Eggplant_ Pepper_ and Tomato XXIV - Phomopsis Fruit Rot by zhangsshaohui123

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									  High Plains IPM Guide, a cooperative effort of the University of Wyoming, University of Nebraska, Colorado State
                                    University and Montana State University.



Eggplant, Pepper, and Tomato


Phomopsis Fruit Rot (Phomopsis Blight)

Howard F. Schwartz and David H. Gent




Identification and Life Cycle

Phomopsis blight is caused by the fungus Phomopsis vexans, and is a major
disease of eggplant. Tomato and pepper are not affected by Phomopsis blight.
The disease occurs when spores are released from a fungal fruiting body
(pycnidia) and dispersed by splashing rain, insects, and contaminated equipment.
Spores germinate rapidly when free moisture is present on leaves, stems, or
leaves. The fungus survives between eggplant crops on and in crop debris, seeds,
and soil.



Plant Response and Damage

Phomopsis blight can cause disease on eggplant leaves, stems, and fruit. P.
vexans also can cause a seedling damping-off. Leaf spots first appear as small
(less than 0.4 inches) gray to brown lesions with light centers. Lesions often
become numerous and cover large areas of leaves. Severely infected leaves
become torn, yellow and wither. Small black dots, the fungal fruiting bodies
called pycnidia, are often apparent on older leaf, stem, and fruit lesions. Stems
and branches may develop dry, brown, cracked and sunken cankers. If a canker
develops at the base of a stem, it can girdle and kill the stem. Fruit lesions are
sunken, discolored, and soft with a surrounding margin of black fruit bodies. If
conditions become dry, infected fruit become shriveled, dry, and form black
mummies.



Management Approaches


Biological Control

No biological control strategies have been developed for Phomopsis blight.
  High Plains IPM Guide, a cooperative effort of the University of Wyoming, University of Nebraska, Colorado State
                                    University and Montana State University.
  High Plains IPM Guide, a cooperative effort of the University of Wyoming, University of Nebraska, Colorado State
                                    University and Montana State University.




Cultural Control

Plant only high quality seed and transplants free from the Phomopsis blight
fungus. Plant resistant varieties if available and suitable for your marketing
needs. Practice a three-year or longer crop rotation between eggplant crops.
Destroy crop residues after harvest by deep plowing to reduce over wintering of
the pathogen. Promote rapid leaf drying by timing irrigations to end before dusk,
spacing plants farther apart in and between rows, and planting parallel to the
prevailing wind direction.



Chemical Control

If disease is identified in the field treatment with a recommend fungicide is
advisable. Newer fungicides such as Cabrio, Quadris, and Endura are registered
for use on eggplant, but their efficacy against Phomopsis fruit rot is unknown.
Fungicides are most effective when combined with cultural control strategies.




Product List for Phomopsis Fruit Rot (Phomopsis Blight):

 Pesticide                      Rate/Acre             Application Frequency                    Remarks
                                                      (days)
 Captan
 Captan 50                      2 lb                  3-7 days                                 4 day REI
 Copper Fungicides
 Champ Dry Prill                2 lb                  7-10 days
 Champ Formula 2                2 pt                  7-10 days
 Copper-Count-N                 4 pt                  7-10 days
 Cuprofix Disperss              2.5-6 lb              7-10 days
 Kocide 101                     1.5-3 lb              5-7 days
 Kocide DF                      1.5-3 lb              5-7 days
 Kocide 4.5LF                   1-2 pt                5-7 days
 Kocide 3000                    0.75 lb               7-10 days
 Nordox                         2-4 lb                7-10 days
 Top Cop + S                    4 pt                  7-10 days                                1 day PHI
 Tri-Basic Copper               3 lb                  7-10 days                                1 day PHI
 EBDC
 Maneb 75DF                     1.5-2 lb              7-10 days                                Maximum of 14.9
                                                                                               lbs; 5 day PHI
 Maneb 80W                      1.5-2 lb              7-10 days                                Maximum of 12.8
  High Plains IPM Guide, a cooperative effort of the University of Wyoming, University of Nebraska, Colorado State
                                    University and Montana State University.
   High Plains IPM Guide, a cooperative effort of the University of Wyoming, University of Nebraska, Colorado State
                                     University and Montana State University.


                                                                                                         lbs; 5 day PHI
 The information herein is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and that listing of commercial products,
 necessary to this guide, implies no endorsement by the authors or the Extension Services of Nebraska, Colorado, Wyoming or Montana.
 Criticism of products or equipment not listed is neither implied nor intended. Due to constantly changing labels, laws and regulations, the
 Extension Services can assume no liability for the suggested use of chemicals contained herein. Pesticides must be applied legally
 complying with all label directions and precautions on the pesticide container and any supplemental labeling and rules of state and federal
 pesticide regulatory agencies. State rules and regulations and special pesticide use allowances may vary from state to state: contact your
 State Department of Agriculture for the rules, regulations and allowances applicable in your state and locality.




Categories: Eggplant, Pepper, Tomato, Disease, Phomopsis Fruit Rot, Phomopsis
Blight

Date: 04/01/2007




   High Plains IPM Guide, a cooperative effort of the University of Wyoming, University of Nebraska, Colorado State
                                     University and Montana State University.

								
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