
 expansion of
                 agriculture lands that once were planted with pineapple were replanted with introduced forest
 forest
                 trees. e.g. Pinus caribean, Acacia mangium (for wood generator) etc, mainly on the islands of
                 Mangaia, Atiu, Mauke, and Rarotonga these same forest trees were planted on fern-lands
                 because often they were burned by kids and very serious erosion.

Comments to forest establishment and reforestation:
Natural expansion of forest occurs case mainly on the islands of Mangaia and Atiu (where once
was pineapple plantations) and on Rarotonga, (fern-lands) mainly for soil erosion.

Some introduced species were introduced for the purpose of providing timber for building and
other uses. But due to the government reorganisation in 1996 forest was one of the unlucky
projects that was faced out and these trees were left and government pulled out and was given
back to land owners hence we don’t have record of what is there and what will happen to them.
Now the Ministry of Agriculture just a coordinator for forest programme etc.




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FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands



5.3       Data for Table T5

                                              Annual forest establishment       ...of which of introduced species 1)
 FRA 2010 Categories                               (hectares/year)                        (hectares/year)
                                             1990        2000        2005        1990          2000         2005
 Afforestation
 Reforestation
 ...of which on areas previously planted
 Natural expansion of forest
Note:   The figures for the reporting years refer to the averages for the 5-year periods 1988-1992, 1998-2002 and
        2003-2007 respectively.




5.4       Comments to Table T5

 Variable /           Comments related to data, definitions,      Comments on the reported trend
 category             etc.
 Afforestation



 Reforestation



 Natural expansion
 of forest



 Other general comments to the table




6       Table T6 – Growing stock
Data is not available for this reporting table.

7       Table T7 – Biomass stock
Data is not available for this reporting table.

8       Table T8 – Carbon stock
Data is not available for this reporting table.




                                                       21
FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands




9       Table T9 – Forest fires


9.1      FRA 2010 Categories and definitions

 Category                Definition
 Number of fires         Average number of vegetation fires per year in the country.
 Area affected by fire   Average area affected by vegetation fires per year in the country.
 Vegetation fire         Any vegetation fire regardless of ignition source, damage or benefit.
 (supplementary term)
 Wildfire                Any unplanned and/or uncontrolled vegetation fire.
 Planned fire            A vegetation fire regardless of ignition source that burns according to
                         management objectives and requires limited or no suppression action.


9.2      National data

9.2.1 Data sources
Not available.


9.2.2   Classification and definitions

 National class           Definition
                          Average number of vegetation fires per year in the country. One (1995) on
 Number of Fires
                          Mangaia. Pinus sp and Acacia mangium were all destroyed.
 Area affected by fire    Average area affected by vegetation fires per year in the country.
 Vegetation fire          Any vegetation fire regardless of ignition source, damaged or benefit.
                          Any unplanned and/or uncontrolled vegetation fire. Yes, on Rarotonga. Mostly
 Wild fire
                          fern lands
                          A vegetation fire regardless of ignition source that burns according to
 Planned fires            management objectives and requires limited or no suppression action. Yes, on
                          Rarotonga, fern lands by kids.




9.2.3 Original data
Number of fires of which on other wooded are Fern-lands on Rarotonga
The 2 fires of which on forest were in Mangaia and Atiu and are wild fires.
Mangaia 1993          400 ha mainly Pines but replanted after the fire.
Atiu 1995             100 ha mainly Pines but replanted after the fire.




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FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands



9.3       Data for Table T9

Table 9a

                                                           Annual average for 5-year period
 FRA 2010 category                             1990                     2000                      2005
                                        1000       number         1000       number        1000      number of
                                       hectares     of fires    hectares      of fires   hectares      fires
 Total land area affected by fire
 ... of which on forest
 ... of which on other wooded land
 ... of which on other land




Table 9b

                                           Proportion of forest area affected by fire (%)
  FRA 2010 category
                                              1990              2000            2005
 Wildfire
 Planned fire
Note: The figures for the reporting years refer to the averages of annually affected areas for the 5-year periods
1988-1992, 1998-2002 and 2003-2007 respectively. All these planned fires are by kids and mainly fern –lands on
Rarotonga.


9.4       Comments to Table T9

 Variable /          Comments related to data, definitions,        Comments on the reported trend
 category            etc.
 Area affected by
 fire
 Number of fires
 Wildfire /
 planned fire




 Other general comments to the table




                                                        23
FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands




10      Table T10 – Other disturbances affecting forest health and
        vitality


10.1     FRA 2010 Categories and definitions

 Term                             Definition
 Disturbance                      Damage caused by any factor (biotic or abiotic) that adversely affects the
                                  vigour and productivity of the forest and which is not a direct result of
                                  human activities.
 Invasive species                 Species that are non-native to a particular ecosystem and whose
                                  introduction and spread cause, or are likely to cause, socio-cultural,
                                  economic or environmental harm or harm to human health.
 Category                         Definition
 Disturbance by insects           Disturbance caused by insect pests.

 Disturbance by diseases          Disturbance caused by diseases attributable to pathogens, such as bacteria,
                                  fungi, phytoplasma or virus.
 Disturbance by other biotic      Disturbance caused by biotic agents other than insects or diseases, such as
 agents                           wildlife browsing, grazing, physical damage by animals, etc.
 Disturbance caused by abiotic    Disturbances caused by abiotic factors, such as air pollution, snow, storm,
 factors                          drought, etc.




10.2     National data

10.2.1 Data sources

 References to sources of       Quality     Variable(s)    Year(s)      Additional comments
 information                   (H/M/L)
 Ministry of Agriculture,                                               Maja Poeschoe, Entomologist, Pests
 P.O. Box 96, Rarotonga,                                                & Disease of the Cook islands
 COOK ISLANDS                                                           report.




10.2.2 Classification and definitions
 National class             Definition
                            Damage caused by any factor (biotic or abiotic) that adversely affects the
 Disturbance                vigour and productivity of the forest and which is not a direct result of human
                            activities.
                            Species that are non-native to a particular ecosystem and whose introduction
                            and spread cause, or not likely to cause, socio-cultural, economic or
 Invasive species           environmental harm or harm to human health. Spathodea campanulata,
                            Albizia lebbeck, Acacia mangium, Mile-a-minute, Balloon wine, Bambusa
                            vulgaris, Merremia peltata,
                            Disturbance caused by insect pests Coconut Flat Moth (Agonoxena argaula),
 Disturbance by insects
                            Coconut termite Neoterma rainbowi), Coconut scale (Aspidiolus destructor)
 Disturbance by other       Disturbances caused by abiotic factors, such as air pollutions, snow, storm,
 Biotic agents              drought etc. Caused by tropical cyclones etc.




                                                          24
FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands




10.3     Data for Table T10

Table 10a – Disturbances
Quantifiable records of the disturbances by insects, disease, biotic and abiotic are not available.


Table 10b – Major outbreaks of insects and diseases affecting forest health and vitality

No information available for this reporting table.

The following outbreaks of insects and diseases affecting cocos nucifera have been reported.
                   Tree                     Area
 Description      species      Year of    affected
 / name         (scientific     latest      (1000
                  name)       outbreak    hectares)                    Additional information
 Coconut Flat                                         Outbreak on Rarotonga in 2000 and to the other
 Moth           Cocos                                 Southern and Northern Groups of the Cook Islands
                               2000        unknown
 (Agonoxena     nucifera                              later in the years, but under control using bio control
 argaula)
 Coconut                                              Only on three atolls in the Northern Cook Islands.
 termite        Cocos                                 (Pukapuka, Nassau and Suwarrow) Control, affected
                               1956        unknown
 (Neoterma      nucifera                              trees were cut and burned.
 rainbowi)
 Coconut                                              On the islands of Rarotonga and Atiu. Control bio-
 scale          Cocos                                 control.
                               1978        unknown
 (Aspidiolus    nucifera
 destructor)




                                                      25
FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands


Table 10c – Area of forest affected by woody invasive species

                                                                     Forest area
 Scientific name of woody invasive species                          affected 2005
                                                                   (1000 hectares)
 Albizia lebbeck, Paraserianthes falcataria                                      n.a.
 Spathodea campanulata                                                           n.a.
 Bambusa vulgaris                                                                n.a.
 Acasia mangium, Acasia auriculifomis                                            n.a.

 Total forest area affected by woody invasive species                             n.a.

Note:   The total forest area affected by woody invasive species is not necessary the sum of the values above, as
        these may be overlapping.




10.4      Comments to Table T10

 Variable /            Comments related to data, definitions, etc.                                   Comments
 category                                                                                            on the
                                                                                                     reported
                                                                                                     trend
 Disturbance by
 insects
 Disturbance by
 diseases
 Disturbance by        Goats, Wild pigs: Mainly on the Outer Southern islands of the Cooks.
 other biotic agents   (Aitutaki, Atiu, Mangaia, Mauke and Mitiaro) Free grazing.


 Disturbance caused    Tropical cyclone Martin November 1987. Destruction right through most
 by abiotic factors    of the 15 islands of the Cook Islands most serious on the atolls mainly
                       Manihiki, Rakahanga, Pukapuka & Nassau.

 Major outbreaks
 Invasive species      Acasia mangium mostly on the islands of the Southern Cook Islands.
                       Acasia auriculifomis most on the islands of the Southern Cook Islands.
                       Albizia lebbeck mostly on the islands of the Southern Cook Islands.
                       Mile a minute (Mikania micrantha) most on the islands of the Southern
                       Cook Islands. People also use the leaves this plant for medicine.
                       Ballon wine (Cardiospermum gradiflorum)only on the is of Rarotonga
                       Meremia peltata only on the island of Atiu, Rarotonga & Aitutaki.
                       Giant mimosa Only on the island of Aitutaki. Meantine we have a bio-
                       control in place and it is showing good results.

 Other general comments to the table
 Albizia lebbeck was introduced during the citrus export duration to make patterns for bushel and bushel and
 half export boxes. Now it has taken a lot of bush, fern or forest land or even agriculture land. The same with the
 Acacia spp which was introduced for the purpose of wood burning generator, but now it has gone wild
 especially on the islands of Mangaia, Atiu, Aitutaki, Rarotonga and Mauke. As for invasive species like Mile-a-
 minute (Mikania micrantha), Ballon wine (Cardiospermum gradiflorum),very serious weed on the mainland
 Rarotonga as seen on the eastern side of the island on the hillside and some sort of control is need as soon as
 possible to control if possible and Meremia peltata we needs bio-control as soon as possible as it is spreading
 in the forest areas mainly on hillsides etc mainly on the islands of Rarotonga and Aitutaki.




                                                         26
FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands




11      Table T11 – Wood removals and value of removals


11.1     FRA 2010 Categories and definitions

 Category                    Definition
 Industrial roundwood        The wood removed (volume of roundwood over bark) for production of goods and
 removals                    services other than energy production (woodfuel).
 Woodfuel removals           The wood removed for energy production purposes, regardless whether for
                             industrial, commercial or domestic use.


11.2     National data

11.2.1 Data sources

 References to sources of        Quality    Variable(s)           Year(s)         Additional
 information                    (H/M/L)                                           comments
 Agroforestry Guides for
 Pacific Islands by Craig                  Pacific trees
                                                                   2000           Names of trees
 R. Elevich and Kim M.                     and it’s uses
 Wilkinson
 Cook Islands Biodiversity
                                           Cook Islands
 Database by the Cook
                                           trees and it’s          2000           Names of trees
 Islands Natural Heritage
                                           Uses
 Project
                                           Industrial            1988-1992
 FAOSTAT                           M       round wood            1998-2002
                                           production            2003-2006




11.2.2 Classification and definitions

 National class              Definition
                             The wood removed for energy prodiction purposes, regardless whether for
                             industrial , commercial or domestic use. Pemphis acidula, Syzygium cumini,
                             Bischofia javanica, Calophyllum inophyllum, Barringtonia asiatica, Cananga
 Woodfuel removals           odorata, Cordia subcordata, Delonix regia, Fagrea berteroana, Guettarda
                             speciosa, Inocarpus edulis, Leucaena leucocephata, Morinda citrifolia,
                             Pometia pinnata, Psidium guajava, Tournefortia argentea, terminalia
                             catappa, Ctrus spp, Melia azedarach,
 Industrial roundwood        The wood removed (volume of roundwood over bark) for production of goods
 removals                    and services other than energy production (wood fuel).




11.3 Analysis and processing of national data
Industrial round wood production (m3 under bark)
1988               1989               1990       1991                                       1992
0                  0                  0          0                                          0


                                                            27
FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands




1998                    1999                    2000                    2001                     2002
5000                    5000                    5000                    5000                     5000

2003                    2004                    2005                    2006
5000                    5000                    5000                    5000

FAOSTAT gives values under bark. To get the over bark, these values are multiplied by 1.15.

The average yearly data from 1988-1992 was used as the estimate for 1990 while the average
yearly data from 1998-2002 used as the estimate for 2000. The average yearly data for 2003-
2006 was used as the estimate for 2005.

11.4      Data for Table T11

                                              Industrial roundwood
                                                                                     Woodfuel removals
 FRA 2010 Category                                  removals
                                            1990      2000      2005             1990        2000         2005
 Total volume (1000 m3 o.b.)                     0        5.75     5.75             n.a.        n.a.         n.a.
 ... of which from forest                        0        5.75     5.75             n.a.        n.a.         n.a.
 Unit value (local currency / m3 o.b.)         n.a.        n.a.     n.a.            n.a.        n.a.         n.a.
 Total value (1000 local currency)             n.a.        n.a.     n.a.            n.a.        n.a.         n.a.

Note:   The figures for the reporting years refer to the averages of annually affected areas for the 5-year periods
        1988-1992, 1998-2002 and 2003-2007 respectively.

                                                  1990                    2000                     2005
 Name of local currency                           NZ$                     NZ$                      NZ$




11.5      Comments to Table T11

 Variable / category       Comments related to data, definitions, etc.                         Comments on the
                                                                                               reported trend
 Total volume of           Mainly those that either being blown over by strong wind or
 industrial roundwood      cyclone or trimming of trees used for grafts etc.
 removals
 Total volume of           Mainly for umu and fire cooking mainly in the outer islands.
 woodfuel removals         On the mainland Rarotonga including some of the southern
                           Cook Islands they use modern technologies (methane gas or
                           electricity)
 Unit value

 Total value


 Other general comments to the table
 Most of the removals are for carvings, posts, roofs, medicine, fire-woods, canoes, leis, beautification etc and
 mainly trees that are fell either by cyclones or strong winds or trees fell from new house sites etc. or farming
 lands on the hill sides. With the introduction of methane gas, and electricity people don’t harvest wood-fuels,
 not that much except when there is special occasions like 21st birthdays, marriage, investiture of Kings or
 Queens etc.




                                                         28
FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands


12      Table T12 – Non-wood forest products removals and value of
        removals


12.1     FRA 2010 Categories and definitions

 Term                            Definition
 Non-wood forest product         Goods derived from forests that are tangible and physical objects of
 (NWFP)                          biological origin other than wood.
 Value of NWFP removals          For the purpose of this table, value is defined as the market value at the site
                                 of collection or forest border.



NWFP categories

 Category
 Plant products / raw material
 1. Food
 2. Fodder
 3. Raw material for medicine and aromatic products
 4. Raw material for colorants and dyes
 5. Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction
 6. Ornamental plants
 7. Exudates
 8. Other plant products

 Animal products / raw material
 9. Living animals
 10. Hides, skins and trophies
 11. Wild honey and bee-wax
 12. Wild meat
 13. Raw material for medicine
 14. Raw material for colorants
 15. Other edible animal products
 16. Other non-edible animal products


12.2     National data

12.2.1 Data sources
 References to sources of      Quality     Variable(s)      Year(s)    Additional comments
 information                  (H/M/L)
 Agroforestry Guides for
 Pacific Islands by Craig                 Pacific trees
                                                                2000   Names of trees
 R. Elevitch and Kim M.                   and it’s uses
 Wilkinson.
 Pacific Agroforestry. An
                                                                1999
 information kit. PRAP
 Cook Islands Biodiversity
                                          Cook Islands
 Database by the Cook
                                          trees and it’s        2000   Names of trees
 islands Natural Heritage
                                          uses
 Report.




                                                           29
FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands


12.2.2 Classification and definitions

 National class         Definition
                        Aleurites moluccana, Alyxia elliptica, Artocarpus altilis, Bambusa vulgaris,
                        Barringtonia asiatica,Broussonetia papyrifera, Calophyllium inophyllium,
                        Cananga odorata, Casuarina sp, Cocos nucifera, Cordia subcordata, Cordyline
                        terminalis, Dioscorea alata, Eugenia malaccensis, Inocarpus edulis, Mangifera
 Plant products/raw
                        indica, Morinda citrifolia, Musa spp, Pandanus sp, gardenia sp, Hibiscus
 materials
                        tillaceus, Leucaena sp, Piper methysticum, Pisonia grandis, Pometia pinnata,
                        Santalum sp, Scaevola sericea, Terminalia catappa, Thespesia polulnea,
                        Tournefortia argentea, Vanilla sp, Zingiber sp, coffea aribica, Spondias edulis,
                        Syzygium cumini, Governor’s plum, Derris illiptica,
 Animal
 products/raw           Wild pigs, wild chickens, birds, coconut crabs, prawns, eels, fruit bats, honey,
 materials




12.2.3 Original data
Not available.


12.3     Data for Table T12

                                                                             NWFP removals 2005
                                                                                        Value
                                                                                                            NWFP
 Rank     Name of product                    Key species           Unit                  (1000
                                                                             Quantity                      category
                                                                                          local
                                                                                      currency)
          Food, timber, crafts, medicine,
 1st      drinks, fish traps, mosquito       Cocos nucifera
          repellant, rope, copra, oil, etc
          Garlands for export (maire),
 2nd                                         Alyxia elliptica                                  $30,000
          perfumes, etc
          Food, handicrafts, costumes,
 3rd      garlands (leis), leaves for        Panadanus sp
          houses, etc
          Medicine, dyes, export,
 4th                                         Morinda citrifolia
          firewood etc
 5th      Food, canoe, medicine etc          Mangifera indica
 6th      Food, firewood, crafts, etc        Inocarpaus fagifer
          Food, chewing gum, housing
 7th                                         Artocarpus altilis
          etc
          Oil, crafts, tables, medicine,     Calophyllium
 8th
          etc                                inophyllium
                                             Thespersia
 9th      Medicine, arts & crafts, etc
                                             populnea
          Medicine, arts & crafta,           Casuarina
 10th
          firewood, fishing etc              equisetifolia
 All other plant products
 All other animal products
 TOTAL

                                                2005
 Name of local currency                         NZ$



                                                         30
FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands




12.4     Comments to Table T12

 Variable / category           Comments related to data, definitions, etc.
 10 most important products    Its very hard to clarify in order which is the most important plant for each island
                               in the Cook Islands have their own order except that we all know that in the
                               Pacific islands coconut is the most important tree of all trees, for local and
                               export.
 Other plant products          Other trees are also important in the way each island used them whether for local
                               or export or money or decoration. (culture)


 Other animal products         Most of these animal products are consumed locally and not exported or sold for
                               money except for trophies (pig’s tooth etc)


 Value by product              Alyxia elliptica (maire) is very import for ladies on three is lands in the Cooks,
                               namely Mauke, Mangaia, Mitiaro, in which they export it to Hawaii every week
                               and all year round and also they use it in coconut oil extracts for perfumes for it
                               smell. Also Morinda citriflolia export for medicine etc organically.
 Total value

 Other general comments to the table
 Alyxia elliptica (maire) is one of the most important plant being harvested for export in lei forms to Hawaii all
 year round and it keeps the mamas on the islands of Mauke, Mangaia, Mitiaro busy, and at the moment the
 Ministry of Agriculture is doing a research on Mauke of planting these plants out of its natural growing area in
 an open easily access to the mamas to harvest, meantime they are harvesting the maire within its growing
 habitat which is in the makatea. (NZ$30,000 for the year of 2006) That also goes for Morinda citrifolia (noni
 or nono) whereby on the islands of Mauke, Mangaia, Atiu, and Mitiaro are also harvested from within these
 makatea which has sharp stones etc. We also harvest a lot of fruits, root crops, eels, prawns, flowers from these
 forest areas either for human consumptions or uses.




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FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands




13      Table T13 – Employment


13.1     FRA 2010 Categories and definitions

 Category                    Definition
 Full-time equivalents       A measurement equal to one person working full-time during a specified
 (FTE)                       reference period.
 Employment                  Includes all persons in paid employment or self-employment.
 Paid employment             Persons who during a specified reference period performed some work for
                             wage or salary in cash or in kind.
 Self-employment             Persons who during a specified reference period performed some work for
                             profit or family gain in cash or in kind (e.g. employers, own-account workers,
                             members of producers' cooperatives, contributing family workers).


13.2     National data

13.2.1 Original data

In the year 1996 when the Cook Islands had a reform whereby a lot of public servants were laid
of, and that’s when the forestry programme for the Cook Islands was no more viable, even
though of this the Local government of Mangaia and Atiu carried on paying their former
forestry officer to look after the plantation of Pines etc until 2002, when they can’t afford to pay
them. The Ministry of Agriculture since then have been coordinating and advising the
programmes. e.g. encouraging the people of Mangaia and Mitiaro to go ahead and plant
sandalwood for future ventures.


13.3     Data for Table T13
                                                                     Employment (1000 years FTE)
 FRA 2010 Category
                                                              1990             2000              2005
 Employment in primary production of goods
 ...of which paid employment
 ...of which self-employment
 Employment in management of protected areas



13.4     Comments to Table T13
 Variable / category                                   Comments related to data,       Comments on the
                                                       definitions, etc.               reported trend
 Employment in primary production of goods
 Paid employment / self-employment
 Employment in management of protected areas

 Other general comments to the table
 All the lands that have been planted with pines, acacia sp and santalum (sandalwood) on the islands of
 Mangaia, Atiu, Mauke, Mitiaro and Rarotonga have been taken over by land owners since the 1996 reform.
 This also comes under the National Conservation Services (NES) Taporoporo Ipukarea policy.




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FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands




14       Table T14 – Policy and legal framework


14.1      FRA 2010 Categories and definitions

 Term                     Definition
 Forest policy            A set of orientations and principles of actions adopted by public authorities in
                          harmony with national socio-economic and environmental policies in a given
                          country to guide future decisions in relation to the management, use and
                          conservation of forest and tree resources for the benefit of society.
 Forest policy            A document that describes the objectives, priorities and means for implementation
 statement                of the forest policy.
 National forest          A generic expression that refers to a wide range of approaches towards forest policy
 programme (nfp)          formulation, planning and implementation at national and sub-national levels. The
                          national forest programme provides a framework and guidance for country-driven
                          forest sector development with participation of all stakeholders and in consistence
                          with policies of other sectors and international policies.
 Law (Act or Code)        A set of rules enacted by the legislative authority of a country regulating the access,
 on forest                management, conservation and use of forest resources.




14.2      Data for Table T14
 Indicate the existence of the following (2008)

                                                                     √   Yes
  Forest policy statement with national scope
                                                                         No
                                Year of endorsement                  1997
     If Yes above, provide:                                          Cook Islands Ministry of Agriculture
                                Reference to document
                                                                     National Forest Policy, July 1997.
                                                                     √ Yes
  National forest programme (nfp)
                                                                         No
                                Name of nfp in country               Ministry of Agriculture
                                Starting year                        1997
                                                                         In formulation
                                                                         In implementation
     If Yes above, provide:     Current status
                                                                         Under revision
                                                                     √ Process temporarily suspended
                                Reference to document or web         Cook Islands, Ministry of Agriculture
                                site                                 National Forest Policy July 1997.
                                                                         Yes, specific forest law exists
                                                                         Yes, but rules on forests are incorpo-
  Law (Act or Code) on forest with national scope                    √
                                                                         rated in other (broader) legislation
                                                                         No, forest issues are not regulated by
                                                                         national legislation
                                Year of enactment
     If Yes above, provide:     Year of latest amendment

                                Reference to document




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FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands




 In case the responsibility for forest policy- and/or forest law-making is decentralized, please indicate
 the existence of the following and explain in the comments below the table how the responsibility for
 forest policy- and law-making is organized in your country.

                                                                                 √    Yes
  Sub-national forest policy statements
                                                                                      No
     If Yes above, indicate the number of regions/states/provinces with forest
                                                                                 15
     policy statements
                                                                                 √    Yes
  Sub-national Laws (Acts or Codes) on forest
                                                                                      No
     If Yes above, indicate the number of regions/states/provinces with Laws
                                                                                 15
     on forests




14.3     Comments to Table T14

 Variable / category           Comments related to data, definitions, etc.
 Forest policy statement
 with national scope


 National forest programme
 (nfp)


 Law (Act or Code) on
 forest with national scope


 Sub-national forest policy
 statements


 Sub-national Laws (Acts or
 Codes) on forest



 Other general comments to the table
 The Ministry of Agriculture, Project division only coordinates and advice the forestry programmes for the
 Cook Islands. There is no more forestry programmes in place for forestry in the Cook Islands since 1996.
 Maybe




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FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands




15       Table T15 – Institutional framework


15.1      FRA 2010 Categories and definitions

 Term                            Definition
 Minister responsible for        Minister holding the main responsibility for forest issues and the formulation of
 forest policy-making            the forest policy.
 Head of Forestry                The Head of Forestry is the Government Officer responsible for implementing
                                 the mandate of the public administration related to forests.
 Level of subordination          Number of administrative levels between the Head of Forestry and the Minister.
 University degree               Qualification provided by University after a minimum of 3 years of post
                                 secondary education.


15.2      Data for Table T15

Table 15a – Institutions

 FRA 2010 Category                                        2008
 Minister responsible for forest policy formulation :     Mrs Ngamau (Aunty Mau) Munokoa
 please provide full title                                Minister of Agriculture


 Level of subordination of Head of Forestry within              1st level subordination to Minister
 the Ministry
                                                                2nd level subordination to Minister
                                                                3rd level subordination to Minister
                                                          √ 4th or lower level subordination to Minister
 Other public forest agencies at national level           Ministry National Environment Services (NES)



 Institution(s) responsible for forest law enforcement    Ministry of Agriculture and NES




Table 15b – Human resources

                                                Human resources within public forest institutions
 FRA 2010 Category                             2000                 2005                      2008
                                         Number %Female Number %Female Number %Female
 Total staff

   ...of which with university
   degree or equivalent

Notes:
1. Includes human resources within public forest institutions at sub-national level
2. Excludes people employed in State-owned enterprises, education and research, as well as temporary / seasonal
    workers.



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FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands




15.3     Comments to Table T15

 Variable / category           Comments related to data, definitions, etc.             Comments on the
                                                                                       reported trend
 Minister responsible for
 forest policy formulation
 Level of subordination of
 Head of Forestry within the
 Ministry
 Other public forest
 agencies at national level
 Institution(s) responsible
 for forest law enforcement
 Human resources within
 public forest institutions

 Other general comments to the table
 The Ministry of Agriculture only coordinates all forestry programmes for the Cook Islands.




                                                       36
FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands




16      Table T16 – Education and research


16.1     FRA 2010 Categories and definitions
 Term                          Definition
 Forest-related education      Post-secondary education programme with focus on forests and related subjects.
 Doctor’s degree (PhD)         University (or equivalent) education with a total duration of about 8 years.
 Master’s degree (MSc) or      University (or equivalent) education with a total duration of about five years.
 equivalent
 Bachelor’s degree (BSc)       University (or equivalent) education with a duration of about three years.
 or equivalent
 Technician certificate or     Qualification issued from a technical education institution consisting of 1 to 3
 diploma                       years post secondary education.
 Publicly funded forest        Research centers primarily implementing research programmes on forest
 research centers              matters. Funding is mainly public or channelled through public institutions.


16.2 National data
Since the Cook Islands 1996 reform all forestry programmes were abolished and the Ministry of
Agriculture since then only accommodate or coordinate forestry programmes. All planted
plantations of Pinus sp and Santalum sp were taken over by the land owners. We have qualified
foresters in the Cook Islands but only on advisory purposes. e.g. Otheniel Tangianau, Maara
Peraua, Teuanuku Koroa etc.

16.3     Data for Table T16
                                       Graduation 1) of students in forest-related education
 FRA 2010 Category                  2000                      2005                         2008
                             Number    %Female       Number        %Female        Number      %Female
 Master’s degree (MSc)
 or equivalent                  0             0              0              0             0              0
 Bachelor’s degree
 (BSc) or equivalent            0             0              0              0             0              0
 Forest technician
 certificate / diploma          0          0             0            0             0             0
                                Professionals working in publicly funded forest research centres 2)
 FRA 2010 Category                  2000                      2005                        2008
                             Number    %Female      Number         %Female       Number      %Female
 Doctor’s degree (PhD)
                                0             0              0              0             0              0
 Master’s degree (MSc)
 or equivalent                  0             0              0              0             0              0
 Bachelor’s degree
 (BSc) or equivalent            0             0              0              0             0              0

Notes:
1. Graduation refers to the number of students that have successfully completed a Bachelor’s or higher degree or
    achieved a certificate or diploma as forest technician.
2. Covers degrees in all sciences, not only forestry.
3. We have two (2) graduates in Bachelor Degree (BSc) from PNG but none of them are working on forestry
    programmes, but being employed elsewhere in other government ministries. e.g. Otheniel Tangianau (BSc) as
    the Secretary for Office of the Minister for Island Administration (OMIA), Maara Peraua (BSc) as a fulltime
    vegetable grower and Teuanuku Koroa as a Public Servant on the island of Mangaia and others also working
    for the government.




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FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands




16.4     Comments to Table T16

 Variable / category          Comments related to data,                 Comments on the reported trend
                              definitions, etc.
 Graduation of students in
 forest-related education


 Professionals working in
 public forest research
 centres


 Other general comments to the table
 Since the Cook Islands 1996 reform all forestry programmes were abolished and the Ministry of Agriculture
 since then only accommodate or coordinate forestry programmes. All planted plantations of Pinus sp and
 Santalum sp were taken over by the land owners. We have qualified foresters in the Cook Islands but only on
 advisory purposes. e.g. Otheniel Tangianau, Maara Peraua, Teuanuku Koroa etc.




                                                       38
FRA 2010 – Country Report, Cook Islands




17      Table T17 – Public revenue collection and expenditure

No information is available for this reporting table.




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