Brent Tully by xiaopangnv

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									Galaxy Distances - Then and Now

         Brent Tully, University of Hawaii
            with the essential collaboration of
    Rick Fisher, Ed Shaya, and Helene Courtois




                                       “I have now been able to reach a solution …
                                       which I regard as definitive. The result is 865
                                       km/s/Mpc.”

                                       A.S. Eddington 1935, MNRAS, 95, 636
Are galaxies galaxies?

    E Hubble 1924, 33rd mtg AAS
    Cepheids in M31 and M33
    d = 285 kpc
Are galaxies galaxies?

    E Hubble 1924, 33rd mtg AAS
    Cepheids in M31 and M33
    d = 285 kpc




                                  E Opik 1922, ApJ, 155, 406
                                  Virial theorem: M~V2R
                                  d = 450 kpc
Are galaxies galaxies?

    E Hubble 1924, 33rd mtg AAS
    Cepheids in M31 and M33
    d = 285 kpc




                                  E Opik 1922, ApJ, 155, 406
                                  Virial theorem: M~V2R
                                  d = 450 kpc
                Distances in the early ‘70s
                     Desperation methods:
                     - diameters of HII regions
                     - brightest blue supergiants
                     - brightest red supergiants
                     - luminosity classifications
                     - sosi


                    Less desperate:
Opik’s method
                    - indicative total mass

                  MT = 0.1 D  V2 / sin2 i
                  D = distance
                   = size
                  V = profile 1/2 width

                  Roberts 1962, AJ, 67, 431
                  Balkowski et al. 1973, A&A, 23, 139
Fisher and Tully
Graduate: 1972




                         QuickTime™ and a
                           decompressor
                   are neede d to see this picture.
M31
Mpg = -21.0        A Thought Experiment
0.5Wi = 258 km/s
                                     M33
                                     Mpg = -18.7
                                     0.5Wi = 109 km/s
M31
Mpg = -21.0        A Thought Experiment
0.5Wi = 258 km/s
                                                   M33
                                                   Mpg = -18.7
                                                   0.5Wi = 109 km/s




                                       factor 2
                                       distance
                                       changes



                      Mpg = -19.5 ??



                                  Mpg = -20.2 ??
Tully & Fisher 1977, A&A, 54, 661




                                    Virgo Cluster: d = 13.2 Mpc
                                    H0 ~ 80 km/s/Mpc
my H0 contributions



                               H0 = 85
                               PT: 2 clusters; 3
                                                   H0 = 77
                               ZP (1 @ I)
                                                   TP: 12 clusters; 24 ZP
                                                                     H0 = 75.9
                                                                     CT: 13 clusters;
TF: 1977, A&A, 54,661                                                36 ZP; SNIa tie
PT: 1988, ApJ, 330, 579
TP: 2000, ApJ, 533, 744
CT: 2012, ApJ, 749, (Apr 10)                                                        L band
my H0 contributions



                               H0 = 85
                               PT: 2 clusters; 3
                                                   H0 = 77
                               ZP (1 @ I)
                                                   TP: 12 clusters; 24 ZP
                                                                     H0 = 75.9
                                                                     CT: 13 clusters;
TF: 1977, A&A, 54,661                                                36 ZP; SNIa tie
PT: 1988, ApJ, 330, 579
TP: 2000, ApJ, 533, 744
CT: 2012, ApJ, 749, (Apr 10)                                                        L band




 We knew in 1988 that
 CDM with m=1 was
 wrong
Calibration 2012
 Mibik = -21.39 - 8.81(logWimx - 2.5   )
Calibration 2012
 Mibik = -21.39 - 8.81(logWimx - 2.5   )




                                           NGC 2403 (only ZP calibrator at I in 1988)
                                           M = 0.27 => 13% in distance
                                           H0: 75=>85
    SNIa calibration: link to large scales
Cepheid, TRGB, SBF, TF, FP




                               Courtois & Tully 2012, ApJ, 748, #2
Mid Infrared Calibration
        1. uniformity across sky
        2. flux dominantly from old stars
        3. minimal extinction corrections
        4. deep `total’ photometry

        But:
        color is a 3rd parameter


                                            S: Spitzer 3.5m fluxes - color adjustment




                                                  Sorce et al. 2012, in prep.
          Deviations from Cosmic Expansion
                                         Vobs = H0d + Vpec
                                          H0 = <Vobs/d>
     Aaronson, Huchra, Mould, Schechter, Tully 1982, ApJ, 258, 64 Virgocentric flows in Local Supercluster

     Ed Shaya’s thesis:
     Shaya         1984, ApJ, 280, 470 Anticipated Great Attractor influence
     Tully & Shaya 1984, ApJ, 281, 31 Virgo infall
     Shaya & Tully 1984, ApJ, 281, 56 Angular momentum in galaxies

                                                              many galaxies, mostly spirals,
mass of Virgo Cluster well constrained                        enter Virgo Cluster in next 3 Gyr

by most extreme infalling galaxies
             Quiet Local Flow and Local Velocity Anomaly

Sandage, Tammann, & Hardy 1972, ApJ, 172, 253
Tammann & Kraan 1978, IAU Symp 79, 71
Tully 1982, ApJ, 257, 389
Karachentsev, Kashibadze, Makarov, Tully 2009, 393, 1265



                               los ~ 25 km/s


                                                           TRGB distances with HST
        Quiet Local Flow and Local Velocity Anomaly
                                Faber & Burstein 1988, Vatican Study Week, p116
                                Tully 1988, Vatican Study Week, p169
                                Tully, Shaya, Karachentsev, Courtois, et al. 2008, ApJ, 676, 184



                                                Velocity discontinuity between Local
                                                Sheet and adjacent Leo Spur
Local Supercluster                    zoom in




     orange: Vpec > 100 km/s
     green: |Vpec| < 100 km/s
     purple: Vpec < -100 km/s
        Quiet Local Flow and Local Velocity Anomaly
                                Faber & Burstein 1988, Vatican Study Week, p116
                                Tully 1988, Vatican Study Week, p169
                                Tully, Shaya, Karachentsev, Courtois, et al. 2008, ApJ, 676, 184



                                                Velocity discontinuity between Local
                                                Sheet and adjacent Leo Spur
Local Supercluster                    zoom in




     orange: Vpec > 100 km/s                vectors
     green: |Vpec| < 100 km/s               orange: 323 km/s
     purple: Vpec < -100 km/s               blue: 185 km/s toward Virgo
                                            red: 259 km/s away from Local Void
              Numerical Action Models
                    Peebles 1989, ApJ, 344, L53
                    Shaya, Peebles, Tully 1995, ApJ, 454, 15
                    Peebles, Phelps, Shaya, Tully 2001, ApJ, 554, 104




out of Local Void                                                       toward Virgo




                                 toward Virgo
Virgo


        NAM: small scales

         Model focusing on the interactions
         between the dominant galaxies in
         the Local and Maffei groups.


        from Void




                            Virgo
         NAM: intermediate scales
                      Shaya, Peebles, & Tully 1995, ApJ, 454, 15




Distances to galaxies with V<3000 km/s
Mass assignments based on B light
=> m = 0.2




                                 13.7 Gyr
   MAK Reconstruction
       (Monge-Ampere-Kantorovich)
Lavaux, Tully, Mohayaee, Colombi 2010, ApJ, 709, 483




                                         Action reconstruction with 105 galaxies
         Cosmicflows-1 (distances)




redshift survey




  Wiener Filter                        local

Courtois, Hoffman, Tully, Gottloeber
2012, ApJ, 744, 43




                                       tidal
                                 Cosmicflows-2
                                 Courtois, Tully, Fisher et al. 2009, AJ, 138, 1938
                                 Courtois, Tully, … Fisher et al. 2011, MNRAS, 414, 2005
                                 Courtois, Tully, Heraudeau 2011 MNRAS, 415, 1935




                                                                         As of 2012, April 1:
                                                                         14,221 galaxies with HI profiles
                                                                         11,353 galaxies good HI




                            link SFI++ - FP                                     link SNIa
link Cepheid - TRGB - SBF
                                       Photometry
                                       Courtois et al. 2011, MNRAS, 415, 1935
                                       Sorce et al. in preparation




                    HST CMD
                    Jacobs et al. 2009, AJ, 138, 332




                                                       HI profiles
                                                       Courtois et al. 2009, AJ, 138, 1938
                                                       Courtois et al. 2011, MNRAS, 414, 2005




Redshift catalogs
Group information
Summary distances




  EDD: Extragalactic Distance Database
                         http://edd.ifa.hawaii.edu
                           Tully et al. 2009, AJ, 138, 323                      Curators: Luca Rizzi, Ed Shaya

								
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