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A rthropod - Borne Disease In Iran - Dr. Vatandoost by wulinqing

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									  A th
  Arthropod-borne disease in
          d
  Arthropod-b     di      i
             Iran

         H.Vatandoost & Team
     Professor of Medical Entomology & Vector Control
School of Public Health & National Institute of Health Research
            Tehran University of Medical Sciences



       E-mail:hvatandoost1@yahoo.com
Mosquitoes
      p
• Anopheles
• Aedes
• Culex
Anopheles mosquitoes
        in Iran
 (Diptera: Culicidae)
  Anopheles considering sibling, genotype and type forms

                         33




Malaria vectors considering sibling, genotype and type forms

                          17
An.stephensi
Malaria Transmission Area I.R.Iran
Influence of cross border population
         movement to Iran
              Malaria situation in the past




In the past, malaria was highly endemic in most parts of Iran. In 1924, it 
In the past malaria was highly endemic in most parts of Iran In 1924 it
was estimated that out of a population of 13 million, 4‐5 million 
people had contracted malaria. Organized malaria control started 
                                          ,          gy
before the Second World War and in 1957, the strategy of malaria 
eradication was endorsed by the Government.
                                                                              11
                                        Trend of - malaria incidence in Iran 1990-2010
                             00




                                   2
                   idence/ 100




                                  1.5
        arasite Inci




                                   1

                                  0.5
Annual Pa




                                   0



                                                            year
P.vivax      P.falciparum




P malariae
P.malariae     P.ovale
               P ovale
Plasmodium knowlesi
Current stratification based on malaria
                 it ti
                situation
  Reported falciparum cases by district in Iran in2010
Falciparum reported foci2009
  Reported falciparum cases by district in Iran,2009 




               Qom




                                                         Autochthonous
                                                         Autochthonous 
                                                         falciparum
                                                         Imported falciparum
                                                         Other Districts
    Reported vivax cases by district in Iran,2009 
Vivax reported foci in 2010




                                                     Autochthonous vivax
                                                     Imported vivax
                                                     Other Districts
   Malaria cases in I. R. Iran

                               Sistan
Others
                             Baluchestan
 30%
                                42%




 Kerman               Hormozgan
  10%                   18%
International Diploma Course on Malaria Program
            Planning Management
            Pl i & M              t
Course organizers
Egypt          Jordan       Somalia            Djibouti
                                               Djib ti      Zimbabwe     Namibia



Sudan           Zambia     South Africa        Pakistan
                                                              Nigeria



Kenya           Oman       Gambia         Uganda                            Iran



                                                          Sierra Leon

Syria         Botswana          Russia                                   Iraq


                                                   Yemen

Afghanistan        Bangladesh         Turkey                       Saudi Arabia
                    0
                        10
                             20
                                  30
                                       40
                                            50
                                                 60
                                                      70
                                                           80
                                                                90
                                                                     100
Afgh
    anis
            t an
       Suda
               n
      Y em
             en
      Jord
Saud         an
     i Ara
            bi a
        Om a
               n
    Paki
          stan
    Som
           alia
      Z am
            bia
  Zimb
         ab w
               e
      Turk
             ey
    Nam
Sout       ibia
     h Af
           rica
        Egyp
 Bot s          t
       ow a
             na
          Ir aq
         Syria
          Ir an
       Keny
               a
      Russ
              ia
      Nige
Bang         ria
      lade
 Sierr       sh
       a Le
             on
     Ugan
             da
     Gam
            bi a
       Djibu
               ti
                                                                           The number of participants from 26 countries in the 14 courses (1996-2011)
Participants
      aegypti,
Aedes aegypti, Ae.albopictus
the Y ll  f        dD
th Yellow fever and Dengue
      fever mosquito
                q
Dengue Hemorrhagic
Fever (DHF)
Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF)
Culex quinquefasciatus
 Mosquito Borne Arboviruses

• West Nile
• Sindbis
       V ll fever
• Rift Valley f
Shortcut to P1000215.JPG.lnk
Indoor residual spraying of houses and animal shelters




                                 Deltamethrin 25 mg/m2
Larviciding (OP)
Bacillus thuringienis
Local production of Bacillus thuringiensis
Larvivorus fishes
ULV and fogging
Impregnated bed nets (PY)
Sand fly female
VL   CL
  Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

(ZCL)
(ACL)
Reservoir host
P.papatasi
Dog
                               No. and Incidence rate of Cutaneous
                                Leishmaniasis In Iran ,(1978-2009)
                                                       (         )
                         INC/100,000
60                                                                                                                                                                                                         30000


50                                                                                                                                                                                                         25000


40                                                                                                                                                                                                         20000


30                                                                                                                                                                                                         15000


20                                                                                                                                                                                                         10000


10                                                                                                                                                                                                         5000


 0      1356 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 1370 1371 1372 1373 1374 1375 1376 1377 1378 1379 1380 1381 1382 1383 1384 1385 1386 1387 1388
                                                                                                                                                                                                           0
 INC.    29   15     9    11    23    36    36    48   32    26    42    35    28    33   25.3   20.6 23.25 34.5 27.42 35.74 39.23 30.18 30.31 20.2 22.29 20.8 31.99 40.21 31.57   35   37    37   32.1
 CASE 12090 6199 3819 4827 10217 16123 15635 21863 15235 12578 21224 18954 15757 19198 14698 11145 13873 20718 16821 22030 23842 18560 18863 12727 14505 13729 21522 27517 21419 24517 26493 26824 23626
Incidence rate of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis In Iran
                      ,2009
Visceral
• Reservoir: animals
          Ph.
• Vector: Ph kandelakaii
• Parasite: L.infantum
Vl in children
No. and incidence rate of Kala Azar In Iran ,(1998-
                      2009)

       INC/100,000
 0.6                                                        400
 0.5                                                        350
                                                            300
 0.4                                                        250
 0.3                                                        200
 0.2                                                        150
                                                            100
 0.1                                                        50
   0                                                        0
       137713781379138013811382138313841385138613871388
INC. 0.43 0.45 0.55 0.4 0.3 0.32 0.28 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1
CASE 264 283 346 270 210 218 193 133 99 147 128 79
Frequency of Kala Azar In Iran ,2009
International Course on management and control of Leishmaniasis
International Course on management and control of Leishmaniasis
              Sandfly fever
• Bunyaviridae
• Manifestations : severe fever, headache and
  photophobia
  Ph.       t i Sicilian i     Karimabad,
• Ph papatasi : Si ili virus, K i b d
  vesicular stomatitis serogroup
• Transovarial transmission
• Infection to virus also was detected in
             y p
  Rhombomys opimus .
Sand fly fever map
Flea
The septicemic plague
The Black Plague
    1348-1350)
   (1348-1350)
Effect on European Civilization
           1347-
           1347-52
        25 million dead
                  Tularemia

•   Agent:
•   (Francisella) Pasteurella tulerensis)
•   Vectors:
•   Different fleas
A tularemia skin ulcer
                                  plate.
F. tularensis colonies on an agar plate.
Ticks
CCHF
CCHF LIFE CYCLE
VECTORS
H.dromaderii
Hy.anatolicum
Hy.detritum
Hy.marginatum
Rhipicephalus bursa
Argas percisus
Ornithodoros lahorensis
                Situation of CCHF in IRAN 1379-1387


                                                                                                     270
300                                                probable cases
                            241
                                                   confirmed cases
250                                                dead case

                185
                                                                                          177
200

                                        133
150                                                                                                        117
                                  109                                          115
                                                   95
100
                      69                                         74
      60                                      58                                                70
                                                                                     51
 50
           20
                                              12        25            20                                    19
                       11          14                                                 3          7
            4                                                7             6
 0
         (tick-
Q fever? (tick-borne bacteria)
      Coxiella burnetii
      C i ll b       tii


     •Q fever?
Lice
Louse borne typhus and 2nd world war
Shampoo and lotion
Bedbug
Cockroaches
Cockroach
    P.americana   ♂
♀
leprosy
Life cycle of Moniliformis moniliformis
Mite
              S.
Morphology of S. scabeii
Black flies (River blindness)
Black fly breeding places
River blindness
Ocular lesions in
an onchocerciasis
victim blinded
River blindness
        y
Black fly bite
Scorpion
45000-
45000-50000 scorpion sting
         in I        ll
   cases i Iran annually

  32 species of scorpion
Hemiscorpius lepturus
Scorpio maurus
Androctonus crassicauda
Buthotus saulcei
Odonthobuthos doriae
Scorpion sting
Spider bite (latrodectism)
Spider bite
            Fire ants
Fire ants
housefly
Blowfly
Myiasis
Myiasis
Maggot therapy
Forensic Entomology
       Entomotoxicology

is the analysis of toxins in arthropods mainly
     flies and beetles that feed on carrion
Oxazepam
Malathion
Morphine
Heroin
Cocaine
Rodents
Leptospirosis, advanced cases
          (Tabanidae)
Horse fly (Tabanidae)
Termite
Staphylinidae (rove beetle)
Meloidae (blister beetle)
Cantharidin the blister
       agent t
wasps
Honey bee
caterpillar
centipede
millipede
                                                  Temperature trend in Eastern
                                                    Mediterranean R i
                                                    M di           Region
                                       1.5




                                         1
T e m p e ra tu re A n o m a ly (C )




                                       0.5




                                         0




                                       -0.5




                                        -1

                                                                                                                        Trend = 0.54C/100yr
                                        15
                                       -1.5
                                           1880   1890   1900   1910   1920   1930   1940          1950   1960   1970      1980   1990    2000   2010
                                                                                            Year
                                             Precipitation trend in Eastern
                                                Mediterranean R i
                                                M di            Region
                                410



                                390



                                370
Annual Mea Precipitation (mm)




                                350



                                330
         an




                                310



                                290



                                270



                                250
                                      1900    1910   1920   1930   1940   1950          1960   1970   1980   1990   2000   2010
                                                                                 Year
  Average precipitation between 1976-2005     Average precipitation between 2010-2039
                                                        By LARS modeling




           p
These maps show that we are shortage p g position in water resources and in the
future by climate change affects other provinces suffering from not enough rain for
water resources and also agriculture.
                                           Average temperature between 2010-2039
 Average temperature between 1976-2005               By          d li
                                                     B LARS modeling




These maps show that some of provinces in the future will have arise in average
annual temperature more thank now.
                                              Average days without rain between 2010-2039
Average days without rain between 1976-2005               By LARS modeling




These maps show that we have dry in many provinces and in the future we have
increase number of days that won’t have any rain , it will affect sanitation and
       th h lth i d       i      i                d to          ti th       ll li t
many other health indexes in provinces , so it need t precaution these all climate
change impacts of our country.
Using Remote Sensing and GIS for
     malaria stratification and
           forecasting
           f         ti
Factors are involved in the disease burden
                                                      1- Temperature       •
                                                  2- Relative humidity     •
                                                             3- Rainfall
                                                             3 R i f ll    •
                                                         4- Main rivers    •
                                                   5-Secondary rivers      •
                                                              6-Altitude   •
                                                                7-Slope
                                                                      p    •
                                                 8-Population density      •
                                    9-Mean of Incidence/prevalence         •
                                             10-Land use/Land cover        •
                                             11-Development factors        •
                                                  12 Control activities
                                                  12-Control               •
                                                       13 Reservoir/s      •
                                                 14- Vectors (sibling)     •
                                                    15- Type of agent      •
                                 16- Insecticide resistance for vector     •
                                        17- Drug resistance in agent       •
                                                18- Health education       •
                                                19- People migration       •
                                                         20- Disasters     •
                                                21
                                                21- Political situation    •
                                                     22- Deforestation     •
                                                      23- Aforestation     •
                                      24- Dam and road construction        •
                                               25- Industrial activities   •
                                           26 N i hb i countries
                                           26- Neighboring          ti     •
                                                       27- Quarantine      •
                                                     28- Illegal refuge    •

								
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