EFFECT OF COARSE AGGREGATE CHARACTERISTICS ON STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF HIGH

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EFFECT OF COARSE AGGREGATE CHARACTERISTICS ON STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF HIGH Powered By Docstoc
					   International Journal of Civil Engineering OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND
   INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
   (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME
                             TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET)
ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online)
Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), pp. 89-95
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       EFFECT OF COARSE AGGREGATE CHARACTERISTICS ON
     STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE
           USING MINERAL AND CHEMICAL ADMIXTURES


                          P.J.Patel1, Mukesh A. Patel2, Dr. H.S. Patel3
               1
                  Research Scholar, Ganpat University, Kherava, Mehsana, Gujarat, India
               2
                  Research Scholar, Ganpat University, Kherava, Mehsana, Gujarat, India
     3
       Associate Professor, Department of Applied Mechanics, L.D.C.E., Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India



   ABSTRACT

          Aggregate shape and grading can influence concrete workability. The volumes of
   water and cementations materials are commonly increased to accommodate poorly shaped or
   poorly graded aggregates. The purpose of this paper is to show that by properly selecting
   aggregates and optimizing mixture proportions, the quantity of cementations materials
   provided for workability can be minimized while achieving adequate workability and
   hardened properties. In this research investigation of strength properties of high Performance
   concrete is done by using diverse characteristics of aggregate. This paper presents results
   obtained from laboratory testing of concrete incorporating varying aggregate characteristics.
   For the purpose of this work, two types of coarse aggregates were used. The fine aggregate is
   normal sand obtained from a locally available Preliminary laboratory investigation was
   conducted to ascertain the suitability of using the aggregates for construction work. Tests
   conducted include sieve analysis, bulk density, and specific gravity. IS mix design was
   adopted for this work and mix compositions were calculated by absolute volume method. For
   each type of coarse aggregate 25 numbers cubes (150x150x150mm) were cast to allow the
   compressive strength to be monitored at. 56 days. Test result show that concrete made from
   A type aggregate has higher compressive strength

   Keywords: Compressive strength, effect of Aggregate, Concrete, Alccofine.




                                                 89
 International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME

I.      INTRODUCTION

         Aggregate shape and grading can significantly influence concrete workability. Poorly
 shaped and poorly graded aggregates typically have a lower packing density than well shaped
 and well graded aggregates, resulting in more paste being required to fill the voids between
 aggregates. As the excess paste volume needed to fill the voids is reduced, the flowability of
 the paste must be increased to maintain a given workability level. Further, poorly shaped
 aggregates exhibit increased inter particle friction, resulting in reduced workability.
 Therefore, concrete mixtures with poorly shaped and poorly graded aggregates often have
 higher water and cementations materials requirements than those with well shaped and well
 graded aggregates to maintain the same workability. The proper selection of aggregates can
 minimize the increased water and cementations materials contents needed to ensure adequate
 workability.
         The compressive strength of concrete depends on the water to cement ratio, degree of
 compaction, ratio of cement to aggregate, bond between mortar and aggregate, and grading,
 shape, strength and size of the aggregate. Concrete can be visualized as a multi-phase
 composite material made up of three phases; namely the mortar, mortar/aggregate interface,
 and the coarse aggregate phase. The coarse aggregate in normal concrete are mainly from
 rock fragments characterised by high strength. Therefore, the aggregate interface is not a
 limiting factor governing the strength requirement. The onset of failure is manifested by
 crack growth in the concrete. For normal concrete the crack growth is mainly around the
 cement paste or at the aggregate/cement paste interfacial zone. The strength of concrete at the
 interfacial zone essentially depends on the integrity of the cement paste and the nature of the
 coarse aggregate.
         The effect of two different types of coarse aggregate coarse aggregate on the
 mechanical properties of high-performance concrete was investigated. The outcome of the
 study revealed that the strength, stiffness, and fracture energy of concrete for a given
 water/cement ratio depend on the type of aggregate The effects of content and particle size
 distribution of coarse aggregate on the compressive strength of concrete have been
 investigated (Meddah et. al., 2010). Compressive strength, stiffness, and fracture energy of
 concrete for a given water/cement ratio (W/C) depend on the type of aggregate, especially for
 high-strength concrete. It is suggested that high-strength concrete with lower brittleness can
 be made by selecting high-strength aggregate with low brittleness (Wu Ke Ru et. al., 2001).
 The type of coarse aggregate also influences the modulus of elasticity of concrete. Weaker
 aggregates tend to produce a more ductile concrete than stronger aggregates do (Beshr et. al.,
 2003).
         Three types of coarse aggregates were mixed in four different proportions for concrete
 production. Plasticizers and Super plasticizers were used in some mixes to reduce the water
 to cement ratio. The outcome of their work showed that the mixture with a ternary
 combination of granular fraction with a maximum size of 25mm, without admixtures have
 shown the highest compressive strength. At a lower water to cement ratio, the binary granular
 system produced the highest compressive strength. This paper reports the result of a research
 undertaken to investigate the effect of two different types of coarse aggregate on the
 compressive strength of normal concrete.




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  International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
  (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME

II.          MATERIALS

      II.I   Cement

         Ordinary Portland cement-53 grade ( Ambuja Cement) available in local market was
  used in investigation. The cement was tested according to IS 4031 : 1988. It confirmed to IS
  12269 : 1987. Its Properties is given in Table 1.

                            Table 1. Properties of OPC - 53 Grade Used
      SR.                     Properties                      Value             As per
      No.                                                                  IS: 12269-1976
       1     Specific gravity                                 3.10               3.15
       2     Normal consistency                               31%            30% - 35%
       3     Initial setting time                              36                >30
       4     Final setting time                               450                <600
       5     Fineness (%passing 90 IS sieve)                   3%               <10%
       6     Soundness (mm)                                    1.2               <10
       7     Compressive strength                 3 day        39                >27
                                                  7 day        40                >37
                                                  28 day       57                >53


  II.II      Coarse Aggregate

         Two types of coarse aggregates from two different sources were used. Its Sieve
  analysis is given in Figure 1. And Figure 2.and Its Properties is given in Table 2.




                           Figure 1. Sieve analysis for A type Coarse aggregate.



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 International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME




                        Figure 2. Sieve analysis for B type Coarse aggregate.

II.III   Fine Aggregate

        Natural sand as per IS: 383-1987 was used. Locally available River sand having bulk
 density 1860 kg/m3 was used The properties of fine aggregate are shown in Table 2.

                          Table 2. Physical properties of aggregates
  Aggregate type     Dry density     specific        Surface        Water          Loss on
                      (kg/m3)        gravity         Moisture     Absorption     abrasion (%)
                                                      (%)            (%)
  A Type Coarse.        1727           2.9              0           2.19              22.8
  B Type Coarse.        1605           2.85            0.3          3.15             30.40
      Sand           2.67 (F.M.)       2.6             0.5           0.8               --

II.IV    Alccofine

        ALCCOFINE 1203 is a specially processed product based on slag of high glass
 content with high reactivity obtained through the process of controlled granulation.
 ALCCOFINE 1203 use in project conforming to ASTM C989-99. Physical & Chemical
 Properties of Alccofine is given in Table 3.

                     Table 3. Physical & Chemical Properties of Alccofine

                        Specifi                         Particle Size Distribution
         Fineness                  Bulk Density
                           c
         (cm2/gm)                    (Kg/m3)
                        Gravity                     d10           d50           d90
          >12000          2.9        700-900    1.5 micron      5 micron      9 micron
                                     Chemical Properties:
           C aO           SO3          SiO2       AL2O3           Fe2O3        MgO
          61-64%        2-2.4 %      21-23 %     5-5.6 %        3.8-4.4 %    0.8-1.4 %

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   International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
   (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME

   II.V   Super plasticizer

          In this investigation super plasticizer- GLENIUM SKY 784 is based on second
   generation polycarboxylic ether polymers, developed using Nano technology. Chemical
   Admixture GLENIUM SKY 784 is conforming to IS:9103-1999. was used to improve the
   workability of concrete. The properties of super plasticizer are shown in Table 4.

                              Table 4. Properties of super plasticizer
                   Parameter                 Specification                Results
                                           (as per IS 9103)
                 Physical state           Light brown liquid         Light brown liquid
              Chemical name of             Polycarboxylate            Polycarboxylate
               active ingredient               polymers                  Polymers
            Relative density at 25 c           1.1±0.01                    1.105
                       ph                       Min 6                       6.51
            Chloride ion content (%)           Max 0.2                     0.0017
             Dry material content              34±5(%)                     34.14

III.      EXPERIMENT WORK

           Concrete cubes of 150 X 150 X 150 mm dimension were cast for compressive
   strength. They were tested for compressive strength after 56 days of water curing. For This,
   five specimens were tested and the mean value of these measurements is reported. Coarse
   aggregate contain 10 mm and 20 mm of 40% and 60% Respectively.

           Table 5: Mix proportions for different mixes (For one cubic meter of concrete)
                                                         Alccofine
                                                Fly-                    Coarse
                   Mix     W/B Cement                      (Kg)                  Sand Water
                                                Ash                    Aggregate
               designation ratio (Kg)                                            (Kg) (litres)
                                                (Kg)                     (Kg)
                   M1         0.28     406.71   111.42      39           1174       632   156
                   M2         0.30     379.6     104       36.4          1188       661   156
    Type A
    Coarse         M3         0.35     327.45   89.71      31.4          1208       721   157
   Aggregate       M4         0.40     286.52    78.5     27.47          1230       781   157
                   M5         0.50     279.59    76.6     26.81          1252       841   191.5
                   M1         0.28     406.71   111.42      39           1182       641   156
                   M2         0.30     379.6     104       36.4          1193       667   156
    Type B
    Coarse         M3         0.35     327.45   89.71      31.4          1203       736   157
   Aggregate       M4         0.40     286.52    78.5     27.47          1225       792   157
                   M5         0.50     279.59    76.6     26.81          1247       852   191.5


                                                93
  International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
  (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME

IV.      RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

         The results of compressive strength were presented in Table 6. The test was carried
                           1959
  out conforming to IS 516-1959 to obtain compressive strength of concrete at the age of 56
  days. The cubes were tested using Compression Testing Machine (CTM) of capacity
                               28.62
  2000KN. Strength is up to 28.62 N/mm2 and 62.50 N/mm2 at 56 days. The maximum
  compressive strength is observed In the Type A Coarse Aggregate. There is a significant
  improvement in the compressive strength of concrete because of the Physical properties of
  Type A Coarse Aggregate and Compatibility.

                                         Table 6: Compressive Strength (N/mm2) of Concrete Mixes
                                        W/B
                                                  Type A Coarse Aggregate                         Type B Coarse Aggregate
                                        ratio
                                        0.28                     62.50                                          55.28
                                        0.30                     54.68                                          50.33
                                        0.35                     49.70                                          46.30
                                        0.40                     44.56                                          42.26
                                        0.50                     32.58                                          28.62

                                                          Table 7: Slump Value and Slump Flow
                                                   Slump height in mm                                   Slump flow in diameter.
                                                  Type A         Type B                                 Type A          Type B
                W/B
                                                  Coarse         Coarse                                 Coarse          Coarse
                ratio
                                                 Aggregate     Aggregate                               Aggregate      Aggregate
                      0.28                            -             -                                     580            577
                      0.30                            -             -                                     610            600
                      0.35                            -             -                                     650            630
                      0.40                           90            85                                      -              -
                      0.50                          100            95                                      -              -


                                                         Type A Corse Aggregate             Type B Corse Aggregate
                                        70       62.5
           Compressive strength (MPa)




                                        60              55.28      54.68
                                                                           50.33         49.7
                                        50                                                      46.3        44.56
                                                                                                                    42.26
                                        40                                                                                  32.58
                                        30                                                                                          28.62

                                        20
                                        10
                                         0
                                                   0.5               0.4               0.35           0.3                    0.28
                                                                                   Water-Binder ratio

                                                                 Ag
                                                Fig.4: Effect of Aggregate on compressive strength

                                                                                    94
  International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
  (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME

V.       CONCLUSIONS

         The results of the research presented in this paper confirm that aggregates can play an
  important role in the cement content of concrete mixtures. Specifically, the following
  conclusions can be reached:
            a) Aggregate type has effect on the compressive strength of normal concrete.
            b) Highest compressive strength was achieved in Type A Coarse Aggregate
                compare to type B Coarse Aggregate.
         From the above investigation, it can be concluded that, Poor Graded And Light
  weight and Pours Aggregate give Poor compressive strength.

VI.      REFERENCES

      [1]. M. S. Shetty, “concrete technology”, S. Chand publication company ltd., new delhi,
           2008,
      [2]. Abdullahi. M, “effect of aggregate type on compressive strength of concrete”,
           international journal of civil and structural engineering volume 2, no 3, 2012.
      [3]. M r vyawahare,p o modani “improvement in workability and strength of concrete
           with flaky and elongated aggregates” 34th conference on our world in concrete &
           structures: 16 - 18 august 2009, singapore
      [4]. Michael de moya hahn, marc rached, david w. Fowler, eric p. Koehler “optimization
           of aggregates in concrete mixtures”
      [5]. M. Yaqub*, imran bukhari, “effect of size of coarse aggregate on compressive
           strength of high strength concerts” 31st conference on our world in concrete &
           structures: 16 - 17 august 2006,
      [6]. Ke-Ru Wu et. al. “Effect of coarse aggregate type on mechanical properties of high-
           performance concrete” Cement and Concrete Research, Volume 31, Issue 10, October
           2001, Pages 1421-1425
      [7]. Beshr et. al.” Effect of coarse aggregate quality on the mechanical properties of high
           strength concrete” Construction and Building Materials, Volume 17, Issue 2, March
           2003, Pages 97-103
      [8]. Sitiradziah Abdullah, Ahmad Shayan and Riadh Al-Mahaidi, “Assessing the
           Mechanical Properties of Concrete Due to Alkali Silica Reaction” International
           Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013,
           pp. 190 - 204, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.




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