Biomes

Document Sample
Biomes Powered By Docstoc
					Biomes
The major climate regions of the world are called
biomes.
 Each Biome is inhabited by those plants and animals
 that are adapted to that climate.
The type of biome is determined by Climate
Climate
 Climate – weather conditions in an area
 (temperature, precipitation, humidity, and wind)
 over a long period of time

 Climate is affected by
   Distances from the equator
   Wind patterns
   Ocean circulation patterns
   Local geography
Water has the ability to hold heat longer than soil – areas
near the ocean or large bodies of water have milder
climates due to the warm breeze from off the water.

This also has an affect in the summer – water takes
longer to warm up giving a cool breeze in the summer
time.
Climates affect on Biome
 Two main factors of climate that affect type of
 biome in an area are
   amount of rainfall
   temperature.
Types of Biomes
 There are nine main Biomes
  Rainforest   Temperate forest   Taiga
  Grasslands
  Chaparral
  Desert
  Tundra
  Freshwater Ecosystems
  Marine Ecosystems
30º N




Equator




30º S




          Tropical forest   Polar and high-mountain ice   Temperate deciduous forest

          Savanna           Chaparral                     Coniferous forest
          Desert            Temperate grassland           Tundra (arctic and alpine)


              Major Terrestrial Biomes
Forest Biomes: Rainforest
 Rainforest
  Located near the equator
  Always humid and warm
  Receives about 100 inches (250 cm) rain each
  year.
  Have strong sunlight all year maintaining a climate
  of little variation (no season change)
Forest Biomes: Rainforest
         Plant Adaptations
Plants: grow in layers – trees more than 100ft tall from
a thick canopy that absorbs 95% of the sunlight.
  Little light reaches the floor of the forest – any small
  plants must be adapted to live in the shade in order to
  grow. Plants develop large flat leaves to catch as much
  sun as possible
  Vine plants use the trunks of tall trees as support to
  reach sunlight above the canopy
 Forest Biomes: Rainforest
         Animal Adaptations
Due to the great diversity of plants – the rainforest
contains the largest diversity of animals then anywhere
else on Earth
Most rainforest animal are specialist
  Organism is adapted to use (feed on, live in) a specific
  resource to help avoid competition
Animal has evolved many ways to avoid being eaten as
well as ways of capturing their prey
 Forest Biomes:
 Temperate Deciduous Forest
Are found in North and South America, Australia, New
Zealand, Europe and Asia.
Experience extreme changes in temperature from summer
to winter = Season change
Summer temperature soar to over 95o F and drop below
freezing during the winter
Receive 30-100 inches of rain a year
Temperate Deciduous Forest:
     Plant Adaptation
 "Deciduous" means to fall off, or shed, seasonally. The
 name implies, deciduous trees shed their leaves
 each fall.
 Seeds of many plants become dormant in the ground
 – insulated by the leaf and snow covering.
 In summer, as temperature rises and sunlight
 increases – leaves return to trees and seeds re-
 sprout.
Temperate Deciduous Forest:
     Animal Adaptation
 Animals are adapted to exploit the forest plants for food
 and shelter
   Squirrels, bears, deer and birds all eat nuts, berries and
   leave
 Most birds migrate because they can not survive in the
 little food available in the winter
 Other animals who do not migrate use various strategies
 for survival in the winter
   Hibernate, become inactive, insects – low metabolic rate
Forest Biomes: Taiga
     (Boreal Forest)
 This cold biome stretches across the northern
 portions of North America, Europe, and Asia and is
 the largest terrestrial biome on Earth.
 Winters are long and cold (6-10 months dropping
 below -40F), and the summers are short and cool.
 Precipitation is moderate throughout the year with
 snow occurring during the winter months(>30in per
 year).
Taiga: Plant Adaptations
The most common type of tree found in the taiga is the
conifer--trees that have cones.
  Conifers have adapted narrow needle-like “leaves” that limits
  water loss through transpiration. Conifers do not lose their
  leaves - saves the energy it would take to grow new leaves in
  the spring
  The pointy shape of conifers also helps to shed snow – weight
  could break tress
Three of the common conifers are evergreens; spruce,
hemlock, fir, and pine
Taiga: Animal Adaptations
 In summer, many lakes and swamps attract birds
 that feed on insects and fish.
  Many birds migrate during winter
 Moose and arctic hair feed on whatever
 vegetation they can find
  Arctic hair have developed the ability to change fur
  color from winter to summer to avoid predators
THE DESERT
Deserts can be found in Australia, China, Northern
Africa and the southwestern United States.
The annual precipitation in a desert varies from half
an inch to as much as 12 inches. (the driest places on
Earth)
High daytime temperatures and low nighttime
temperatures make survival in the desert very
difficult.
Desert: Plant
Adaptations
 Plants have developed extensive horizontal root systems. These
 horizontal root systems lie just below the surface and extend far
 beyond the plant canopy.
 Many plants have adapted the ability to store water in their
 roots, stems, leaves, or fruit.
 Small leaves or spines limit the amount of surface area exposed
 to the drying heat. Glossy leaves reflect the Sun's radiant heat
 reducing leaf temperatures and evaporation rates.
 Short grasses, sagebrush, creosote bushes, and cacti are just a
 few of the plants that can be found in the desert.
Desert : Animal Adaptations
Animals try to stay in the shadow of plants or rocks, avoiding the
direct rays of the Sun.
Animals remain inactive during the hot daylight hours. They hunt
at night when temperatures are cool and when there is less risk
of losing precious body water
Since fat traps body heat, a unique adaptation of some desert
animals is the storage of fat in humps or tails, rather than
throughout the entire body that would raise the body temperature
too high.
Deserts are home to many reptiles, insects, birds, and small
mammals.
Temperate Grassland
Grasslands are found in South Africa, Argentina,
Russia, Ukraine, and the plains and prairies of central
North America.
Temperate grasslands have hot summers and cold
winters. Rainfall is moderate but unpredictable.
Annual rainfall averages 20-35 inches . The
temperature range is very large from over 100°F in
summer to -40° F in winter.
Grassland: Plant Adaptations

Temperate grasslands are characterized as having
grasses as the dominant vegetation. Trees and large shrubs
are absent.
The soil is deep and dark, with fertile upper layers. It is
nutrient-rich from the growth and decay of deep, many-
branched grass roots. The rotted roots hold the soil
together and provide a food source for living plants.
The various species of grasses include purple needlegrass,
blue grama, buffalo grass – Flowers goldenrods, sunflowers,
clovers
Grassland: Animal Adaptations

 Grazing animals have large, flat back teeth for
 chewing the course prairie grasses. (bison,
 antelope)
 Wolves and other large mammals develop thick
 fur to survive the severe winter – shed fur in
 summer
 Other mammals such as prairie dogs & badgers
 burrow underground for protection.
Chaparral
 Similar to deserts with more vegetation.
 Occurs in the mid-latitudes – primarily in
 coastal areas.
 Hot, dry summers; mild, wet winters and
 slight variations in seasonal temperatures
 Chaparral: Plant Adaptations

Low-lying evergreen shrubs and small trees (olive trees,
sage, bay plants)

Small, leathery leaves help resist water loss. These
leaves also contain oils that promote burning. Natural
fires help kill large plants that would block sunlight to
smaller vegetation

Plants can re-grow from small bits of surviving tissue.
Chaparral: Animal Adaptations

 Camouflage is the most common adaptation.
  Quail and lizards are brown in color so they can
  move without being seen
 Animals are also adapted to seasonal
 differences in food
  Food available changes with season
Tundra
 This biome in found in the Arctic Circle

 Summers are very short – only the top few
 inches of soil thaw

 Permafrost – permanently frozen soil

 Tundra is dotted with many bogs and swamps

 Large breading ground for insects (mosquitoes)
Tundra: Plant Adaptations
Only plants with shallow root systems grow in the
Arctic tundra. The active layer of soil is free from ice
for only 50 to 90 days.
Plants have adapted the ability to grow under a layer
of snow, to carry out photosynthesis in extremely cold
temperatures, and for flowering plants, to produce
flowers quickly once summer begins.
  Some plants include mosses, lichens, low-growing
  shrubs, and grasses--but no trees.
Tundra: Animal Adaptations
Migration and hibernation are adaptations of some of
its animals.
The Musk Ox has two layers of fur--one short and the
other long to trap warm air against its body. The layer
of long fur protects the Musk Ox from the wind and
water.
The hooves of the Musk Ox are large and allows the
Musk Ox to break the ice and drink the water
underneath.
 Freshwater Ecosystems
Freshwater is about 3% of all surface water
  Sluggish water : Lakes and ponds
  Moving water: Rivers and Streams
  Area where land & water come together: wetlands
Freshwater contains relatively little dissolved salt
Plants and animals that live in freshwater depends on
depth of water, how fast water flows, and the amount of
mineral nutrients, sunlight and oxygen.
Lakes and Ponds
Littoral Zone – nutrient-rich, shallow area near the shore of
lakes and ponds

  Aquatic life is diverse and abundant
Further from shore in areas where there is enough sunlight
to perform photosynthesis - phytoplankton and zooplankton
can survive (amount of sunlight = the type of organisms that
live there)

Benthic Zone – bottom of a body of water where sunlight
does not reach (decomposers, insect larvae, and claims)
 Lakes and Ponds:
 Plant and Animal Adaptations
Along the shore – cattails and reed plants are rooted in the
bottom mud, leaves and stems emerge above the water to
reach the sun
Deeper water – contain floating plants such as pond lilies
Whiskers on catfish help them to sense food on the dark
bottom
Fish are adapted to different temperature ranges:
  Trout – cold water, bass – warmer water
 Rivers and Streams
Many rivers originate from snowmelt in mountains
At the head of a river – water is very cold & highly
oxygenated, as it flows down the mountain the river
broadens becoming warmer and less oxygenated
Characteristics of the river may change with land and
climate it runs through.
 Runoff may wash nutrients and sediment from surrounding
 land into a river – affecting the growth and health of river
 organisms
 Rivers and Streams:
 Plant and Animal Adaptations
Mosses anchor themselves to rocks using rootlike
structures called rhizoids

Water plants set roots into mud, stay submerged
reaching near surface to obtain sunlight

Mayfly nymphs use hooks on their legs to attach to any
surface

Trout and minnows have streamline bodies that are less
resistant to the strong current
 Wetlands
Area of land that are covered with water for at least part of
the year.
Two main types of wetlands: marshes and swamps
Main game fish use these areas as feeding and spawning
ground
Many different species (endangered and threatened) make
there homes in the wetland
Help control flooding by absorbing extra water when rivers
overflow
 Marshes
Shallow water that grows plants such as reeds, rushes,
and cattails (root in sediment – leaves are above water)

Waterfowl (ducks) have beaks adapted for eating marsh
vegetation. Herons have spearlike beaks that are used to
grasp small fish and frogs.

There are main marshes types that are characterized by
salt contain in water – brackish march has much less salt
then tidal marshes
 Swamps
Occur on flat, poorly drained land – often near streams

Contain shrubs or water-tolerant trees (woody plants)

Mangrove swamps occur in warm climates near the
ocean – their water is salty

Ideal habitat for amphibians (frogs & salamanders)

Attract many nesting birds such as wood ducks
Marine Ecosystems
 The type of animals and plants in a Land
 ecosystems depend on amount of rain and
 temperature

 Ocean ecosystems depend on temperature,
 amount of sunlight, and nutrients available

 There are four main types of Marine Ecosystems
  Estuaries, Coral reefs, Oceans, Polar ecosystems
Estuaries
 Estuary – an ecosystem in which fresh water
 from river mixes with salt water from the ocean

 Waters mix in such a way that the estuary
 becomes a nutrient trap, where mineral-rich mud
 collects
  In shallow areas, march grass grows
Estuaries:
 Plant and Animal Adaptations
Estuaries are the most productive ecosystem
  Contains nutrients washed from land down river
  Water is shallow giving plants plenty of sunlight to perform
  photosynthesis
Large plant and phytoplankton/zooplankton provides
food for larger animals such as fish
Organisms are able to tolerate variations in salinity (salt)
- they are constantly changing as the water mixes
  Coral Reefs
Limestone islands in the sea that are built by coral animals
called polyps
  Thousands of plants and animals live in the cracks of coral
  reefs making the reef the most diverse ecosystem on Earth
Corals can only live in warm salt water where there is
enough light for photosynthesis
  Reefs are found in shallow, tropical seas
Only the outer layer of a reef contains living corals
 Corals Reef:
 Animal Adaptations
Coral polyps are predators that never chases its prey
  Polyps use stringing tentacles to capture small animals
  that swim or float to close
The coral shape provides habitats for a magnificent
variety of tropical fish, snails, clams, and sponges

Parrotfish have a beak that it uses to scrape algae and
corals off reefs to eat
 The Oceans
Oceans covers ¾ of the Earth’s surface.
Much of the ocean’s life is concentrated in shallow waters
where plants can receive enough light of photosynthesis
(estuaries)
The open ocean sunlight penetrates only the surface layer of
the water (only place plants can grow) – lest productive of all
ecosystems
Depths of the ocean receive no sunlight – food consists of
dead organisms that fall from the surface
Ocean:
Plant Adaptations
 Absent of all flowering plants

 Phytoplankton is the only plant available for
 herbivores
   Have buoyancy device that prevents them from
   sinking into the deep ocean
 When they die phytoplankton sink to bottom of
 the ocean
 Ocean:
 Animal Adaptations
Ocean animals have sleek, tapered shapes for moving through
dense water
Fish that swim near the surface have silvery color as a protective
camouflage
Many fish have buoyancy devices that permit them to stay at one
level in the water
In the depths of the ocean where there is no light – fish use light to
communicate – light cause by luminous bacteria incorporated into
their body
  Sound is also used by whale and dolphins for communication
Polar Ecosystems

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:2
posted:4/5/2013
language:Unknown
pages:50