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Appendix I

VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 36

									A Study of Translation Strategies
  on Idioms from English into
   Chinese in Culture Aspects



                  Submitted by Li Hang

         Student ID number W2003 B1001C0017

              Supervised by Zhang Dian’en




A paper submitted in fulfillment of the requirements of the

        degree of Bachelor of English Translation



            The Institute of Online Education

            Beijing Foreign Studies University

                        Jun. 2008




                                                          1
        北京外国语大学网络教育学院


         学士学位论文诚信声明




  本人郑重声明: 所呈交的学士学位论文,是本人在导师的指导


下,独立进行研究工作所取得的成果。论文所涉及的项目为本人亲自


负责或者参与实施的项目。除文中已经注明引用的内容外,本论文不


含任何其他个人或集体已经发表或撰写过的作品成果。本人完全了解


本声明的法律结果由本人承担。




                 学士学位论文作者签名: 李航

                  日期:2008 年 7 月 20 日




                                       2
                                          Table of contents                                                                 Page
1.    Introduction           ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------        1

      1.1 Research Background              --------------------------------------------------------------------------        1

      1.2 Research Objective           ------------------------------------------------------------------------------        1

      1.3 Research Organization             -------------------------------------------------------------------------        2

2.    Rationale ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------               2

      2.1 Definition of Idioms --------------------------------------------------------------------------------              2

      2.2 Characteristics of Idioms-------------------------------------------------------------------------                 2

      2.3 The Relationship Between Idioms Translations and Culture Difference---------                                       3

      2.4 The Criteria of Idioms Translation -----------------------------------------------------------                     4

             2.4.1 The translation theories of Chinese scholars---------------------------------                             4

             2.4.2 Functional equivalence and isomorphism theory of Nida ----------------                                    5

      2.5 Classification of Equivalence Relationships in Idioms Translation----------------                                  5

              2.5.1 Full Equivalence           ----------------------------------------------------------------------        5

              2.5.2 Partial Equivalence             -----------------------------------------------------------------        6

              2.5.3 Non- Equivalence            ---------------------------------------------------------------------        6

        2.6 Idioms Translation Strategies-----------------------------------------------------------------                   6

              2.6.1 Literal translation of idioms---------------------------------------------------------                   7

              2.6.2 Liberal translation of idioms--------------------------------------------------------                    7

              2.6.3 Strategic means in liberal translation of idioms-----------------------------                            7

                   2.6.3.1 Borrowing--------------------------------------------------------------------------               7

                   2.6.3.2 Substitution-----------------------------------------------------------------------               8

                   2.6.3.3 Annotation-------------------------------------------------------------------------               8

3. Data Description--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------                    8

        3.1 Brief Introduction of SLs -----------------------------------------------------------------------                9

        3.2 Brief Introduction of TLs -----------------------------------------------------------------------                9

        3.3 Standard of Data Selection --------------------------------------------------------------------                  9

4. Data Analysis---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------                10

        4.1 The Comparison of Cultural Differences in E-C Idioms-------------------------------                              10



                                                                                                                        3
               4.1.1 The geographic difference----------------------------------------------------------                   10

               4.1.2 Differences over custom-------------------------------------------------------------                  11

               4.1.3 Religion dissimilarities ---------------------------------------------------------------              11

               4.1.4 The differentia of historical conventional cultures-------------------------                          11

         4.2 The Idioms Translations and Isomorphism Theory of Nida------------------------                               12-13

         4.3 The Literal Translation of Idioms-----------------------------------------------------------                  14

         4.4 The Liberal Translation of Idioms-----------------------------------------------------------                  15

                4.4.1 Borrowing--------------------------------------------------------------------------------            15

                4.4.2 Substitution------------------------------------------------------------------------------           16

                4.4.3 Annotation--------------------------------------------------------------------------------           16

5. Result and Suggestion------------------------------------------------------------------------------                     17

         5.1 Result -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------        17

         5.2 Suggestion on Translation Strategies----------------------------------------------------                      18

6. Conclusion------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -            18

Bibliography---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------            20

Appendix I ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------         22-26

Appendix II-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------          27-28




                                                                                                                      4
             论文摘要


  习语是独特的,是语言不可分割的一部分,是人们在生产生活中

长期积累并流传下来的固定短语或短句。本文所提及的英语习语是就

其广义而言的,它包括俗语、谚语、俚语和历史、文学典故等。然而,

由于地域、社会习俗、宗教、历史文化等方面的差异,英汉习语承载

着两国不同的民族特色和文化信息。因此,如何在英汉习语翻译中体

现出原语习语的喻体形象、引申意义,在译文中达到最佳近似度或功

能上的对等,从而使目标读者对原语有正确的理解是本文的主要研究

目的。作者以广为接受的”忠实”和”通顺”等理论作为标准,探讨

了习语的几种对应关系在习语翻译中的作用及相应的翻译策略。


  虽然中英文化有着不同的根源,部分习语仍显示了两种文化中的

一些相似点,体现出了两个民族的文化虽不同源,但是对同样事物的

相同感受引起人们共同的联想,产生出在比喻形象及内涵都相同的习

语;然而有相当一部分习语表现出两个民族部分相同或截然不同的文

化特征。本文通过对比的方式对具有代表性的、常用的六十多条英汉

习语进行翻译策略的分析研究,并借用奈达提出的同构概念来解释翻

译活动,使得英中习语的互译成为可能,一方面英汉习语中相似的内

涵和寓意使得很多英语习语可以在汉语中找到对等的习语;另一方面,

很多英语习语传达的是其民族文化特有的信息,在中文中不能完全找

到对等的习语, 这时就需要采用一些的翻译的变通技巧以达到功能

对等的目的。作者通过研究还发现意译运用在习语的翻译中还是占多


                               5
数情况。

  本文通过分析习语背后反映出的文化间的异同,以唤起译者在

翻译过程中对习语中存在的文化差异的仔细研究分析的意识, 从而

使翻译出来的作品质量更高。

关键词:英汉习语   文化差异   对应关系   翻译策略




                                6
                                         Abstract


       Language reflects a nation’s culture. Idioms are indispensable part of languages
and they are heavily loaded with cultural elements. It is tested by time, abstracted by
people through their use in daily lives. Hence, it is popularly used and spread by
people for generations. They have been described as the crystallization of language
and concentrated culture. The English idioms include set phrases, sayings, literary
quotation, colloquialisms, and slang. In this study, they will be discussed in a broaden
way.


The research aims mainly at exploring some practical idioms translation strategies
through the analysis of the similarities and differentials in culture aspects, and makes
the target readers understand the SLs properly. Under the guidance of translation
criteria offered by Chinese and foreign scholars, the research has discuss the different
practical equivalence relationships function in E-C idioms translation, and then apply
the findings to related translation strategies.


Though the English and Chinese culture derived from different roots, there are still
small part of them are corresponding over the use of images and connotation, because
of a same association is taken place by a same feeling from spirit to physical.
However, the partial equivalence and non-equivalence relationships of E-C idioms
still account for large number due to a wider cultural gap.


By way of contrast a representative of more than 60 English and Chinese Idioms, the
author studies the translation strategies of idioms; and explains the idioms translation
practice by Nida’s isomorphism theory that borrowed from the aesthetics. It makes an
interchangeable translation between E-C idioms to be possible with the use of some
strategic means. The study also found that liberal translation is used more than literal
translation in the majority of cases.




                                                                                       7
This paper reflects the cultural similarities and differences behind the idioms. It is
aiming to enhance the translators’ cultural consciousness in the process of translation.
That will be helpful to produce a quality work.


Key words: English-Chinese idioms        Culture difference
            Corresponding relationship      Translation strategies




                                                                                       8
              A Study of Translation Strategies on Idioms from

                English into Chinese in Culture Aspects
1. Introduction
1.1 Research Background

With an increase in growing global culture exchanges around the world, translation
plays a more and more critical role in various aspects and turns to be more prosperous
than ever before. Language reflects a nation’s culture. Idioms are one of indispensable
part of languages and they are heavily loaded with cultural elements. It is tested by
time, abstracted by people through the use in their daily lives and spread for
generations. They have been described as the crystallization of language and
concentrated culture. However, many translators often chronically judge from their
literal meaning in regardless of the unlike culture background between the source
languages (SLs) and the target languages (TLs), which will surely lead to a
mistranslation. Only when translators understand the cultural background behind
idioms can know what the exact meanings of them. Therefore, the study of cultural
differences behind the idioms is very important and necessary for an effective
communication. That is one of the reasons, why idioms translation becomes a
problem in translation practice.


1.2 Research Objective

The research attempts to explore some practical E-C idioms translation strategies
through the analysis of the similarities and differentias in culture aspects from few
angles, which is the most influential in information re-creating process in TLs. It is
also trying to enhance the translators’ cultural consciousness at the same time. Under
the guidance of some translation criteria-faithfulness and smoothness or functional
equivalence offered by Chinese and foreign scholars, the research findings have been
applied in related translation strategies. In a broaden sense; English idioms include set
phrases, sayings, literary quotation, colloquialism, and slang. Here we are going to
discuss the English idioms in a broaden way.

                                                                                        1
1.3 Research Design

The research is divided into four parts. In the first part, the author presents main
relevant theories function in translation strategies. It will help translators to have an
adequate understanding of English idioms by focusing on identifying and explaining
the similarities and differences between English and Chinese idioms that are
attributed to cultural aspects. In second part, it highlights the relationship between
idioms translation and culture differences, which have had the greatest influences in
the process of producing and using of English and Chinese idioms. In third part, 66
idioms are chosen as sample data to be analyzed. The analysis to the role of culture
will be carried out in E-C idioms translating and four main elements of cultural
differences that affect to idioms will appear in this part. The translation strategies will
be examined through the investigation in accordance with the proposed criteria of
translation. In fourth part, the author aims to summarize the strategies that applied in
the E-C idioms translation. Finally, the author presents the implication for future
translation practice about idioms translation.


2. Rationale
2.1 Definitions of Idioms

The definition of idioms is described in a similar way in both “Cambridge Online
Dictionary of American English” and “Compact Oxford English Online Dictionary”.
They explained that “a group of words in a fixed order with a particular meaning
which is different from the meaning of each word understood on its own” 1, and “a
group of words whose meaning cannot be deduced from those of the individual
words” 2. That is to say, most of idioms often refer to a phrase or expression that
cannot be understood by knowing what the meaning of individual words.


2.2 Characteristics of Idioms

The definition of idioms has already pointed out the two characteristics of idioms
clearly-a fixed structure and an implied meaning. “The idioms have two prominent
characteristics- semantic unification and structural stability (Si Xianzhu & Zeng
                                                                                          2
Jianping, 2006:163).” Each idiom can be looked upon as one word from its semantic
facet, because its meaning cannot be figured out from every single word of it, e.g. the
idiom “all at sea” means in a state of confusion and disorder, but it doesn’t mean the
individual meaning of the three words-all, at, sea respectively. The idioms formed by
steady natural morphemes, any addition or elimination of words are not allowed. The
English and Chinese idioms both hold these two characteristics equally. In addition,
“English idioms still get one more characteristic that is they have more than one
meaning”(Liu, 1999:115), e.g. “to be hand in the glove with”, this idiom means quite
different in sentence 1). The two girls were once hand in glove with each other, and
sentence 2). The traitor and the enemy were working hand in glove with each other
(Chen Yanli, 2006). The first sentence means two girls once had a good relationship
with each other and the idiom here is commendatory. The second one means the
traitor and enemies were acting in collusion with each other and it is derogatory. The
selection of appropriate words according to the context is another key point that the
translators need to pay attention when idioms getting more than one meaning.


2.3 The Relationship between Idioms Translation and Cultural Differences

Generally speaking, “idioms hold strong cultural characteristics (Bao, 2001:148)”.
They are originated from culture and influenced by culture as well. German scholar
Christiane Nord (Christiane Nord, 2005:44) pointed out that the translations’
essential is a comparison of two cultures. Translators need to explain the cultural
phenomenon from internal or external according to their own understanding of the
uniqueness of SLs. Prof. Liu miqing (1999:72) indicates:


     Cultures have a great impact on the effectiveness of language transition. The
     same or parallel formations of cultures have the same or parallel
     communication channels; and vice versa; different formations of cultures
     will surely lead to culture differences and obstruct the communication
     channels.


                                                                                      3
To be specified, each nation has their own featured cultures and shape under the
certain conditions, “different cultures have different meaning because the othernesses
exist over their geographical condition, custom, religion, and historical convention”
(Jiang & Ding, 2005:99). These factors cause the appearance of cultural gap. An
appropriate understanding and translation to these differences is the most important
way to achieve a comprehensive intercultural communication.


2.4 The Criteria of Idioms Translation

2.4.1 Translation Theories of Chinese Scholars

Translation practice in China can be traced to its ancient time. Luo Xinzhang (Luo,
2006:5-14) enumerates several scholars about what they have learned from translation
in his proposition “Translation Theories of Chinese Style”:


     1).Early in Tang Dynasty, the ancient dignitary Xuan Zang proposed the
     criteria of translation with transliteration…2).In Qing Dynasty; Yan Fu
     established triple-words in translation-faithfulness, smoothness, and
     elegance. 3). Lu Xun proposed that the translators need to do on one hand,
     is the reproduction of the source language, and on the other hand is to keep
     the original flavor. 4). Spiritual conformity offered by Fu Lei and the
     sublimed and perfect adaptation by Qian Zhongshu.


The former emphasizes the alike in spirit in source languages and target languages,
while the later focuses on the translator’s smooth and idiomatic Chinese version for
sake of Chinese reader. Qian Zhongshu (Luo, 2006:5-14) said that the highest
standard of translation is “hua jing”. That is to say a competent translator has the
ability to keep the translated work sounds not far-fetched that caused by language
differences and keep the original flavor in maximum at the same time.


Despite the various opinions that came from every angle, translators almost
unanimously accept two points of them. They refer to the “faithfulness” and
                                                                                     4
“smoothness.” We may also take these two criteria as the principles in idioms
translation.


2.4.2 Functional Equivalence and Isomorphism Theory of Nida

Another famous American theorist has to be mentioned here is Eugene A. Nida, who
has established influential translation criteria. He presented similar fundamentals
about rendering ‘1) the most appropriate, 2) Natural and, 3) Equivalence’ (Tan Zaixi,
1999:22). He explained the equivalence into functional equivalence and ‘The
functional equivalence should take priority to the formal equivalence during recreate
the information in the TLs in a natural way’ (Ye, 2001:163). He believes in each
language maintains coequal expressive power. Furthermore, He also uses the
isomorphism theory in semeiology to explain the commonness exists on either the
form or meaning in things, entities, or concepts. ‘The isomorphism theory has two
basic genres. One is the two complicated structure remains different in forms, but they
can overlapped or partially overlapped in meanings; and the other one is a consistent
in form but different in meaning’ (Tan, 1999:76). With strong support of these two
theories, translators finally can change the image or structure without hesitation in the
TLs.


2.5 Classification of Equivalence Relationships in Idioms Translation

“There are three types of equivalent relationship- they are full equivalence, partial
equivalence and non-equivalence” (Liu Miqing, 1999:166). As a regular means in
translation, “the classification of equivalence relationships is based on the condition
of that the isomorphic semantic structure, expressive way, and language context” (Liu,
1999:165). We will start from these three types of relationships presented by Prof. Liu
Miqing and then give further explanation on how they function in the idiom
translation strategies in data analysis.


    2.5.1 Full Equivalence

 “The gist of full equivalence is the consistency over semantic meaning and
                                                                                        5
  function of syntax in both languages (Liu, 1999:168)”. Human beings have
  some things in common as a whole. They are exposed to the same feelings from
  physical to spirit, this reflects in idioms particularly. There are small parts of
  idioms that have the same connotation even the same images.


    2.5.2 Partial Equivalence

    “In terms of words, normally the production of partial equivalence is caused
    by multivocal words and language vagueness, thus partial equivalence
    appears over semantic meaning” (Liu, 1999:169). However, large numbers of
    idioms in English and Chinese have differentias more or less. They are only
    segmental, consistent in semantic meaning. This is the foundation for us to
    adopt some strategic means in translation practice. In addition, the significance
    of context is another factor worth to consider, for the words’ meaning may
    change in different language contexts.


    2.5.3 Non-equivalence

    “Non- equivalence appears when the conflictions exist between SLs and TLs
    in translation practice” (Liu Miqing, 1999:171). Parts of English idioms
    have no equivalent Chinese idioms because of culture gap; some of them
    may lead to a miss judgment by translators from their literal meaning, but
    the connotations are entirely not, what they look like.


2.6 Idioms Translation Strategies

Literal translation or liberal translation, this is a long-standing dispute.


     The translation practice should take three patterns-fully corresponding,
     partially corresponding, and non-corresponding as a main body. They are
     equivalent to different levels of literal translation or liberal translation…the
     main means of translation should be literal and liberal translation working
     together (Liu Miqing, 1999:80)
                                                                                        6
2.6.1 Literal Translation of Idioms

“Normally, the translation which comply with the original language structure is
literal translation” (Ye, 2001:5). Literal translation of idioms refers to a
non-adjustment to idioms’ form and meaning. It expresses the integrated and right
meaning of original language based on keeping its form -words, sentence structures,
and rhetorical means. Literal translation is faithful to the SLs in maximum without
any changes.


2.6.2 Liberal translation of Idioms

“Keeping the connotative meaning and getting rid of the bandage of original
language structure is liberal translation” (Ye, 2001:6). English and Chinese
separately belong to two different language families and cultures. Therefore, the full
corresponding idioms only account for a very small part. A great number of idioms
show their own differences over culture facets. “The greater the cultural differences
in the SLs and TLs, the greater the need for adjustment” (Nida, 2001:95). Liberal
translation of English idioms is a way used when different images or connotations are
not in accordance with TLs’ habit; or they cause a misunderstanding through the
literal translation. Ye Zinan pointed out: “the fact of translation strategies is actually
the alternative means; the translation can’t be done without some strategic means”
(Ye Zinan, 2001:61). Liberal translation of the idioms includes some different
strategic means- they consist of borrowing, substitution, and annotation. The use of
these strategies will be more or less to decrease the original taste, but a literal
translation will sound a bit translationese.


2.6.3 Strategic Means in Liberal Translation of Idioms

     2.6.3.1 Borrowing

     Some Chinese idioms could be borrowed, which use the different cultural
     images but the same morals are conveyed. “A more common procedure for
     translating metaphors is to replace the SLs’ image with another established
                                                                                         7
    TLs’ image, if one exists that is equally frequent within the register”
    (Newmark, 1988:109). It needs no more tropes, addition, or deletion of the
    original content. Borrowing keeps the maximum of function and form
    equivalent in liberal translation. “The main goal of translation is
    communication. Genuine Chinese is the premises of a smooth
    communication” (Ye, 2001:61).


    2.6.3.2 Substitution

    This approach is now in common used in the English-Chinese idioms
    translation. The images in SLs will be eliminated in TLs when translators
    cannot find corresponding images and a literal translation will causes
    misunderstanding at the same time, “especially when the images are not
    valuable to the whole translating work” (Ye, 2001:48). Chinese readers will
    have a better comprehension when abandon the original images in SLs, e.g.
    we cannot put the idiom “to rain cats and dogs” into “Xia mao xia gou”,
    which is extremely nonsense to the Chinese readers who can never imagine
    cats and dogs are falling down from the sky. Because of its semantic unity,
    the idiom should be understood as a whole and translated into “qing pen da
    yu (it rains heavily)”.


    2.6.3.3 Annotation

    Cultural differences reflect in many aspects of people’s lives. Annotation
    fits some interpretative items, such as the idioms relate to sports or literary
    works. The involvement of the literary quotation in English idioms reflects
    their unique culture background. The translators may annotate after the
    rendering to give a further explanation of the idioms’ information depend
    on different translating purpose.


3. Data Description
In the following section, 66 idioms have been chosen from as examples to analyze.
                                                                                      8
The SLs are English idioms and Chinese versions are given. Some of the SLs and the
TLs are cited from “An English-Chinese Usage Dictionary of English Proverbs”
edited by Jin Chun and published by Commercial Press. Some of idioms are chosen
from “Modern English Colloquialisms 500” written by Wang Fuxiang & Cai jian, and
“An Etymology of American Idioms” written by Liu Guangwei, published by Foreign
Langages Press and Tian Jin Education Press. Another three data sources are “A
Comparative Study of English and Chinese idioms” by Chen Wenbo, “A Textbook on
Chinese-English Translation” written by Si Xianzhu & Zeng Jianping, and
“Translation in Intercultural Communication, Book2” written by Jin Huikang. These
idioms will be used to discuss the cultural differences of English and Chinese idioms.


3.1 Brief Introduction of SLs

Idioms has been using wildly in the literary works and people’s daily lives, so they
can come down by generations. The selected sample idioms are the representatives of
the different cultures; they will be used to discuss the main topic of the investigation-
translation strategies on idioms from English to Chinese in cultural aspects.


3.2 Brief Introduction of TLs

All these authors give the penetrating judgment of idioms in their books. Some of
these books have offered more than one Chinese versions about each English idiom
and the origins of the idioms. Therefore, the learners can make a comparison to
different versions in order to choose an appropriate meaning based on the context
when translating.


3.3 Standard of Data Selection

In order to study sample data conveniently, all of the data (please see appendix I) are
put into the Table1 based on three practical corresponding relationships presented by
Prof. Liu Miqing.
Table 1 Equivalence in Idioms


                                                                                         9
         Patterns                                 Sample No.

     Full Equivalence      6.7.9.13.14.15.23.26. 34.35.36.37.38
                           1.2.3.4.5.8.10.11.12.16.17.18.19.22.24.25.27.29.31.32.33
   Partial Equivalence
                           39.40.41.42.43.44.45.46
    Non-Equivalence        20.21.28.30.47.48.49.50



4. Data Analysis
The aim of this analysis is devoted to explore the idioms translation strategies from
English to Chinese in cultural aspects. It is based on the comparisons of cultural
differences in both E-C idioms from the aspects of geographic conditions, custom,
religion, and historical convention, labels them with different types of corresponding
relationships in order to help translator to adopt proper strategies. The isomorphism
theory will aid the translators to distinguish what strategic means should be used, and
then come to the application of different translation strategies-literal or liberal
translation to render.



4.1 The Comparison of Cultural Differences in E-C Idioms

4. 1.1 The Geographical Differences

A nation’s geographic characteristics are often showed in its language, particularly in
idioms. The UK is an island country, the immense sea and fish are formed naturally in
idioms No.55, 56 and 57 like “spend money like water” (hua qian ru liu shui), “plain
sailing” (yi fan feng shun) and “between the devil and deep sea” (jin tui liang nan)
etc. (Si & Zeng, 2006:164). China is located at the eastern Asian continent. It is a
country with vast land, the agriculture plays an important role in people’s daily life,
which caused some idioms associated with the earth or cultivation like in No.53 and
54“hui jin ru tu” (spend money like water), “zhong gua de gua, zhong dou de dou”
( As a man sows, so does he reap) (Si & Zeng ,2006:164). Making a comparison
between No.55 and No.53; these two idioms are all described the waste of money.
Water is common to an island country but valuable to an inland country; and to the

                                                                                     10
earth is vice versa. Though two countries use different images, they are
interchangeably translated because of the same connotation


4.1.2 Differences on Custom

Custom difference is also one of the vital parts in E-C culture differences. It has been
reflected especially in the idioms involving animals. English people like dog a lot;
they usually use it to have a good meaning in idioms, e.g. In No.63, 64 and 65 “Love
me, love my dog” (ai wu ji wu), “top dog” (zhong yao de ren wu), and “Every dog
has its day.” (Fan ren jie you de yi shi) (Jiang & Ding, 2005:100). Chinese raise dog
but more or less dislike it, so dog is described for doing something bad. Most of them
show a derogatory sense in the idioms like “gou zui li tu bu chu xiang ya” (a filthy
mouth cannot utter decent language)”, “gou na hao zi duo guan xian shi” (have a
finger in the pie) and “gou ji tiao qiang” (a cornered beast will do something
desperate) (Jiang & Ding, 2005:100).


4.1.3 Religion Dissimilarities

Christianity has a great effect on most of the English speaking countries. There is a
great number of idioms stemmed from Bible or Christianity-related, e.g.No.51, 52,
and 63 “God helps those who help themselves (tian zhu zi zhu zhe)” (Jin Chun,
2002:8), “Forbidden fruit is the sweetest (jin guo zui tian)” (Jin Chun, 2002:8),
“John can be relied on. He eats no fish and plays the game” (zhong cheng de ren)
(Jin Huikang, 2004:80). In China, the Buddhism and Taoism are rooted in Chinese
idioms too, e.g. In No.59 and 60, “jie hua xian fuo” (borrow sth. to make a gift of it),
“zuo yi tian he shang zhuang yi tian zhong” (so long as one remains a bonze, one goes
to toll the bell) (Si & Zeng, 2006:166). These idioms take obviously religionary
features; the interchangeable translation is impossible, so simply translate them
literally with an annotation.


4.1.4 The Differentias of Historical Conventional Cultures

Many idioms are originated from classical allusions, fables, and folk tales such as
                                                                                      11
“the heel of Achilles” (wei yi zhi ming de ruo dian) from the Greek myth, “at one fell
swoop” (yi ju…) from Macbeth of Shakespeare (Si & Zeng, 2006:164). The
involvement of the allusions in English idioms reflects their unique historical
background, e.g. “the heel of Achilles” described the siege of Trojan. “Blow hot and
cold” (fan fu wu chang) (Liu, 1998:33) came from Aesop’s Fables to describe the
people’s inconstancy. In China, there are plenty of myths, fables, and legends as well
as the historical stories behind the idioms, especially the four-character ones. This can
be seen in the idioms like “puo fu chen zhou” (to burn one’s boats without leeway)
(Jin Huikang, 2004:73) from “Shi Ji, Xiang Yu Ben Ji,” “wang yang bu lao” (Chen,
2005:160) from “Zhan Guo Ce,” “yi bai tu di” (to meet one’s waterloo) (Jin Huikang,
2004:73) from “Shi Ji, Gao Zu Ben Ji”.


4.2 The Idioms Translation and Isomorphism Theory of Nida

With the strong support of isomorphism theory, the language transbility has increased.
In Table2, some of them are keeping the same connotative meaning but different
images, while the situation is just opposite in sample data in Table3.
Table2 Different Forms with Same Information of Idioms in Isomorphism Theory

    Sample           Co-connotation in SLs and            Images of         Images of
      No.                         TLs                       SLs               TLs
      1.          Cannot be one mind, more                  boy               和尚
                  people get involved in one thing,
                  more difficult to get it done
       4.         One can't change one's essential         Leopard,       江山,本性
                                nature.                      spot
       11.        Something is easily forgotten or           eyes              眼睛
                   dismissed as unimportant if it is
                        not in our direct view.
       16.         Sacrifice future gains to satisfy        goose               鸡
                             present needs
       22.          Take away from one to give to          Rob, pay          拆,补
                                another
       33.                       To die                   The action         翘辫子
                                                          of kicking
                                                          the bucket
                                                            when

                                                                                        12
                                                          commit
                                                           suicide
      40.               A complete surprise               Bolt, sky       闪电,天
      41.          Truth will out, secret will be         Murder           纸,火
                               exposed
      42.         A fresh leader or administration      New broom              新官
                  gets rid of the old and brings in
                      new ideas and personnel


Table3 Same Forms with Different Information of Idioms in Isomorphism Theory

    Sample        Images in       Images        Connotations in        Connotations
      No.            SLs          in TLs              SLs                  in TLs
      20.          Pull, leg      拉,腿           To fool someone        Hinder sb. to
                                                                       do something
      22.         Call, names     叫,名          To insult someone           To call
                                   字                                     someone’s
                                                                            name
      47.         Child, play     孩子,          Something is easy         Treat as a
                                   游戏                to done            child’s trifle
      48.         Eat, words      食,言              Admit to do          Break one’s
                                    语          something wrong             promise
      49.          Lock the       亡羊补         It’s too late for take    A remedy is
                  stable door       牢           precautions after       still not too
                    after the                    the damage has           late to be
                    horse is                        been done               done.
                     stolen
In Table2, the data No.4 “A leopard cannot change its spots” comes from bible
Jeremiah 13:23. It describes a leopard cannot remove its spots from its body while in
Chinese idiom “jiang shan yi gai, ben xing nan yi” (Jin Chun, 2002:121) describes
things’ appearances can be changed as easily as “jiang shan chao dai”, but their
essentiality can hardly changed or infected by others. Both idioms here are suggesting
things cannot change their innate nature. Data No.16 comes from Aesop; it is
translated from Greek differently in English and Chinese versions. The uses of
different images, hen and goose, but the morals convey the same -to sacrifice future
gains to satisfy present needs. Data No.33 has the same connotative meaning with
“qiao bian zi” in Chinese; it is another ways to express the word “death” in English,
just like the phrase “to die”, “pass away” in English and “shang xi tian in Chinese.

                                                                                     13
Through these comparisons of SLs and TLs in form2, we can see that English and
Chinese people have similar feelings and experiences from physical to spirit on many
aspects, though some idiomatic expressions use different images but share exactly
same connotative meaning in both languages, which means that interchangeable
translation can be fulfilled to some extent.


On the other hand, some seemingly logical English idioms look similar with some
Chinese idioms. They are easily to be translated through the literal meaning, because
translators’ intuition leads to a careless on a further investigation of idioms’ original
meaning, but they are far cry from what they look like. In form3, data No. 21, 47 and
49 are easily to be mistranslated into Chinese with “che hou tui” (Wang & Cai,
2000:115), “er xi” (Chen, 2006:151) and “wang yang bu lao” (Chen, 2005:160).
However, they mean something irrelevant totally. No.21 and 47 have no equivalent
Chinese translation, so a substitution of their connotative meaning instead of their
literal meaning. No.49 looks like the Chinese idioms “wang yang bu lao”, suffering
loss is their overlapped part, however the result is different, the English idiom stress
that it is too late for taking precautions after the damage has been done, the Chinese
idiom stresses that a remedy is still not too late to be done.


4.3 The Literal Translation of Idioms

In Table1, the English idioms listed in column full equivalence are no changes with
their Chinese versions on the whole. The No.6 “time is money” (shi jian jiu shi jin
qian) (Jin Chun, 2002:p306), No.26 “the spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak” (xin
you yu er li bu zu) (Wang & Cai, 2000:197) and No.36 “fish in troubled waters” (hun
shui mo yu) (Chen, 2005:55) are the samples of typical literal translation of idioms. A
same image or situation does cause a same association to different language users.
Therefore, equivalence is consistent over semantic meaning and figurative images in
both languages, and the ways of usage in people’s daily lives. Literal translation
conveys the meaning of SLs and keeps the rhetorical style at the same time. It is
achieving the theory “faithfulness and smoothness”. The translation of these idioms is
                                                                                       14
just as simple as a sentence: “I am a doctor” (wo shi yi sheng).


4.4 The Liberal Translation of Idioms

There still have great deal of idioms show their own differences, translators must
firstly think over conveying the connotations of SLs, and take forms at a secondary
position. It adopts a derious way to get through the communication channels. The
liberal translation of idioms is used when idioms keep partial corresponding or
non-corresponding of two languages. During the idioms translation process, the
images may be eliminated and some strategic means of translation can be applied
here.


4.4.1 Borrowing

Borrowing is a way that borrow some ready Chinese idioms to convey same
connotation with different images when translate. For the different factors has shown
in 4.1- the comparison of cultural differences, images in SLs sometimes inconsistent
with the images in TLs, a literal translation will be quite difficult to understand, or the
original images from SLs will call a wrong association to the target reader, thus it is to
be an obstacle to target readers. In data No.2 “Give an inch and take a mile” (Jin
Chun, 2002:105) is translated literally, the Chinese reader may feel awkward, because
the words “inch” and “mile” are not their measurement units that in common use, but
it does have “de cun jin chi” this ready-made idiom to express the uniform meaning
“greedy”. In No.25 “The black sheep of the family” (Wang & Cai, 2000:183), this
idiom arose in the late 18th century, probably from an older proverb, “There's a black
sheep in every flock”. It is, in those balmy pre-industrial days, black sheep was not as
valuable as white sheep; white wool could be dyed into any color while black wool
was more limited. In European thought, the use of “black” is often associated with the
devil, wickedness, and bad things in general. If it is translated literal may make
Chinese reader feel puzzled, the idiom “hai qun zhi ma” in Chinese remains the same
one meaning-a member of a group who has certain characteristics deemed
inappropriate by that group. Both the English and Chinese idioms have lost their
                                                                                         15
original purpose and utilized to compare to human activity for languages’ changing.
In No.17 “a drop in the bucket” has its Chinese equivalent “cang hai yi su” or “jiu
niu yi mao” to describe a small amount of something.


4.4.2 Substitution

Substitution is used to translate the implied meaning directly when no ready idioms
can be found and a misunderstanding led by literal translation. If No.20 in sample data
literally translated into “la mou ren de tui”, the target reader may completely feel
incomprehensive if it is in the context. The same scenario happens on No.47 “child’s
play” and No.48 “eat one’s words” as well. The target readers will be easily
distracted from the reading for figuring out the contradictory parts in translated works.
Therefore, a simply translation of their implied meanings are better than keeping their
exterior forms-“something is easy to do” and “admit to do something wrong”.


4.4.3 Annotation

The annotation can be added after some idioms, which bear the culture vacancies in
Chinese. The sample data No.28 “Achilles heel” (Liu Guangwei, 1999:4) comes from
Homer Epic, which described the siege of Trojan. The annotation after the translation
could be a brief introduction of the tale: “Achilles-son of Thetis and Peleus, the
bravest hero in the Trojan War, according to Greek mythology. When Achilles was
born, his mother, Thetis, tried to make him immortal by dipping him in the river Styx.
As she immersed him, she held him by one heel and forgot to dip him a second time
so the heel she held could get wet too. Afterward, the place where she held him
remained untouched by the magic water of the Styx and that part stayed mortal.
Achilles was finally shot at the heel and died. It is used as a metaphor for vulnerability.
The derivation in data No.30 “blow hot and cold” can add after the translation too.
The addition of annotation could be used freely based on the purpose of translating
work, if it is introductory, then it will be inessential, otherwise it will be
over-translated. In data No.14 “Eye for eye and teeth for teeth”, although they are
originated from bible, the annotation is unnecessarily needed for their prevalence.
                                                                                        16
Annotation can also be combined with literal translation, which is translating the SLs
literally with the additive note of their connotation. It keeps SLs’ local color and gives
a clear explanation to English idioms’ connotation to Chinese reader, e.g. in data No.4
“A leopard cannot change its spots” (Jin Chun, 2002:121); it could be translated into
“bao zi tui bu diao shen shang de hua ban-ben xing na yi”. In No.49 “Lock the stable
door after the horse is stolen” (Chen, 2005:160); the translation should goes like “ma
diu suo men-wei shi yi wan”. In No.28 “Achilles heel” (Liu, 1999:4); it goes like this
in Chinese “a ji liu si de jiao zhong-wei yi zhi ming de ruo dian”.


5. Results and Suggestions
5.1 Results

How the cultural differences affect the translation? Can English idioms and Chinese
idioms be translated with each other? Which translation strategy is more accurate?
The questions are worth studying. Based on the analysis above, this study shows that
the wilder cultural gaps show up in idioms; the more difficult they are to be translated
adequately. Although a literal translation can keep the full flavor of the SLs, the
culture differences and characteristics of idioms have restricted the use of it. English
and Chinese idioms that bear the same figurative images and connotations are rare, so
exact equivalence is rare too.


The finding is theoretically based on following concepts or theories: firstly, it goes
with the definition and characteristics of idioms. Secondly, idioms translations should
take the criteria of faithfulness and smoothness offered by Chinese and foreign
scholars as priority to keep the original flavor in maximum. Thirdly, the three types of
corresponding relationships, which presented by Prof. Liu Miqing give a standard of
classification to idioms, then translators, can follow the standard to determine which
translation strategy could be adopted. Literal translation strategy works when idioms
are corresponding in forms and connotations. Fourthly, with the strong support of
isomorphism theories of Nida, translators can use strategic means of borrowing,
                                                                                        17
substitution, and annotation to replace the part or whole of SLs to reach functional
equivalence in maximum. Lastly, followed by a deeper analysis of a range of
examples of English idioms and their Chinese equivalents, it has been shown that the
cultural differences behind English and Chinese idioms are generally influenced by
the geography, custom, religion and historical conventional culture.


5.2 Suggestions on Idioms Translation

Idiom translation actually deals with the transformation of different cultural features;
this is embodied by idioms particularly from the source language to a comparable
meaning in the target language. Here are some suggestions for the future practice on
idioms translation. Regarding the proper use of the above-mentioned skills, it is
suggested that the translators should take these elements into account- first of all; a
competent translator is not only bilingualism but also biculturalism. “Bilingual
competence has always been regarded, as an essential requirement for
translators…for truly successful translating, biculturalism is even more important
than bilingualism Nida (2001:81)”. Secondly, translators need to avoid a literal
judgment at the first sight, for the connotations may just opposite on facets like
commendatory and derogatory sense. Lastly, translators should always refer to tools
like dictionaries or other referential sources to help with, for the idiomatic expressions
are multivocal.


6. Conclusion
This research attempts to explore the idioms translation strategies based on the
analysis of cultural differences and examined some English idioms with their Chinese
translations. It also tries to work out the possible factors that affect translator’s
decision-making of translating strategies in dealing with cultural differences in
translation.


According to the analysis, the idioms are classified into three types of corresponding
relationships of idioms: full equivalence, partial equivalence, and non-equivalence.
                                                                                        18
They help the translator to classify the idioms and choose proper translation
strategies- literal translation or liberal translation. Literal translation is faithfully to the
SLs, but the use of it is limited by cultural differences in most of the time; while
liberal translation can give a clear expression of SLs’ connotation but in the cost of
losing their unique figurative images. Whichever translation strategies the translators
use, as Prof. Gu Zhenkun has commented over this: ‘each of them has their own
strong point, translators should be carefully chosen based on three elements-function,
aesthetics and target reader. Translators can follow rules docilely and also can rebel
against orthodoxy, that is an expert’ (Ye, 2001:8). In conclusion, it is important that
translators need to keep in mind the role culture plays in whole translation practice.


There are a few limitations to the research. For one thing, the data for this research
are carefully selected so that they can represent the common phenomenon of E-C
idioms translation to a certain extent. There still have a great number of English
idioms which cannot be all covered, so there is much more room for further
improvement so that more clear results can be found. For another, all idioms are
analyzed out of the context, the strategies may lack of persuasion on the use of skills.


The author hopes that this research can help enhancing translators’ cultural
consciousness. The author also expects the research will provide useful experience
and invite further efforts to be contributed to the study of idioms translation on
cultural aspect.




                                                                                             19
Bibliography
Bao, H.N. (2001). Culture Context and Language Translation. Beijing: Chinese
Foreign Languages Translation Publishing House.
Christiane, N. (2005). The Elucidatory of Functional Translation Theories. Beijing:
Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.
Chen, W.B. (2005). A Comparative Study of English and Chinese Idioms. Beijing:
World Affairs Press.
Chen Y.L. (2006). The Principles of the Translation of English Idioms. Journal of Xin
Zhou Teacher University. Retrieved May 3, 2008, from www.ilib.cn.
Eugene A. Nida (2001). Language and Culture. Shang Hai: Shang Hai Foreign
Education Press.
Jiang, F. & L.J. Ding (2005). A Practical English Translation Book. Beijing:
Publishing House of Electronics Industry.
Jin Chun (2002). An English-Chinese usage dictionary of English proverbs. Beijing:
Commercial Printing house.
Jin, H.K. (2004). Translation in Intercultural Communication, Book2. Beijing:
Chinese Foreign Languages Translation Publishing House.
Liu, M.Q. (1999). Contemporary Translation Theories. Beijing: Chinese Foreign
Languages Translation Publishing House.
Luo, X.Z. (1984). Chinese Style Translation Theories in Yan, C.S. (ed. 2006),
Translation Studies in China (2006). (pp5-9). Shang Hai: Shang Hai Foreign
Education Publishing House.
Liu, G.W. (1999). An Etymology of American Idioms. Tian Jin: Tian Jin Education
Press House.
Si, X.Z & J.P. Zeng (2006). A Textbook on Chinese-English Translation. Shang Hai:
Shang Hai Dong-hua University Press.
Tan, Z.X. (1999). New-edit Theories of Eugene A. Nida. Beijing: China Translation &
Publishing Corporation.
Wang, F.X. & J. Cai (2000). Modern English Colloquialisms 500. Beijing: Foreign
Langages Press.
                                                                                   20
Ye, Z.N. (2001). Advanced Course in English-Chinese Translation. Beijing: Tsing
Hua University Publishing House
1
    http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/idiom?view=uk
2
    http://dictionary.cambridge.org/define.asp?key=idiom*1+0&dict=A




                                                                             21
Appendix I


Idioms form “An English-Chinese usage Dictionary of English Proverbs”
SL 1:     One boy is a boy, two boys half a boy, three boys no boy.
TL1:      一个人顶一个人,两个人只顶半个人,指望三人没有人。/一人之事一
           人顶,二人之事二人分,三人之事没人问。/一个和尚挑水吃,两个和
           尚抬水吃,三个和尚没水吃。(Jin Chun, 2002: 96)
SL2:     Give an inch and take a mile.
TL2:     给他一英寸,他要一英里。/得寸进尺。(Jin Chun, 2002:105)
SL3: The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence
TL3:     篱笆(或小山)另一边的草更青/这山望着那山高(Jin Chun, 2002:118)
SL4:     A leopard cannot change its spots.
TL4:     豹子褪不掉身上的花斑。/江山易改,本性难移。(Jin Chun, 2002:121)
SL 5:    To strike while the iron is hot
TL5:     趁热打铁(Jin Chun, 2002:303)
SL6:     Time is money
TL6:     时间就是金钱(Jin Chun, 2002:306)
SL7:     Keep your mouth shut and your eyes open
TL7:     多看少说/少言语,多观察 (Jin Chun, 2002:352)
SL8:     Digging your grave with your own teeth
TL8:     给你掘坟的是你的牙齿/切勿暴饮暴食/拼死吃河豚(Jin Chun, 2002:385)
SL9:    You cannot clap with one hand
TL9:    孤掌难鸣(Jin Chun, 2002:397)
SL10:    Fine feathers make fine birds.
TL10: 鸟美不在羽毛,人美不在衣装/人是衣裳马是鞍/佛靠金装,人靠衣装 (Jin
         Chun, 2002:461)
SL11:    Out of sight, out of mind
TT11:    眼不见,心不想(Jin Chun, 2002:481)
SL12:    Six of one and half a dozen of the other.
TL12:    半斤对八两,基本一个样。/一个半斤,一个八两。(Jin Chun, 2002:501)

                                                                        22
SL13:    Many a pickle makes a mickle.
TL13:    积少成多/聚沙成塔/集腋成裘(Jin Chun, 2002:523)
SL 14:   Eye for eye and teeth for teeth
TL14:    以牙还牙,以眼还眼/一报还一报(Jin Chun, 2002:542)
SL15:    Evening red and morning grey help the traveler on his way
TL15:    晚霞朝雾,放心上路/早霞不出门,晚霞行千里(Jin Chun, 2002:563)
SL16:    To kill the goose that lays golden eggs.
TL16:    杀了下金蛋的鹅/杀鸡取卵(Jin Chun, 2002:639)


Idioms from “Modern English Colloquialisms 500”
SL17:    A drop in the bucket
TL17:    桶里的一滴水/微不足道/九牛一毛/沧海一粟(Wang & Cai, 2000:21)
SL18:    Skate on thin ice
TL18:    在薄冰上滑冰/冒风险/如履薄冰(Wang & Cai, 2000:104)
SL19:    Wash one’s hands off something
TL19:    把什么从手上洗下来/不再干某事/洗手不再干某事/金盆洗手 (Wang &
         Cai, 2000:87)(chen,2005:136)
SL20:    Pull someone’s leg
TL20:    拿某人开心/开某人的玩笑,it can’t be translated into “use hand to pull
         someone’s leg” (Wang & Cai, 2000:115)
SL21:    Call someone names
TL21:    辱骂某人, it can’t be translated into “call someone’s name”.(Wang & Cai,
         2000:139)
SL22:    Rob Peter to pay Paul
TL22:    抢彼得的钱还保罗/拆东墙补西墙 (Wang & Cai, 2000:153)
SL23:    Drop something like a hot potato
TL23:    烫手的土豆/烫手的热山竽/赶紧放弃或抛弃(Wang & Cai, 2000:151)
SL24:    Feel like a square peg in a round hole
TL24:    感觉象把方帽钉放入圆形的洞里/格格不入(Wang & Cai, 2000:152)
SL25:    The black sheep of the family
                                                                           23
TL25:   羊群 里的黑 绵羊 /害 群之马 / 败家 子 /有辱 门楣的人 ( Wang & Cai,
         2000:183)
SL26:   The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak
TL26:   虽然有干某事的心,但身体没有足够的力量/心有余而力不足 (Wang &
        Cai, 2000:197)
SL27:   be as broad as it is long
TL27:   宽和长的尺寸是一样的/背着抱着一边沉 (Wang & Cai, 2000:317)


Idioms from “An Etymology of American Idioms”
SL28:   Achilles heel
TL28:   致命弱点(Liu, 1999:4)
        荷马史诗 Iliad 中英雄人物阿基琉斯(Achilles),出生后被母亲浸入冥河水,
        得以刀枪不入。但脚后跟因当时被母亲握住,未能浸水,留下仅有的弱
        点。后来果然被箭射中脚后跟而亡。
SL29:   Jump ship
TL29:   “跳船”/跳槽(Liu, 1999:124)
SL30:   Blow hot and cold
TL30:   反复无常/拿不定主意 (Liu, 1999:33)
        伊索语言中故事: 一日天寒地冻,萨梯(satyr-希腊神话半人半羊神祗)见
        一路人用口吹手指。萨梯问为何如此,路人说手指寒冷,吹气取暖。萨
        梯请路人进洞避寒,又以热汤待客。路人又对热汤猛吹,萨梯问何故,
                           “此人口吹冷气,也能吹热
        路人说汤太热,吹之便凉。萨梯大惊,心想:
        气,恐非善类。”于是开门送客。
SL31:    Break the ice
TL31:    打破僵局/克服困难打开话题(Liu, 1999:115)
         港口在冬季河流冰封,必须破冰以利航行。比喻冰冷僵持的社交场合,
         必须“破冰”(打开僵局)。
SL32:    Look for a needle in a haystack
TL32:    稻草里找一根针/大海捞针(Liu, 1999:199)


                                                       24
Idioms from “A Comparative Study of English and Chinese Idioms”
SL33:   Kick the bucket
TL33:   翘辫子(Chen, 2005:51)
SL34:   Seeing is believing
TL34:   眼见为实(Chen, 2005:53)
SL35:   Pour oil on the flame
TL35:   火上浇油(Chen, 2005:54)
SL36:   Fish in troubled waters
TL36:   混水摸鱼/趁火打劫(Chen, 2005:55)
SL37:   The onlooker sees most of the game
TL37:   旁观者清(Chen, 2005:57)
SL38:   Kill two birds with one stone
TL38:   一石二鸟/一箭双雕/一举两得(Chen, 2005:59)
SL39:   Make a mountain out of a molehill
TL39:   小题大做(Chen, 2005:84)
SL40:   A bolt from the blue
TL40:   晴天霹雳(Chen, 2005:85) 晴天霹雳用在意外的坏事比较多, 而此习语却
        没有修辞色彩, 解释为 completely surprise (完全意外的事)
SL41:   Murder will out
TL41:   纸包不住火(Chen, 2005:91)
SL42:   New brooms sweep clean
TL42:   新官上任三把火(Chen, 2005:101)
SL43:   Birds of a feather
TL43:   一丘之貉(Chen, 2005:111)
SL44:   Follow in somebody’s footsteps
TL44:   步人后尘(Chen,2005:117)
SL45:   Bite off more than one can chew
TL45:   贪多嚼不烂(Chen,2005:119)
SL47:   Child’s play


                                                                  25
TL47:   非常容易做的事情,can’t be translated into “儿戏”(Chen, 2005:150)
SL48:   Eat one’s words
TL48:   承认自己说错了话,can’t be translated into “食言”(Chen, 2006:151)
SL49:   Lock the stable door after the horse is stolen
TL49:   为时已晚/it can’t be translated into “亡羊补牢”,the later one means “a
        remedy is not too late”(Chen,2005:160)
SL50:   Give a dog a bad name and hang him
TL50:   诽磅会起作用/it can’t be translated into “欲加其罪,何患无辞”, the later
        means “to find any excuses and accusals to torture someone”. (Chen,
        2005:170)




                                                                         26
Appendix II


Idioms form “An English-Chinese usage Dictionary of English Proverbs”
SL51: God helps those who help themselves (Jin Chun, 2002:8)
TL51: 天助自助者/自助而后天助/皇天不负苦心人
SL52: Forbidden fruit is the sweetest” (The Old Testament: Genesis, Chapter3, 1:6)
      (Jin Chun, 2002:8)
TL52: 禁果分外甜


Idioms form “A Textbook on Chinese-English Translation”
SL53: 挥金如土 (Si & Zeng, 2006:104)
TL53: Spend money like water
SL54: 种瓜得瓜, 种豆得豆 (Si & Zeng, 2006:164)
TL54: As a man sows, so does he reap
SL55: Spend money like water (Si & Zeng, 2006:164)
TL55: 花钱如流水
SL56: Plain sailing (Si & Zeng, 2006:164)
TL56: 一路平安
SL57: Between the devil and deep sea (Si & Zeng, 2006:164)
TL57: 进退两难
SL58: At one fell swoop (Si & Zeng, 2006:164)
TL58: 一举……
SL59: 借花献佛
TL59: Borrow something to make a gift of it (Si & Zeng, 2006:166)
SL60: 做一天和尚撞一天钟(Si & Zeng, 2006:166)
TL60: So long as one remains a bonze, one goes to toll the bell)


Idioms from “Translation in Intercultural Communication, Book2”
SL61: 破釜沉舟 (Jin Huikang, 2004:73)
TL61: to burn one’s boats without leeway

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SL62: 一败涂地 (Jin Huikang, 2004:73)
TL62: To meet one’s waterloo
SL63: Eat no fish and play the game (Jin Huikang, 2004:80)
TL63: 忠诚于……


Idioms from “Practical English Translation”
SL64:   Love me, love my dog
TL64: 爱屋及乌 (Jiang & Ding, 2005:100)
SL65:   Top dog
TL65: 重要的人物 (Jiang & Ding, 2005:100)
SL66:   Every dog has its day
TL66: 凡人皆有得意时 (Jiang & Ding, 2005:100)




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