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                                 Contents

I.     Introduction                          3-4
II.    Ecological problems                  4-16
1. Water pollution                           4-6
2. Air pollution                             6-8
a) Greenhouse effect                          8
b) Acid rains. What is Acid Rain?           8-11
c) Nuclear pollution                        11-12
3. Animals need help                        12-15
4. Rubbish                                  15-16
III. Environmental protection               16-18
1. The Royal Society for the                 16
    prevention of cruelty to animals
2. The World Wildlife Fund (WWF)             16
3. Friends of the Earth” (FoE)              16-17
4. Greenpeace.                              17-18
IV. Ecological situation…                   18-20
1. In Russia                                 18
2. In Saratov region                        18-20
V.     Conclusion                            20
VI. List of literature                       21




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                                    I. Introduction
       «Ecology» is a very popular word today. But what does it mean? Ecology is
a science which studies the relationship between all forms of life on our planet and
the environment. This word came from Greek “oikos” which means home. The
idea of home includes our whole planet, its population, nature, animals, birds, fish,
insects and all other living beings and even the atmosphere around our planet.




        Some people live in a town environment; for others their environment is the
countryside. Nowadays people understand how important it is to solve the
environment problems that endanger people’s lives. The most serious
environmental problems are:
· Pollution in its many forms (water pollution, air pollution, nuclear pollution)
· Noise from cars, buses, planes, etc.
· Destruction of wildlife and countryside beauty
· Shortage of natural resources (metals, different kinds of fuel)
· The growth of population
       Since ancient times Nature has served Man, being the source of his life. For
thousands of years people lived in harmony with environment and it seemed to
them that natural riches were unlimited. But with the development of civilization
man's interference in nature began to increase.
       Large cities with thousands of smoky industrial enterprises appear all over
the world today. The byproducts of their activity pollute the air we breathe, the
water we drink, the land we grow grain and vegetables on. That’s why those who
live in cities prefer spending their days off and their holidays far from the noise of
the city, to be closer to nature. Perhaps they like to breathe fresh air or to swim in
clear water because the ecology is not as poor as in the cities.
       Every year world industry pollutes the atmosphere with about 1000 million
tons of dust and other harmful substances. Many cities suffer from smog. Vast
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forests are cut and burn in fire. Their disappearance upsets the oxygen balance. As
a result some rare species of animals, birds, fish and plants disappear forever, a
number of rivers and lakes dry up.
       The pollution of air and the world's ocean, destruction of the ozone layer is
the result of man's careless interaction with nature, a sign of the ecological crises.
        In some way they are the result of scientific and technological progress of
the 20-th century. But people also do a lot of harm to nature because they don't
understand that the man is the part of environment. The relationship between man
and nature has become one of the most vital problems facing civilization today.
       Pollution of water and air is one of the problems millions of people are
concerned today. Acid rains, unsafe of nuclear and hydraulic power stations,
radioactive and other poisonous materials, disposal of wastes became the global
disasters. Cars are one of the most harmful and dangerous polluters of air.
       In more than a hundred towns and cities the concentration of harmful
substances in the air and water is over 10 times the admissible level. Archangelsk
is one of the most "dirty" towns of the country. The Northern Dvina - our main
water source is fully polluted with industrial and communal wastes - the result of
side-effect in the work of three giant pulp and paper mills. Water is not suitable for
drinking.
       . Besides we must remember about ozone holes over our heads. The ozone
layer doesn't protect us from dangerous ultraviolet rays any more. They get
through the atmosphere causing skin cancer and other diseases.
       All these facts make us become more sensitive towards the environment.
The poisoning of the world's land, air, and water is the fastest-spreading disease of
civilization. It probably produces fewer headlines than wars, earthquakes and
floods, but it is potentially one of history's greatest dangers to human life on earth.
If present trends continue for the next several decades, our planet will become
uninhabitable.
                                II. Ecological Problems
       1. Water pollution
     One of the most important pollution problems is the oceans. Many ships sail
in the ocean water- fishing ships, some ships carrying people, some carrying oil. If
a ship loses some of the oil in the water, or waste from the ships in put into the
ocean, the water becomes dirty. Many sea birds die because of the polluted water.
Some beaches are dangerous for swimming.




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        There is no ocean or sea, which is not used as a dump. Many seas are used
for dumping industrial and nuclear waste. This poisons and kills fish and sea
animals. “Nuclear-poisoned” fish can be eaten by people. Many fish are dying in
the sea, others are getting contaminated. Fishermen catch contaminated fish which
may be sold in markets, and people may get sick from eating them. Many rivers
and lakes are poisoned too. Fish and reptiles can’t live in them. There is not
enough oxygen in the water. In such places all the birds leave their habitats and
many plants die. If people drink this water they can die too. It happens so because
factories produce a lot of waste and pour it into rivers. So they poison water.
For a long time people did not realize the danger. The first alarm came from Japan:
sixty people died because they have eaten polluted fish.
       The Baltic Sea is a special case. Because it is such a small sea and it
becomes dirty very easily. Its water changes slowly through the shallow straits. As
many as 250 rivers run into the Baltic. There are hundreds of factories in these
rivers and millions of people live along them. Quite a lot of big cities lie on its
coast. All these combined with the active navigation of the sea naturally affects the
state of the sea water and the shore line flora and fauna. People suffer from the
water pollution; cancer deaths increase people’s concern. Seven industrial
countries surround the Baltic. Once we have polluted the sea, it is very difficult to
clean it.
       The seas are in danger. The Mediterranean is already nearly dead; the North
Sea is following. The Aral Sea is on the brink of extinction. If nothing is done
about it, one day nothing will be able to live in the seas. Every ten minutes one
kind of animal or plant dies out forever.
       Seventy percent of the Earth is covered by oceans. Oceans are vital for the
life on Earth. They provide homes for millions of plants and animals, provide
people with food and help regulate the climate. But now they are a big dumping
ground for tons of toxic waste. Most big cities pour their waste into seas and rivers.
   Virtually all types of water pollution are harmful to the health of humans and
animals. Water pollution may not damage our health immediately but can be
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harmful after long term exposure. Different forms of pollutants affect the health of
animals in different ways:
     Heavy metals from industrial processes can accumulate in nearby lakes and
       rivers. These are toxic to marine life such as fish and shellfish, and
       subsequently to the humans who eat them. Heavy metals can slow
       development; result in birth defects and some are carcinogenic.
     Industrial waste often contains many toxic compounds that damage the
       health of aquatic animals and those who eat them. Some of the toxins in
       industrial waste may only have a mild effect whereas other can be fatal.
       They can cause immune suppression, reproductive failure or acute
       poisoning.
     Microbial pollutants from sewage often result in infectious diseases that
       infect aquatic life and terrestrial life through drinking water. Microbial water
       pollution is a major problem in the developing world, with diseases such as
       cholera and typhoid fever being the primary cause of infant mortality.
     Organic matter and nutrients causes an increase in aerobic algae and
       depletes oxygen from the water column. This causes the suffocation of fish
       and other aquatic organisms.
     Sulfate particles from acid rain can cause harm the health of marine life in
       the rivers and lakes it contaminates, and can result in mortality.
     Suspended particles in freshwater reduces the quality of drinking water for
       humans and the aquatic environment for marine life. Suspended particles
       can often reduce the amount of sunlight penetrating the water, disrupting the
       growth of photosynthetic plants and micro-organisms.
                                         2. Air pollution
   Humans probably first experienced harm from air pollution when they built fires
in poorly ventilated caves. Since then we have gone on to pollute more of the
earth's surface. Until recently, environmental pollution problems have been local
and minor because of the Earth's own ability to absorb and purify minor quantities
of pollutants.
       Air becomes polluted in many ways. Cars, trucks, buses, airplanes, factories
and plants send burnt gases into the air.




       Air pollution is a very serious problem. In Cairo just breathing the air is life
threatening equivalent to smoking two packs of cigarettes a day. The same holds
true for Mexico City and 600 cities of the former Soviet Union. Industrial
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enterprises emit tons of harmful substances. These emissions have disastrous
consequences for our planet. They are the main reason for the greenhouse effect
and acid rains. Because of acid rains the Earth looses twenty million acres of
tropical rainforests every year. This means the extinction of thousands of species
that live there, for example tigers. Only 67 thousand tigers remain. Tigers are
hunted and killed for their body parts, which are used in oriental medicines. The
ozone layer is destroyed too and the dangerous rays get through the atmosphere
causing skin cancer and other diseases. More and more often people are told not
to be in direct sunlight, because ultraviolet radiation from the sun can cause skin
cancer. Normally the ozone layer in the atmosphere protects us from such
radiation, but if there are holes in the ozone layer ultraviolet radiation can get to
the earth. Many scientists think that these holes are the result of air pollution.
          Nuclear power stations can go wrong and cause nuclear pollution. Both
clean air and clean water are necessary for our health. If people want to survive
they must solve these problems quickly. Man is beginning to understand that his
environment is not just his own town or country, but the whole earth. That’s why
people all over the world think and speak so much about ecology.
     You cannot escape air pollution, not even in your own home. "In 1985 the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reported that toxic chemicals found in the
air of almost every American home are three times more likely to cause some type
of cancer than outdoor air pollutants". The health problems in these buildings are
called "sick building syndrome". "An estimated one-fifth to one-third of all U.S.
buildings are now considered "sick". The EPA has found that the air in some
office buildings is 100 times more polluted than the air outside. Poor ventilation
causes about half of the indoor air pollution problems. The rest come from specific
sources such as copying machines, electrical and telephone cables, mold and
microbe-harboring air conditioning systems and ducts, cleaning fluids, cigarette
smoke, carpet, latex caulk and paint, vinyl molding, linoleum tile, and building
materials and furniture that emit air pollutants such as formaldehyde. A major
indoor air pollutant is radon-222, a colorless, odorless, tasteless, naturally
occurring radioactive gas produced by the radioactive decay of uranium-238.
"According to studies by the EPA and the National Research Council, exposure to
radon is second only to smoking as a cause of lung cancer". Radon enters through
pores and cracks in concrete when indoor air pressure is less than the pressure of
gasses in the soil. Indoor air will be healthier than outdoor air if you use an energy
recovery ventilator to provide a consistent supply of fresh filtered air and then seal
air leaks in the shell of your house.
       The primary air pollutants found in most urban areas are carbon monoxide,
nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter (both solid and
liquid). These pollutants are dispersed throughout the world's atmosphere in
concentrations high enough to gradually cause serious health problems. Serious
health problems can occur quickly when air pollutants are concentrated, such as
when massive injections of sulfur dioxide and suspended particulate matter are
emitted by a large volcanic eruption.
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                                    a) Greenhouse effect.
      Also one of the most serious problems is green house effect. How can we
explain the global climate warming? Haven’t you noticed that in this country
winters have become much warmer with hardly any snow? What are the reasons
for this? The first and the main reason is the greenhouse effect. It works like this:
sunlight gives us heat. Some of the heat warms the atmosphere and some of the
heat goes back into space. Nowadays the heat can't go into space. That's why
winter and summer temperatures in many places have become higher. If the
temperature continues growing up the snow on the mountains and ice will melt, so
the most of the earth will be under water.
      Without a natural greenhouse effect, the temperature of the Earth would be
about zero degrees F (-18°C) instead of its present 57°F (14°C). However, the
concern is not with the fact that we have a greenhouse effect, but it is with the
question regarding whether human activities are leading to an enhancement of the
greenhouse effect. Human activity has been increasing the concentration of
greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (mostly carbon dioxide from combustion of
coal, oil, and gas; plus a few other trace gases). There is no scientific debate on this
point. A greenhouse effect is expected to cause cooling in higher parts of the
atmosphere because the increased "blanketing" effect in the lower atmosphere
holds in more heat.
     There has been a general, but not global, tendency toward reduced diurnal
temperature range (the difference between high and low daily temperatures) over
about 50% of the global land mass since the middle of the 20th century.
      So what are the potential effects of rising temperatures? In general scientists
believe that rising temperature will lead to increase evaporation and therefore to
more precipitation. But while some regions will experience increased rainfall,
others will become dryer. Another effect is the rise of the sea levels, which will
result in flooding low-lying coastal areas. This may also lead to increasing the
salinity of the rivers and to decrease of water supplies. And finally climate changes
may cause extinction of many species of birds, animals and plants.
                              b) Acid rains. What is Acid Rain?
       "Acid rain" is a broad term referring to a mixture of wet and dry deposition
(deposited material) from the atmosphere containing higher than normal amounts
of nitric and sulfuric acids. The precursors, or chemical forerunners, of acid rain
formation result from both natural sources, such as volcanoes and decaying
vegetation, and man-made sources, primarily emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2)
and nitrogen oxides (NOx) resulting from fossil fuel combustion. In the United
States, roughly 2/3 of all SO2 and 1/4 of all NOx come from electric power
generation that relies on burning fossil fuels, like coal. Acid rain occurs when
these gases react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen, and other chemicals to
form various acidic compounds. The result is a mild solution of sulfuric acid and
nitric acid. When sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released from power
plants and other sources, prevailing winds blow these compounds across state and
national borders, sometimes over hundreds of miles.
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Wet Deposition
       Wet deposition refers to acidic rain, fog, and snow. If the acid chemicals in
the air are blown into areas where the weather is wet, the acids can fall to the
ground in the form of rain, snow, fog, or mist. As this acidic water flows over and
through the ground, it affects a variety of plants and animals. The strength of the
effects depends on several factors, including how acidic the water is; the chemistry
and buffering capacity of the soils involved; and the types of fish, trees, and other
living things that rely on the water.
       Dry Deposition
In areas where the weather is dry, the acid chemicals may become incorporated
into dust or smoke and fall to the ground through dry deposition, sticking to the
ground, buildings, homes, cars, and trees. Dry deposited gases and particles can be
washed from these surfaces by rainstorms, leading to increased runoff. This runoff
water makes the resulting mixture more acidic. About half of the acidity in the
atmosphere falls back to earth through dry deposition.




Effects of Acid Rain
      Acid rain causes acidification of lakes and streams and contributes to the
damage of trees at high elevations (for example, red spruce trees above 2,000 feet)
and many sensitive forest soils. In addition, acid rain accelerates the decay of
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building materials and paints, including irreplaceable buildings, statues, and
sculptures that are part of our nation's cultural heritage. Prior to falling to the earth,
sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) gases and their particulate matter
derivatives—sulfates and nitrates—contribute to visibility degradation and harm
public health.
       Reducing Acid Rain.
       There are several ways to reduce acid rain—more properly called acid
deposition—ranging from societal changes to individual action. It is critical that
acid deposition be reduced, not only in the United States and Canada, but also
throughout the world to preserve the integrity of natural habitats, as well as to
reduce damage to man-made structures.
       Additionally, individuals and society as a whole can participate in various
efforts to help reduce acid deposition:
            Understand acid deposition’s causes and effects
            Clean up smokestacks and exhaust pipes
            Use alternative energy sources
            Restore a damaged environment
            Look to the future
            Take action as individuals
            Understand acid deposition’s causes and effects
       To solve the acid rain problem, people need to understand how acid rain
damages the environment. They also need to understand what changes could be
made to the air pollution sources that cause the problem. The answers to these
questions help leaders make better decisions about how to control air pollution and
therefore, how to reduce—or even eliminate—acid rain. Because there are many
solutions to the acid rain problem, leaders have a choice of which options or
combination of options is best.
       Take action as individuals
       It may seem like there is not much that one individual can do to stop acid
deposition. However, like many environmental problems, acid deposition is caused
by the cumulative actions of millions of individual people. Therefore, each
individual can also reduce their contribution to the problem and become part of the
solution. Individuals can contribute directly by conserving energy, since energy
production causes the largest portion of the acid deposition problem. For example,
you can:
            Turn off lights, computers, and other appliances when you're not using
              them.
            Use energy-efficient appliances: lighting, air conditioners, heaters,
              refrigerators, washing machines, etc. For more information, see EPA’s
              ENERGY STAR Program.
            Only use electric appliances when you need them.
            Keep your thermostat at 68°F in the winter and 72°F in the summer.
              You can turn it even lower in the winter and higher in the summer
              when you are away from home.
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          Insulate your home as best you can.
          Carpool, use public transportation, or better yet, walk or bicycle
           whenever possible
          Buy vehicles with low NOx emissions, and properly maintain your
           vehicle.
          Be well informed.
     As nations we all share a single ecological space. Acid rains, for example,
have no boundaries. This pollution does not respect administrative or national
regions. The other problem is that our forests are dying from acid rains.
Deforestation, especially destruction of tropical forests, affects the balance of
nature in many ways. It kills animals, changes the climate and ecosystem in the
world. It is damaging to water, forest, and soil resources. It is blamed for the
disappearance of fish from many lakes, for the widespread death of forests in
European mountains, and for damaging tree growth in the United States and
Canada. Acid rain has been reported in areas as far apart as Sweden and Canada,
and in parts of the United States from New England to Texas.
      All the nations must assume a position as responsible members of the world
community level, cooperating in matters of environmental protection. Radioactive
materials present health and safety problems in an increasing number of countries.
The acid falls to earth in form of rain or snow that can damage anything from the
monuments to living organisms. . Unfortunately acid rain doesn’t always fall on
the countries which produce the pollution
                                    c) Nuclear pollution.
      Also we have problem with nuclear pollution. People concern over the
dangers resulting from massive releases of radioactive materials from nuclear
weapons, which, if used on a major scale, could seriously endanger all of
humanity. Nuclear pollution cannot be seen but its effect can be terrible.
Underground nuclear-weapon tests are a major threat to the environment. Steps
must be taken to do away with nuclear tests.




        Another concern is accidents at nuclear power plants. In 1978 a nuclear
power plant in Pennsylvania suffered a severe accident leading to partial meltdown
of its radioactive core. Nuclear power stations are of great danger. We all know
how tragic the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster are. Radiation.

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       Now it has become one of the main problems. It is not good for health of
people. Many people died from radiation some years ago in Chernobyl.
       About 18 percent of the territory of Belarus was also polluted with
radioactive substances. A great damage has been done to the agriculture, forests
and people's health. The consequences of this explosion at the atomic power-
station are tragic for many nations. More than 20% of the population has also
suffered. A death rate among children has increased considerably. The wide
researches are carried out, but health state of the people living in polluted areas, is
worsened. The level of thyroid gland cancer has increased, the immunity of
children and women is weakened, many diseases appear out only a few years
later. Everyone understands that this catastrophe is a threat to health of our nation
and though many years have already passed, the results will be shown on the
future generations.




                                 3. Animals need help.
       People have lived on our planet for many years. They lived and live on
different continents, in different countries. People depend on their planet, on the
sun, on animals and plants around them. People must take care of Earth. Ever since
people lived on earth, they have used animals and plants to give them
everything they need. Animals are killed for meat and skin, trees are cut down for
paper, plants uprooted for food, and minerals are dug from ground. We know that
the supply of animals and plants is not endless. Our ecology becomes worse and
worse with every new day. Many species of animals and birds are disappearing
nowadays. People destruct wildlife, cut down trees to make furniture. They forget
that people can’t live without trees and plants, because they fill air with oxygen.
And, of course, great problems are pollution and animals’ destruction. All around
the world there are species of animals that are about to become extinct,
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disappearing for ever. We need to do something to stop this happening. If we go
on using nature as thoughtlessly as we have been doing, there will soon be nothing
left. So nature has to be looked after carefully.




       Pollution isn’t the only actual problem. Every day a big number of animals
disappear. People kill animals for different aims: e.g. people hunt whales for their
meat and oil, elephants for their tusks, crocodiles for their leather and so on. And
also animals are used for medical experiments. The blue whale is the largest
animal which has ever lived. Once there were over 200000 of these creatures living
in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Since the seventeenth century they have been
hunted for their oil and meat. In fact, so many of them were killed that by 1963
their population had been reduced to just 1000. Today it is even less than
that. The African elephant is the world’s largest land animal. Today there are
fewer than one million of these animals left. Even though they are now protected,
they are still being hunted because of their tusks, which are used to make
ornaments and jewellery. There is only one way to save wild animals and wild
habitats –conservation




        Modern life is bad for animals, birds, and fish. The air isn’t fresh and the
water isn’t pure. They don’t have good meal and facilities for the life. You can find
their names in the Red Book.
      Today, nearly 400 animals are listed as threatened or endangered in the
United States. Many are at risk of becoming extinct or disappearing permanently.
Unless efforts to save these vulnerable animals succeed, many of the country's
greatest creatures will be lost forever. From the facts listed under each question
mark, guess which animals are endangered.

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       Man has always been a hunter. He still is. But many modern hunters don't
just kill for food - they kill for profit. That's why so many rare and protected
animals are still dying. Hunters like these are called poachers. In 1981 there were
15,000 black rhinos in Africa. Today, because of illegal hunting, that number is
4,500.
       In the 1970s there were 1.3 million African elephants. Today, because of
poaching, there are under 85,000.In the I940s, 90% of skins and furs came from
wild animals. Today that number is 15%. That's because most modern skins come
from fur farms.
       Fur Farm Facts:
    o There are more than 2,000 in Scandinavia and 340 in Russia.
    o They don't keep rare or protected animals.
    o Fur farmers kill and sell over 34 million mink every year.
    o Animals in fur farms live in good conditions and die without pain (the
        farmers give them an injection).
        Perhaps the most famous rare animals is the panda. Twenty years ago it
  was nearly extinct. Now, its numbers are growing again. It's even become a
  symbol for wildlife conservation. But many other species have been less lucky
  than the panda. Sonic are already extinct. Today, many more are in serious
  danger. This is because man hunts them destroys and pollutes their habitat.
  There is a serious habitat problem because :
  After pollution or destruction, habitats take many years (sometimes hundreds or
  even thousands) to grow again.
        Pollution and destruction change the balance of nature. Each species in a
  habitat (for example, wood, jungle, marsh or forest) needs and helps the rest. If
  one animal, bird or insect disappears, all the others suffer, too.
        This is what's happening in the rainforests of South America, Africa and
  Asia. These are some of the world's oldest habitats. Or they were. Man is
  destroying an area of rainforest as big as Switzerland every year.
        But the problem doesn't stop there. Habitats and animals are disappearing
  in Europe, too. Since 1947 in Britain, for example...

          50% oft he woods have disappeared.
          50% of the marshes have disappeared.
          95% of the meadows have disappeared.
      And what has taken the place of these green, natural places? Houses farms,
 cities, streets, roads and factories. Because of this (and pollution, too) several
 British species are dying. In fact scientists believe that 30 British animals, fish
 and birds may become extinct by the year 2000.
     The solution: There is only one way to save wild animals and wild habitats-
 conservation.
          protecting animals in danger by law
          opening more national parks

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         building fewer new roads
         planting more new forests
         cutting pollution
    If this doesn't happen, many wild animals will soon have just one habitat,
the zoo.
But what about the other 15% of furs? Well, these still come from wild
animals. Hunters catch most of them in traps. These are made of metal and are
very sharp. Most animals caught in traps die very slowly.
     The USA traps over 20 million animals every year. The most popular furs
are... mink, sable, fox, squirrel and lynx. These rare animals are all in danger
because hunters kill them for their fur... snow leopard, jaguar, ocelot, Indian
tiger cat, and lynx.
    The solution: The fur trade argument.
         Stop the fur trade.
         It's wrong to keep wild animals in cages.
         It's wrong to kill animals for fashion and profit.
         It's wrong to kill wild animals in traps.
It's wrong to sell the fur of rare, protected species.

                                   4. Rubbish.
 One of the main reasons of pollution is rubbish. We are surrounded by waste.
Our rubbish is fly-tipped into railway cuttings, buried in landfill sites, and
dumped at the bottom of oceans and rivers. Despite increasing recycling rates,
we live on a planet awash with trash.
Most of our rubbish goes to big holes in the ground, called ‘dumps’. But dumps
are very dangerous for our life because they are full of rats, which can carry
infections away from dumps. Another way to get rid of rubbish is to burn it.
But the fires make poisons, which go into the air and pollute it




                                       15
  The rubbish situation has become a big concern in cities all around the country and not
only is this a political issue, but it is also a problem that has caught the attention of the
general population. We all realize there is a growing problem but nobody likes to admit
that their rubbish is contributing to the problem.
    Burning rubbish isn't a solution - it pollutes the air and may release toxic
substances. Composting and recycling are healthier options for you, your neighbours
and the environment.
   If there is no other option for dealing with our rubbish then a modern, well-
designed and operated landfill is a reasonable option for managing our rubbish.

While landfills effectively contain our rubbish, did you know that:

   • rubbish doesn't break down very well in a landfill. Plastic, steel, aluminium and
     even paper and cardboard take tens or hundreds of years to break down
   • while modern landfills don’t tend to cause dust or odour problems, nobody wants to
     live near one
   • as garden rubbish and kitchen scraps break down in a landfill they produce
     methane. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas (20 times worse than carbon dioxide,
     the main greenhouse gas) and can reach explosive concentrations in enclosed
     spaces such as basements
   • rainwater percolating through the landfill and the break down of garden rubbish and
     kitchen scraps contribute to a liquid called leachate. In old landfills, leachate can
     escape and contaminate surface and groundwater. In modern, well-managed
     landfills it costs a lot of money to collect and treat the leachate.

                   III . Environmental protection The Royal Society for the prevention
                                  of cruelty to animals

      Of course, people can't stay indifferent to these problems. There are a lot of special
organizations, which try to save our nature. The most known are: The Royal Society for
the prevention of cruelty to animals (The RSPCA), the World Wildlife Fund (WWF),
"Friends of the Earth" (FoE) and Greenpeace.
     The RSPCA tries to protect animals from bad use. It operates big nation
campaigns aimed at lost pets, circus animals.
 2. The World Wildlife Fund (WWF), The WWF rescued several species of animals,
mammals as well as birds. These organizations also help to create more than 250 National
parks. 3. "Friends of the Earth" (FoE)
      "Friends of the Earth" (FoE) is one of the British pressure groups with an
international reputation. Its general aim is to conserve the planet's resources and reduce
pollution. FoE was established in 1971 and now it operated in 44 countries worldwide. It
campaigns among other things, for recycling and renewable energy, and the destruction of
wildlife and habitat. The main campaigning issues of the FoE are:


                                               16
        • The protection of all animals and plants in danger of extinction.
        • An end to the destruction of wildlife and habitats.
• A program of energy conservation measures, etc.
So, a number of campaigns resulted in:
• The ban or other hunting in England and Wales
        • And indefinite delay in the construction of the Commercial East Breeder
Reactor, etc.
        But not only great groups can influence the problem of pollution. So, different
people have their own opinions on this problem:
      The continued pollution of the earth, if unchecked, well eventually destroys the
        fitness of this planet as a place for human life.
      The Earth has enough for every man's need, but not for man's greed.
        4. Greenpeace.
      Greenpeace began its work 20 years ago from saving whales. And now Greenpeace
is a world-famous organization, which saves plants, animals and people. Greenpeace is a
very famous pressure group. It started functioning in 1971. Its headquarters are at
Amsterdam, but it operates in 25 countries worldwide. The aim of Greenpeace is to protect
wildlife of toxic wastes, nuclear tests.
         These organizations want to rescue animals, to help them to survive and to save
jungle rain forests, which are in danger of destruction. And they also help animals because
many of them have already gone as they have nowhere to live. Their homes, the trees have
disappeared.
         Environmental protection is of a universal concern. That is why serious measures to
create a system of ecological security should be taken. We must save wild animals. And
we must find the right way to save land, people and animals. We must take care of nature,
because we are part of it. And I agree with them because it is really so. We are to stop
pollution. So, we can grow plants and trees, to purify waste, to start urgent campaigns in
order to preserve environment.
         For example, one of such actions was held in 1989 in Australia, Sydney. In a year
the same kind of action was held all over Australia and it was called "Clean up Australia".
The following years 110 countries hold the similar actions within the ecological program
of the UNO.
      Fortunately all the countries realized the problems and cooperated to solve ecological
problems. I would like to dwell on practical measures which must be taken in order to
improve the ecological situation: the factories and plants must be removed from cities;
green zones must be created; pollution control systems must be introduced; purifying
systems for cleaning and trapping harmful substances must be widely used; almost
everything is recyclable today — recycling is a great way to reduce waste. We need clean
air to breathe and pure water to drink. We need also food that is safe to eat and housing to
shelter us. We can’t get all these things by ourselves. We live in community so we can
solve our problems only working together.
                     Russia is cooperating in the field of environmental protection with the
USA, Canada, Norway, Finland and other countries. A lot of public organizations have

                                            17
been established. One of them is Green Peace which was formed in 1971 with its
Head-quarters in Amsterdam. The area of operation is 25 countries world-wide. Its |
objectives are to protect wild life and atmosphere, to prevent disposal of toxic
waste and nuclear tests.
       Some progress has been already made in this direction.
      As many as 159 countries - members of the UNO - have set up environmental
protection agencies. Numerous conferences have been held by these agencies to discuss
problems facing ecologically poor regions including the Aral Sea, the South Urals,
Kuzbass, Donbas, Semipalatinsk and Chernobyl. An international environmental research
centre has been set up on Lake Baikal. The international organization Greenpeace is also
doing much to preserve the environment.
  But these are only the initial steps and they must be carried onward to protect f nature, to
save life on the planet not only for the sake of the present but also for the | future
generations.
      Whether scientist or politicians, bankers or student, whether Greek,
Norwegian, Hungarian or Finn ... all are encouraged to make a contribution
towards protecting the environment. Dedication and the courage to change one's |
way of thinking are called for.
                                  IV. Ecological situation...                                     |
                                          1. In Russia                                           I
      At present the Russian Federation accommodates some of the most polluted cities and
areas in the world. The environment in such cities as Nizhniy Tagil, Magnitogorsk,
Novocherkassk and Bratsk is really dangerous as the volumes of various contaminants
exceed the maximum allowed amounts by as much as 100%. Due to many diseases, the
death rate is higher and the life expectancy is shorter overall in Russia and in these cities in
particular. In the North and North-West Russia such cities as Nickel, Kostomuksha,
Murmansk and St. Petersburg are the most polluted.
    In most Russian regions the main sources of water pollution are residential areas and
industrial and agricultural enterprises. The share of residential areas in total water pollution
amounts to 96% in Moscow, from 80 to 90% in St Petersburg | and Omsk, more than
50% in Nizhniy Novgorod and Saratov, 40% in Samara and about 30% in Yekaterinburg,
Krasnoyarsk and Chelyabinsk.
     Pollution also contributes to forest degradation. For example, air pollution from huge
nickel smelters in the Arctic city of Norilsk has killed 350,000 hectares
of forest and has damaged another 140,000 hectares. The Norilsk plant emits 2.3
million metric tons of sulphur dioxide every year, five times the total sulphur emissions of
Sweden. Industrial emissions are blamed for killing off 1 million hectares of forest land,
whereas the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident contaminated 4 million hectares
of forests in Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine.
                                        2. In Saratov region
         On January 14, 2010, public organizations - the Partnership for Development
Association, Centre for Promotion of Environmental Initiatives, and Bird Conservation
Union of Russia - held in Saratov a roundtable "Global climate
                                                18
change: a regional perspective." Its participants recognized the need to develop a system of
adaptation to the adverse effects of climate change in the region.
     The round table was attended by representatives of universities and scientific
institutions of Saratov (Saratov State University, Saratov Stage Agricultural University,
Saratov State Technical University, Institute of Agricultural Problems of the Russian
Academy of Sciences, the Saratov Regional Center for Hydrometeorology and
Environmental Monitoring, the Federal Office of Energy Efficiency and Energy Saving in
the South-Volga region), non-governmental environmental organizations and the media in
the region. The round table was also attended by the officials of the Government of Saratov
region (Ministry of Forestry, the Committee on Environment and Nature, Ministry of
Housing and Communal Services, Ministry of Industry, Public Relations Committee and
National Policy).
    According to the head of the Regional Center for Hydrometeorology and
Environmental Monitoring, the average temperature in the Saratov region has increased by
more than 1,5 C, the annual runoff of small rivers decreases (in 2008 it amounted to 2-10%
of average annual values), the number of adverse and dangerous hydro-and agro-
meteorological events (strong winds, tornadoes, hails, frosts, droughts, extreme
temperatures, etc.) increases.
    Despite the inevitable debate on the question of human contribution to climate change,
all participants agreed that the adverse effects of climate change could have a significant
impact on many spheres of activity, particularly in agriculture and forestry (which is
especially important given the agrarian specific of the region).
   The discussions also touched ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, implementing
energy-saving technologies and alternative energy sources. Ministry of Housing
announced the development of the Energy efficiency programme for 2011 and subsequent
years (as a continuation of the current one), with account for the Law on energy saving and
the Climate doctrine. The Committee on Environmental Protection and Nature reported on
the program of environmental improvement and urged all participants to submit proposals
in the Action Plan to implement the Concept of eco-safety (which, while in the outline,
includes a paragraph on the development of the program of ecological house-building).
However, the question by Olga Pitsunova, the Chairperson of the Committee on
Environmental Policy, Public Chamber of the Saratov region, was left unanswered: Why
the Action Plan for 2010 does not include the section "Development of measures for
adaptation to climate change and for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions" proposed by
NGOs.
     Unfortunately, the Ministry of Industry and Energy did not make any presentation,
although many participants raised issues that are within its sphere of competence (gas
flaring, lack of equipment industrial treatment plants, etc.). The structures responsible for
the population health and welfare - The Federal Service and the Ministry of Health — also
kept silence. Meanwhile, the report by the Centre for Hydrometeorology and
Environmental Monitoring definitely noted that the decrease in annual river flow will not
only cause water shortages, but also the deterioration of water quality. Due to existing and
projected climate changes, this


                                             19
will create favorable conditions for the spread of infectious and parasitic diseases, and deteriorate
the situation for high-risk groups.
    The Round table participants agreed that there is the need to develop the regional climate
strategy, as well as the system for adaptation to climate change. This follows not only from the
Climate Doctrine of Russia, but is forced by currently manifested effects of climate change on the
regional level.
     Taking into account the complexity of the problem, the round table participants agreed to create
an interagency task force that will work on developing a regional climate strategy and action plans.

_____________________________ V. Conclusion ______________________________
    People have affected Nature. But during the last two centuries due to the development of
industry mankind has transformed the environment radically. So we must ask the question: "Are
you a friend of the planet?" If so, everyone must follow some environmental slogans.

                               - Please be quiet, leave radios at home.
                          - Help to keep all water clean. - Protect wildlife,
                         plants and trees. - Do not spoil the gardens- do not
                            leave Utter. - Do not take flowers and plants.
                               - Do not damage the banks of the river
                                       - Do not disturb animals

      Students of our school answered the questions about their attitude towards the problems. Most
of them think that environmental protection is a universal concern. To protect nature people should
change their attitude to it Also they consider that man should stop taking from it everything he
needs. It is good that at last people started to realize that they should keep air and water clean by
establishing strict pollution control.
  I believe that environment disasters can be avoided if people broaden ecological education and
every person understands that the beauty of nature is extremely fragile and people must obey the
unwritten laws of nature. Governments must be prepared to take action against pollution. Air
pollution could be reduced if plants and factories were made to fit effective filters on chimneys and
car exhausts. Green zones around big cities must be protected and extended. Natural resources
should be used economically because their stocks are not unlimited. I suppose the solution of the
problem quires the cooperation the people's efforts.




                                                 20
                                     List of literature
1. www.English language.ru
2. http://www.native-english.ru/topics
3. http://naexamen.ru/english
4. http://top-referat.ru
5. http://homeenglish.ru/referats
6. http://www.obmenreferatami.ru
7. http://abc-enghsh-grammar.com.
8. http://referat.deport.ru
9. http ://www.parta.com. ua/
10.http://www.english-easy.info/referats
11. Е.Б. Полякова, Г.П. Раббот. English for teenagers. Москва 1997
12.Журиеа Т.Ю. Английский язык. Тематический сборник для подготовки
    к устному экзамену по английскому языку за курс средней школы. 11
    класс. Дрофа. Москва, 2007 год
13.Жури на Т.Ю. Английский язык. Тематический сборник для подготовки
    к устному экзамену по английскому язык. 9 класс. Дрофа. Москва. 2008
14. Кравченко Н.В. Английский язык. Ответы на экзаменационные билеты.
    11 класс. Экзамен. Москва. 2006 год
15.Миньяр-Белоручева А.П. Английский язык. Тематический сборник. 9
    класс. Дрофа. Москва. 2008 год




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