Abstract Data Types _ADTs_

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					                Abstract Data Types

many slides taken from Mike Scott, UT Austin

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                          Data Structures
Data structure is a representation of data
 and the operations allowed on that data.

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                 Abstract Data Types
In Object Oriented Programming data and
 the operations that manipulate that data are
 grouped together in classes
Abstract Data Types (ADTs) or data
 structures or collections store data and allow
 various operations on the data to access and
 change it

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                          Why Abstract?
Specify the operations of the data structure
 and leave implementation details to later
   – in Java use an interface to specify operations
many, many different ADTs
   – picking the right one for the job is an important
     step in design
   – "Get your data structures correct first, and the
     rest of the program will write itself."
             -Davids Johnson
High level languages often provide built in
   – the C++ STL, the Java standard library
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                The Core Operations
Every Collection ADT should provide a way to:
   – add an item
   – remove an item
   – find, retrieve, or access an item
Many, many more possibilities
   –   is the collection empty
   –   make the collection empty
   –   give me a sub set of the collection
   –   and on and on and on…
Many different ways to implement these items each
 with associated costs and benefits

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                  Implementing ADTs
when implementing an ADT the operations
 and behaviors are already specified
   – think Java interface
Implementer’s first choice is what to use as
 the internal storage container for the
 concrete data type
   – the internal storage container is used to hold the
     items in the collection
   – often an implementation of an ADT
   – initially slim pickings for choice of storage
     containers: arrays anyone?
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                          The Grand Tour
Why study ADTs?
Why reimplement some of them?
How many of you will actually go out and
 create your own linked list ADT from
Remember, the primary goal is to learn how
 to learn how to use and create ADTs
   – also learn the behavior of some of the more
     conventional ADTs

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                          Bags and Sets
Simplest ADT is a Bag
   – items can be added, removed, accessed
   – no implied order to the items
   – duplicates allowed
   – same as a bag, except duplicate elements not
   – union, intersection, difference, subset

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Items have a position in this Collection
   – Random access or not?
Array Lists
   – internal storage container is native array
Linked Lists
public class Node
{ private Object data;
  private Node next;                 last
}          first

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Collection with access only to the last
 element inserted
                          Data4            Top
Last in first out
remove/pop               Data2

top                      Data1

make empty

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Collection with access only to the item that
 has been present the longest
Last in last out or first in first out
enqueue, dequeue, front
priority queues and deque
      Front                                Back

      Data1               Data2   Data3   Data4

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         Stacks and Queues in the
            Java Collection API
No queue in the Java collections ADT
Stack extends Vector (which is almost
 exactly like ArrayList)
   – Hmmm?
One reason the Java Collections Library is
 often said to be broken
no Queue in Collection API

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Similar to a linked list
public class TreeNode
{ private Object data;
  private TreeNode left;
  private TreeNode right;

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                Other Types of Trees
Binary Search Trees
   – sorted values
   – sorted via a different algorithm
AVL and Red-Black Trees
   – binary search trees that stay balanced
Splay Trees
B Trees

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Take a key, apply function
f(key) = hash value
store data or object based on hash value
Sorting O(N), access O(1) if a perfect hash
 function and enough memory for table
how deal with collisions?

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                          Other ADTs
   – a.k.a. Dictionary
   – Collection of items with a key and associated
   – similar to hash tables, and hash tables often
     used to implement Maps
   – Nodes with unlimited connections between other
Sparse vectors and sparse matrices
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            The Java Collection
boolean isEmpty()
int size()
boolean add(Object x)
boolean contains(Object x)
boolean remove(Object x)
void clear()
Object[] toArray()
Iterator iterator()
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                   Generic Containers
ADTs or Collection classes should be
   – only write them once, hold lots or all types of
   – Java achieves genericity through inheritance and
ADTs have an internal storage container
   – What is storing the stuff,
   – implementation vs. abstraction
   – in Java, usually holds Objects. Why?
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  java.util   Example - ArrayList
  Class ArrayList
  All Implemented Interfaces:
        Cloneable, Collection, List, Serializable

        void add(int index, Object element)
                       Inserts the specified element at the specified position in this list.
   boolean add(Object o)
                       Appends the specified element to the end of this list.
   void clear()
                   Removes all of the elements from this list.
   boolean contains(Object elem)
                Returns true if this list       contains the specified element.
         int indexOf(Object elem)
                      Searches for the first occurence of the given argument, testing for
                equality using the equals method.
   boolean isEmpty()
                       Tests if this list has no elements.
  Object set(int index, Object element)
                    Replaces the element at the specified position in this list with the
              specified element.
    int size()
CS 307 Fundamentals of
             Returns the number of elements in this list.
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