Development in Infancy by keara

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									Development in Infancy

0-1month physical development
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Reflexes-moro, rooting, grasping, stepping Swallowing, sucking, coughing, yawning, blinking, and elimination Maintains fetal position when sleeping Holds hands in fist Eyes do not always work together and may appear crossed at times Attempts to track objects

0-1 month Speech and Language
Crying and fussing  Reacting to loud noises  Shows preference for certain sounds (voices)
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0-1 month Social-emotional
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Short periods of alertness Sleeps 17 to 19 hours a day Likes to be held close and cuddled when awake Individuality Establishes an emotional bond with caregivers Infant maybe tense with individual not comfortable with infants

0-1 more information
May enjoy bath  Express displeasure when clothes are pulled over head  Enjoys being swaddled
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Enjoys face to face position

What to do with 0-1month old baby?
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Read baby’s cues Make eye contact when baby is in alert state Talk and sing to baby in normal voice when feeding changing, bathing Recognize and show delight in baby’s responsiveness. Show baby simple pictures-faces, stuffed animal and have them track them

1-4 month old physical
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Stepping reflexes disappears Rooting and sucking reflexes are well developed Drooling continues Grasp reflex gradually disappears Hold hand in open or semi-open position Raises head and upper body on arms when in prone position Turns head side to side when in a supine (face up) position Upper body usually move active

1-4 months cognitive
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Continues to gaze in direction of object after it disappears Exhibits some sense of color, shape (bottle) Does not search for object out of sight Watches hands intently Reaches for objects Bats at objects in front of baby Can distinguish parents’ faces Begins to mouth objects

1-4 months language
Infant will reacts to sounds  Babbles and coos  Coos single vowel sounds (ah, eh, uh)  Laughs out loud  Gurgles coos and squeals when awake
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1-4 months social
Smiles  Enjoys playing with hands and toes and fingers  Needs familiar routines  Reaching out for familiar objects  Stops crying when caregiver is near  Enjoys being held
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1-4 months other
Not ready to eat solid foods  Begins to sleep through the night  Likes being talked and sang to.
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What do I do with a 1-4 month old baby?
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Smile with baby  Imitate vocal sounds of baby  Sing songs  Read to baby play peek a boo  Gently encourage motor activity “bicycle”  Walk around with baby  Get unbreakable mirrors, soft toys , musical toys rattles

4-8 months physical
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Teeth begin to appear True eye color is establishing itself Blinking reflex Moro reflex disappears Parachute reflect appears toward end of this stage Pincer grasp is beginning Transfer objects from one hand to another Palmer grasp May hold own bottle

4-8months physical
May sit alone with or without support  May pull self to crawling position  Rolls over from front to back and back to front  May scoot backwards when placed on stomach  Enjoys being in standing position
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4-8 months cognitive
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Turns toward familiar sounds and voices Reaches for objects May wave Depth perception is evident Looks over side of crib if something is dropped (will drop things over side) Searches for toy that has been hidden (object permanence) Bangs and shakes objects Puts everything in mouth Attachment to caregiver

4-8 months language
May respond to own name  May express some vowel and constant sounds  Responds to variations in others voices (anger, playfulness and sadness)  Babbles  Reacts to different noises (vacuum cleaner, phone, dog)
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4-8 months social
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Watches people and activities Can tell the difference between strangers and familiar people Responses differently to facial expressions Enjoys being held Laughs out loud Becomes upset if toys is taken aware Seeks attention using body movements

4-8 months other
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Reaches for cup or spoon when feeding May accept small amount of strained solid foods Closes mouth firmly when not hungry or turns head Enjoys pulling of clothes, socks and plays with velcro or string Likes to kick, arch back, and bring feet to mouth Likes to be bounces and swayed Enjoys soft squeaky toys, rattles

What can I do with a 4-8 mouth old baby?
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Use baby’s name Provide toys-rattles, plastic keys, shakers, teethers, Remember fist rule Allow plenty of time for bathtime when possible Play “This Little Piggy” Play radio and taped music Read and talk to baby Name body parts, look in mirror, sing to baby

8-12 months physical
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Reaches with one had  Transfers object from one hand to another  Explores objects and environment  Uses pincer grasp  Beginning to pull to standing position  Beginning to stand alone (may be walking)  Crawls and creeps  Combat crawls Walks with adult support

8-12 months cognitive
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Watches people, objects in environment Follows simple instructions Reaches for toys out of reach but visible Puts everything in mouth Hits two blocks together Drops toys intentionally and repeatedly Shows some spatial relationships Shows awareness of everyday objectstoothbrush, turns pages in book

8-12 months language
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Says ma-ma and da-da Babbles and jabbers Shakes head for no Responds to name when called Babbling in sentences Waves bye bye Imitates sounds Enjoys music, rhymes and songs Hand adults objects

8-12 months social
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Definite fear of strangers Wants parents to be in sight Social Enjoys new experiences May exhibit some assertiveness Offers toys to others Attached to favorite toy or blanket Understands no May look and smile at person saying his/her name

What do I do with a 8-12 month old baby?
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Play games with music and song Provide safe floor space close to parent or caregiver Talk about activities Give baby simple instructions Accept new activity as game Be patient Give baby push-pull toys, balls , toys with wheels


								
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