# Brent Tully by xiaopangnv

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```									Galaxy Distances - Then and Now

Brent Tully, University of Hawaii
with the essential collaboration of
Rick Fisher, Ed Shaya, and Helene Courtois

“I have now been able to reach a solution …
which I regard as definitive. The result is 865
km/s/Mpc.”

A.S. Eddington 1935, MNRAS, 95, 636
Are galaxies galaxies?

E Hubble 1924, 33rd mtg AAS
Cepheids in M31 and M33
d = 285 kpc
Are galaxies galaxies?

E Hubble 1924, 33rd mtg AAS
Cepheids in M31 and M33
d = 285 kpc

E Opik 1922, ApJ, 155, 406
Virial theorem: M~V2R
d = 450 kpc
Are galaxies galaxies?

E Hubble 1924, 33rd mtg AAS
Cepheids in M31 and M33
d = 285 kpc

E Opik 1922, ApJ, 155, 406
Virial theorem: M~V2R
d = 450 kpc
Distances in the early ‘70s
Desperation methods:
- diameters of HII regions
- brightest blue supergiants
- brightest red supergiants
- luminosity classifications
- sosi

Less desperate:
Opik’s method
- indicative total mass

MT = 0.1 D  V2 / sin2 i
D = distance
 = size
V = profile 1/2 width

Roberts 1962, AJ, 67, 431
Balkowski et al. 1973, A&A, 23, 139
Fisher and Tully

QuickTime™ and a
decompressor
are neede d to see this picture.
M31
Mpg = -21.0        A Thought Experiment
0.5Wi = 258 km/s
M33
Mpg = -18.7
0.5Wi = 109 km/s
M31
Mpg = -21.0        A Thought Experiment
0.5Wi = 258 km/s
M33
Mpg = -18.7
0.5Wi = 109 km/s

factor 2
distance
changes

Mpg = -19.5 ??

Mpg = -20.2 ??
Tully & Fisher 1977, A&A, 54, 661

Virgo Cluster: d = 13.2 Mpc
H0 ~ 80 km/s/Mpc
my H0 contributions

H0 = 85
PT: 2 clusters; 3
H0 = 77
ZP (1 @ I)
TP: 12 clusters; 24 ZP
H0 = 75.9
CT: 13 clusters;
TF: 1977, A&A, 54,661                                                36 ZP; SNIa tie
PT: 1988, ApJ, 330, 579
TP: 2000, ApJ, 533, 744
CT: 2012, ApJ, 749, (Apr 10)                                                        L band
my H0 contributions

H0 = 85
PT: 2 clusters; 3
H0 = 77
ZP (1 @ I)
TP: 12 clusters; 24 ZP
H0 = 75.9
CT: 13 clusters;
TF: 1977, A&A, 54,661                                                36 ZP; SNIa tie
PT: 1988, ApJ, 330, 579
TP: 2000, ApJ, 533, 744
CT: 2012, ApJ, 749, (Apr 10)                                                        L band

We knew in 1988 that
CDM with m=1 was
wrong
Calibration 2012
Mibik = -21.39 - 8.81(logWimx - 2.5   )
Calibration 2012
Mibik = -21.39 - 8.81(logWimx - 2.5   )

NGC 2403 (only ZP calibrator at I in 1988)
M = 0.27 => 13% in distance
H0: 75=>85
SNIa calibration: link to large scales
Cepheid, TRGB, SBF, TF, FP

Courtois & Tully 2012, ApJ, 748, #2
Mid Infrared Calibration
1. uniformity across sky
2. flux dominantly from old stars
3. minimal extinction corrections
4. deep `total’ photometry

But:
color is a 3rd parameter

S: Spitzer 3.5m fluxes - color adjustment

Sorce et al. 2012, in prep.
Deviations from Cosmic Expansion
Vobs = H0d + Vpec
H0 = <Vobs/d>
Aaronson, Huchra, Mould, Schechter, Tully 1982, ApJ, 258, 64 Virgocentric flows in Local Supercluster

Ed Shaya’s thesis:
Shaya         1984, ApJ, 280, 470 Anticipated Great Attractor influence
Tully & Shaya 1984, ApJ, 281, 31 Virgo infall
Shaya & Tully 1984, ApJ, 281, 56 Angular momentum in galaxies

many galaxies, mostly spirals,
mass of Virgo Cluster well constrained                        enter Virgo Cluster in next 3 Gyr

by most extreme infalling galaxies
Quiet Local Flow and Local Velocity Anomaly

Sandage, Tammann, & Hardy 1972, ApJ, 172, 253
Tammann & Kraan 1978, IAU Symp 79, 71
Tully 1982, ApJ, 257, 389
Karachentsev, Kashibadze, Makarov, Tully 2009, 393, 1265

los ~ 25 km/s

TRGB distances with HST
Quiet Local Flow and Local Velocity Anomaly
Faber & Burstein 1988, Vatican Study Week, p116
Tully 1988, Vatican Study Week, p169
Tully, Shaya, Karachentsev, Courtois, et al. 2008, ApJ, 676, 184

Velocity discontinuity between Local
Local Supercluster                    zoom in

orange: Vpec > 100 km/s
green: |Vpec| < 100 km/s
purple: Vpec < -100 km/s
Quiet Local Flow and Local Velocity Anomaly
Faber & Burstein 1988, Vatican Study Week, p116
Tully 1988, Vatican Study Week, p169
Tully, Shaya, Karachentsev, Courtois, et al. 2008, ApJ, 676, 184

Velocity discontinuity between Local
Local Supercluster                    zoom in

orange: Vpec > 100 km/s                vectors
green: |Vpec| < 100 km/s               orange: 323 km/s
purple: Vpec < -100 km/s               blue: 185 km/s toward Virgo
red: 259 km/s away from Local Void
Numerical Action Models
Peebles 1989, ApJ, 344, L53
Shaya, Peebles, Tully 1995, ApJ, 454, 15
Peebles, Phelps, Shaya, Tully 2001, ApJ, 554, 104

out of Local Void                                                       toward Virgo

toward Virgo
Virgo

NAM: small scales

Model focusing on the interactions
between the dominant galaxies in
the Local and Maffei groups.

from Void

Virgo
NAM: intermediate scales
Shaya, Peebles, & Tully 1995, ApJ, 454, 15

Distances to galaxies with V<3000 km/s
Mass assignments based on B light
=> m = 0.2

13.7 Gyr
MAK Reconstruction
(Monge-Ampere-Kantorovich)
Lavaux, Tully, Mohayaee, Colombi 2010, ApJ, 709, 483

Action reconstruction with 105 galaxies
Cosmicflows-1 (distances)

redshift survey

Wiener Filter                        local

Courtois, Hoffman, Tully, Gottloeber
2012, ApJ, 744, 43

tidal
Cosmicflows-2
Courtois, Tully, Fisher et al. 2009, AJ, 138, 1938
Courtois, Tully, … Fisher et al. 2011, MNRAS, 414, 2005
Courtois, Tully, Heraudeau 2011 MNRAS, 415, 1935

As of 2012, April 1:
14,221 galaxies with HI profiles
11,353 galaxies good HI

link Cepheid - TRGB - SBF
Photometry
Courtois et al. 2011, MNRAS, 415, 1935
Sorce et al. in preparation

HST CMD
Jacobs et al. 2009, AJ, 138, 332

HI profiles
Courtois et al. 2009, AJ, 138, 1938
Courtois et al. 2011, MNRAS, 414, 2005

Redshift catalogs
Group information
Summary distances

EDD: Extragalactic Distance Database
http://edd.ifa.hawaii.edu
Tully et al. 2009, AJ, 138, 323                      Curators: Luca Rizzi, Ed Shaya

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