KIMCHEE PROCESS - Maricopa County by malj



Jaime Viñarás RS
      Maricopa County Environmental Services Department
Background on Fermentation

   Fermentation
       break down of complex sugars into carbon
        dioxide, alcohols, and/or acids by bacteria or

       a natural preservative against spoilage and
Background on Fermentation

   Before refrigeration fermentation was a
    primary method of food preservation.
       Workers on the Great Wall of China consumed
        cabbage fermented in wine.
       Genghis Khan carried pickled/fermented food
        when raiding Eastern Europe in the 12th
       In the 18th century the British Navy carried
        pickled cabbage to provide sailors with vitamin
        C in order to prevent scurvy.
Background on Fermentation

   The microbes responsible for kimchee
    fermentation are various species of

        Lactobacillus is also used in making:
              Yogurt
              Cheese
              Buttermilk
              Soy Sauce
              Kimchee

        Lactobacillus is anaerobic.
              Grows best when the environment
               lacks oxygen.
              Is considered a homofermentive
               bacteria, which produce lactic acid.

   Is a traditional
    fermented cabbage
    dish from Korea.

   Various recipes are
    used to produce
    kimchee in Korea and
    in Maricopa County.
      Step One Clean, Cut, and Soak

Initial Ingredients
   Napa Cabbage
   Sea Salt or Kosher salt (Iodized salt will kill Lactobacilli )
   Cabbage cut into large square pieces.
   Water
Salt, Soak and Sit
   The bowl of cabbage is filled with water and topped
    with a generous amount of the salt.

   The cabbage may soak at room temperature from 9
    to 24 hours.
    What happens to the cabbage when it is soaked?

   When salt is added to the
    kimchee, it helps release the
    water and sugars from the
    cabbage cells. In other words,
    it wilts and softens the

   Lactobacilli – consume the
    sugars and produce lactic acid
    via fermentation.

   The fermentation process of
    Kimchee is diagrammed at
           Wash the cabbage after soaking

After the cabbage has soaked it is
rinsed thoroughly (3 – 4 times).
A piece is of cabbage is tasted to
ensure that most of the salt has
been rinsed out.
Other ingredients are added to the cabbage

   Various ingredients are added
    to the cabbage to produce
    kimchee. These ingredients
    vary from one establishment
    to the next.

   Based on these ingredients
    would determine if the
    establishment would require a
    variance or a HACCP plan.
        For example, seafood may be
         added, which provides an
         additional hazard.
Product is jarred and labeled
   Any product that is labeled,
    jarred and produced for
    wholesale must be reviewed
    and approved by a food
    processing authority. Refer to
    the HACCP program for
   The product must be
    registered through the FDA if
    subject to interstate

   Once this product
    has been jarred it is
    placed on the shelves
    for retail sale for 14
    to 21 days.
   You may notice
    active fermentation
    continuing in jars as
    gases are produced.

   Contact the HACCP program for more

       Jaime Vinaras, RS
            (602)506-6972

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