Material also covered...
- Understanding Sound
- How Q-Tran’s cores are made
- Why we use Toroids
- What our speciﬁcation / certiﬁcation
marks on our products mean
- Our quality and safety requirments
C.E.O. - Q-Tran, Inc.
In 1990, John Tremaine noticed a
need in the lighting industry for
remote transformers able to eliminate
noise and heat, enhance the quality
of light output, and install with a degree of flexibility.
a fine example of
John Tremaine started his lighting career in 1970 with
his family's lighting business, The Miller Company,
acquired by his grandfather in the early 1930s. John's
In February of 2000... Q-Tran, Inc.
great grandfather founded the National Electric Lamp
moved to historic Bridgeport, CT to
Association (NELA), which became General Electric's
accommodate for its rapid growth in
lamp division in Cleveland, still in use today as Nela
production and personnel. With over
Park. Lighting design became John's greatest interest.
30,000 sq. ft. of facility, Q-Tran offers
In 1980 he started his own lighting design practice,
a comfort able work environment and
Tremaine Lighting Design. Five years later, he opened
boosts employee pride.
a high-tech lighting showroom, “PRIMO,” providing
customers with a creative alternative to functional lighting.
Through his experiences in the lighting industry, John
discovered a flaw in standard power supply centers.
Frustrated with the performance and quality of the
existing power supply centers, John designed a product
addressing all the issues previously ignored: safety,
reliability, performance and convenience. The result:
the patented Q-Tran Power Supply Centers.
VP Sales & Marketing
Gean joined Q-Tran in 1998 and A comfortable work environment...
has been integral in the company’s improves employee relations and
growth by establishing one of the increases production.
best rep forces in the country,
creating strategic OEM relationships, assisting in
product design, and focusing on critical marketing
initiatives. Gean is now VP of all Sales and Marketing
and is forecasting strong growth for the foreseeable
Jordan joined the family business
in 2003, as the VP of Operations at
Q-Tran. Jordan manages all aspects
of our inside operations, which Q-Tran’s impressive facility is symbolic
includes purchasing, production scheduling and general to the quality of products manufactured
administration duties. here.
State-Of-The-Art Equipment... Understanding Sound & Decibels (dB)...
Sounds consist of pressure waves. The in-
tensity of sound is known as the sound pressure
level, or SPL. The human ear can detect a wide
range of sound pressure levels. Sounds can be
very soft, such as the ticking of a wristwatch,
or very loud, such as a top fuel dragster doing
a burnout. The intensity of sound pressure can
be measured, and is expressed as decibels, or
dB. Alexander Graham Bell founded the concept
of decibels and formulated a logarithmic scale
based on 10. "Deci" refers to the base 10 log
scale, and "bel" refers to Alexander Bell. Each
10-dB increase represents a tenfold increase
Q-Tran tests every unit with state-of-the-art in sound intensity. In addition, a 10-dB increase
testing equipment, to ensure it meets spec-
is perceived as roughly doubling loudness.
All sounds consist of waves of pressure moving
through the air. As decibels increase, these
waves of pressure get stronger and have more
physical force. When sudden, strong sounds
reach the ear, and are transmitted to the brain,
the body reacts by triggering the autonomic
nervous system. This automatic system is in
place to protect us against danger. In addition,
when intense sound waves are combined with
excessive low-frequency vibrations, the effect
is tremendously damaging to the body, as well
Our computerized ultra sonic welding equip- as to physical structures, such as buildings, etc.
ment guarentees a strong welded connection
between the solid magnet wire and flexible A few examples of decibel readings can
stranded wire. This is the best connection that be seen below:
can be made therefore preventing arching,
which occurs with inferior connections. This
superb welded connection has the lasting
strength to take the stress that dimming places
Q-Core, a division of Q-Tran Inc., is a leading producer Our continuous annealing furnace
of strip wound magnetic cores, located in a state of the processes the wound cores at a specified
art facility in Bridgeport, CT. The company has achieved rate of feed in an air atmosphere, precisely
tremendous growth and created a reputation for high controlling critical heating and cooling
quality, efficient cores and quick turn around customer rates. The Q-Core furnace stress relieves
service. Q-Core often refers to cores as the “heart of electrical steel cores at an optimum
toroids” because of its invaluable attributes that are temperature of 800˚C.
due to its physical and magnetic characteristics. The
toroidal configuration enables the design engineer to This stress relief annealing is crucial
utilize the unique characteristics of an almost gapless to core performance because it helps
construction, to minimize losses, fringing, distortion minimize core losses. Stress may occur
and magnetizing force while optimizing the magnetic in impregnation, coating, and coil winding;
properties of the material. Flux leakage is minimized thus this stage of core production is
and the winding-to-winding coupling is significantly essential for optimum efficiency and
increased because the magnetic path within the toroidal performance. Stress relief annealing
core is enclosed in the electrical winding. must be applied to perfectly wound
Q-Core’s annealing furnace has a
Computer Controlled automatic equipment winds the maximum output of 200 lbs of cores per
strip material onto an arbor; after the first two rotations, hour. Our floor-mounted, electric furnace,
a weld is applied internally to keep the inside diameter with state-of-the-art equipment and in-
in place. The tension at which the core is being wound struments, ensures precise annealing
can be adjusted to minimize air gaps; it is then main- results on a consistent basis. Once
tained until the build (O.D) is achieved. The strip is cut the core is annealed, quality testing is
and welded to preserve core integrity. The core-winding performed to check the excitation cur-
machine produces perfectly wound cores at up to 120 rent and core losses.
cores/hr. Q-Core’s winding machines operate over a
wide range of electrical steel, precisely winding cores
with outside diameters ranging from 1 inch to 8 inches.
Due to the machine’s low running costs and high speed
operation, Q-Core is able to produce cores extremely
efficiently, ensuring a constant high level of quality and
specification at a very competitive price.
Core Materials... Grade Thickness Losses (W/lb) at 60Hz
(in) 15KGa 17KGa
Q-Core supplies high quality toroidal cores
made from grain-oriented silicon steel that is M3 0.009 0.44 0.68
widely available in M3, M4, M5 and M6 grades
M4 0.011 0.52 0.75
with nominal thickness of 9, 11, 12 and 14 mils.
The core losses are different for each grade. M5 0.012 0.57 0.82
The table to the right shows the typical losses
for different grades of steel.
M6 0.014 0.67 0.95
Finished Cores... After annealing,
cores can be supplied in 3 different ways:
1. Bare State Cores require the toroidal trans-
former manufacturer to insulate the cores prior
to winding the magnetic wire.
2. Epoxy Coated Cores provides a total surface
covering to insulate the core and provide a fixed
radius over the sharp core edges with a thick-
ness of 10 to15 mils. This process of encap-
sulation provides dimensional stability and a
rigid, resistant coating with great dielectric and
Cores may be “vacuum impregnated” with
an epoxy resin for certain applications that
require dimensional stability and minimal air-
gaps. This impregnation covers and fills all
voids between laminations with a low viscosity
resin. The laminations are effectively sealed
together into a solid block. In applications
where cores need to be cut, impregnation greatly
3. Fabricated End-Caps with a thickness of 60 reduces the risk of de-lamination.
mils go around the edges of cores and provide
excellent insulation between the core and the
winding. Q-Core uses special UL approved Ordering Speciﬁcations...
nylon with a thermal capacity of 200˚C. Q-Core OD
can provide a vast range of cap-sizes, including INCHES MILLIMETERS
custom sizes, on a fast track delivery schedule. MIN MAX MIN MAX
ID 0.75 4 19 102
OD 1.00 8 25 203
HGT 0.75 3.25 19 83 ID HGT
M3, M4, M5, M6
Bare, Impregnated, Epoxy Coating & End Caps
In today’s rapidly evolving technological society, Q-Tran’s toroidal transformers are widely
accepted as the industry standard. Q-Tran’s toroids are smaller, quieter, safer, more efficient
products possessing such attributes that only serve to increase its demand. Lighter weight,
compact dimensions and low stray magnetic fields, enable Q-Tran to be the premiere manufacturer
Electrical Efﬁciency... Ease of Installation...
Toroids are more efficient than conventional EI laminated Toroids require less parts and
transformers because the core of a toroidal transformer is assembly time then the conventional
made of a single strip of grain oriented silicon steel. Since transformers. The toroid can be
the grain oriented is parallel with magnetic flux everywhere mounted very simply using a single
in the core, toroids can be designed for higher flux density, center screw.
usually around 15-17kGA compared to 11-13kGA in staked Mounting Washer...
laminations. Reducing the mean length of copper wire The most economical method of
wound around the entire core circumference means that installing the transformer horizontally
the toroid design requires less steel and copper wire, is through the use of a metal washer
resulting in less core and copper losses. and rubber pads. This method is
most useful for mounting smaller
Reduced Size and Weight... transformers.
Due to a toroidal transformer’s higher efficiency, its size
and weight can be reduced by almost 50%. The diameter-
to-height ratio of a toroid can be altered to accommodate
Low Stray Fields...
Toroids generate very little Electro Magnetic Radiation
because of the absence of air-gaps in the core and its
uniform windings. In some applications where further Potted Center...
EMR reduction is needed, we can provide a magnetic shield For larger transformers, the washer
around the circumference of the transformer. method may cause height problems.
An Epoxy potting with a center hole
Low Mechanical Noise (Hum)... is therefore recommended. A pre-
Evenly distributed winding around the core and the absence cisely located center hole is then
of air gaps in the core reduce the Magnetostriction, which is drilled where the mounting bolt will
the main source of the “hum” in stack-laminated transformers. be inserted.
Reduced No-Load Losses...
Toroids exibit extremely low no-load losses when compared
to the traditional EI transformers. This can be significant
in energy cost savings where a circuit sits in “stand-by”
mode for long periods.
[Regulation vs VA] Due to good
coupling between the primary and
secondary windings, toroids have
superior regulation typically about
5%. This can be further reduced by
using a larger magnet wire.
Thermal Protector... CUSTOM
An auto-resetable thermal protector (120 C)
is used in series with primary to protect the
transformer against overload.
Electrostatic Screen (Optional)...
In some applications, especially medical, it
is important to minimize the capacitance coupling
between the primary and secondary. Fully
enclosed copper foil is wound over the primary
and terminated at one end with a flexible lead
Electromagnetic Shield (Optional)...
Applications where transformers are mounted
very closely to electronic components that are
sensitive to stray fields, it is appropriate to have CUSTOM AUDIO
a shield around the circumference of the
transformer to attenuate the field. The shield
is normally made of three to four layers of
insulated silicon steel.
Quality and Safety...
Q-Tran’s Quality Assurance and Research
and Devlopement Departments have been
established to comply with all industry
standards. All of Q-Tran’s transformers are
approved for UL and CUL standards.
Every component built into the Q-Tran Power
Supply Center is the finest material available in
the marketplace today. Because we use the highest quality materials, high-tech manufacturing
equipment, and computerized testing equipment, Q-Tran offers a 5 year guarantee on all of its
products. Q-Tran is far superior to any other transformer in the marketplace today.
Our highly experienced and skilled design engineers are willing and ready to answer any
questions that you may have. We can design and produce to your exacting specifications.
Other speciﬁcation, certiﬁcation and safety requirement
What is CE? marks found on Q-Tran products include.
- Conformite Europeene
To market electrical products within the European
(EU), product conformity and proper use of the CE
mark on machines and control equipment is critical.
As a major supplier to global companies serving - UL Recognized Component Mark - C-UL US Classification Mark
customers in the EU, Q-Tran pays special attention This mark means that the component UL introduced this new Classification
to meeting the EU specification and certification alone meets the requirements for a limited, Mark in early 1998. It indicates complience
requirements. These global companies need the specified use. Applies only to Q-Tran with both Canadian and U.S. requirements.
guarantee of free trade of goods, elimination of Transformers because they are components The Canadian / U.S. UL Mark is optional.
trade restrictions and harmonization of technical to be used in a complete end products UL encourages those manufacturers with
regulations to sell their products to EU member or systems listed by UL. products certified for both countries to
countries. All Q-Tran products that meet or exceed use this new, combined Mark, but they
the requirements of these directives are desiginated may continue using seperate UL Marks
by the CE Mark. for the United States and Canada.
Q-Tran’s Quality ...
quieter. All transformers are designed, manufactured
and tested 3 times before leaving our facility.
Q-Tran uses the best equipment, material and
designs for all of its transformers, allowing for the
quietest and most efficient transformers available
in the marketplace.
brighter. Q-Tran was the first company to develop a whole
Power Supply Center (PSC) designed specifically
for Low Voltage Lighting to address and solve all of
the problems created by Low Voltage Lighting
Systems with benefits including:
- Multi Tap
- Compensation for Voltage Drop
- Quieter Transformers
- Longevity including a 10-year guarantee
Q-TRAN, INC. P: (203) 367-8777
304 Bishop Avenue F: (203) 367-8771
Bridgeport, CT 06610 www.q-tran.com