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					       BANGLADESH RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS JOURNAL
          ISSN: 1998-2003, Volume: 3, Issue: 3, Page: 1012-1020, January-February, 2010


           EFFECT OF BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC FACTORS ON
      QUALITY OF OKRA SEED KEPT IN DIFFERENT CONTAINERS
           M. Aktaruzzaman∗1; M. O. K. Azad2; A. K. R. Shiton1, M. Mottakina Akter3, U. Habiba4


M. Aktaruzzaman M. O. K. Azad A. K. R. Shiton, M. Mottakina Akter, U. Habiba. (2010). Effect of Biotic
and Abiotic Factors on Quality of Okra Seed Kept In Different Containers. Bangladesh Res. Pub. J. 3(3): 1012-
1020. Retrieve from http://www.bdresearchpublications.com/admin/journal/upload/09116/09116.pdf

                                                     Abstract
         An experiment was conducted in Agronomy Practical Laboratory of
         Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur
         during the period from June 2009 to August 2009 to evaluate the effect of
         initial moisture content and different storage container on the quality of
         okra seeds. Three types of containers namely sealed container (C1),
         polythene bag (C2) and gunny bag (C3) were used as experimental
         treatment. Among the three containers; three different moisture content
         seeds were place namely, initial moisture content after 3 days drying was
         14.0℅ (M1), initial moisture content after 2 days drying was 14.6℅ (M2) and
         Initial moisture content without drying was 15.3℅ (M3). The experiment was
         laid out in the Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three
         replications. The results of the experiment clearly revealed that
         germination percentage of okra seeds of sealed container was the
         highest (69.48%) and is significantly vary from poly bag and gunny bag.
         But increasing with storage period germination percentage was
         decreased. At 60th days, germination percentage observed in sealed
         container, poly bag and gunny bag were 63.27%, 62.21% and 53.62%
         respectively and have significant variation among them. In the three
         different initial moisture levels, germination percentages of the seeds were
         67.27%, 63.13% and 58.42% respectively at 20th days, without any
         significant variation. The highest germination percentage (72.42%) was
         found in sealed container x first initial moisture (C1M1) at 20th day which
         was statistically significant. The lowest germination percentage 48.68%
         was found in gunny bag at third initial moisture level (C3M3) in 60th day
         which was statistically similar to C3M3 at 20th days and C3M2 at 60th day
         which shows significant statistical difference from the others. So this study
         opined that initial moisture and storage container effect on the quality of
         okra seeds as sealed container (C1) is the best one.


Key Words: Okra Seed Quality, Biotic & Abiotic Factors




*Corresponding Author: E-mail address: jewellhstu@gmail.com
1MS student, Dept. of Plant Pathology,
2MS student, Dept. of Horticulture, Andong National University, South Korea,
3 MS student, Dept. of Entomology,
4MS student, Genetics and Plant Breeding, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh.
Effect of Biotic and Abiotic Factors                                                1013

Introduction
           Okra Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Moench), is an economically important
vegetable crop grown in tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world. This crop is
suitable for cultivation as a garden crop as well as on large commercial farms. It is
grown commercially in India, Turkey, Iran, Western Africa, Yugoslavia, Bangladesh,
Afghanistan, Pakistan, Burma, Japan, Malayasia, Brazil, Ghana, Ethiopian, Cyrpus
and the Southern United States. Okra is known by many local names in different
parts of the world. It is called lady’s finger in England, gumbo in the United States
of America, guino-gombo in Spanish, guibeiro in Portuguese and bhindi in India.

           Okra provides an important source of vitamins, calcium, potassium and
other mineral matters which are often lacking in the diet of developing countries
(IBPGR, 1990). Okra is said to be very useful against genito-urinary disorders,
spermatorrhoea and chronic dysentery (Nadkarni, 1927). Its medicinal value has
also been reported in curing ulcers and relief from hemorrhoids (Adams, 1975).

           In 2006-2007, cultivated land of okra was about 23180 acre and production
38715 tons average yield about 1670 kg/acre in Bangladesh (BBS 2008). The main
causes of poor production are yellow vein clearing mosaic virus (YVCMV) disease,
okra shoot and fruit borer and lack of knowledge about cultural practices (Islam,
1997). Recently Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute developed one okra
variety (BARI Dherosh-1), which is YVCMV tolerance and high yielded. Many biotic
and abiotic factors such as moisture, temperature, fungus and insect infestation
determine the longevity of okra seeds.

           Seed moisture and storage temperature are two of the most important
factors affecting seed longevity during storage. Storage experiments (Barton,
1954) have shown that reduction in moisture content extends the life of Douglas
far and Western Hemlock seeds. Harrington (1960) formulated a general rule for
seed storage involving temperature and seed moisture content. Seed health has
also been found to be influenced by the seed quality of different crops as has
been reported by Fakir et al. (1989).

           Infestation in stores become serious when temperatures are between 85 to
105    o   F and the humidity ranges between 65 to 85 percent and the moisture
content of stored grains remain above12% (Griffith et al. 1959).

Objectives of the Study-

                 To establish the effect of storage condition for quality seed.
                 To conclude the effect of moisture level on germination of okra seed


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Aktaruzzaman et, al.,                                                                 1014

                 To find out the interaction consequence of storage container and
                 moisture level for quality seed.
Materials and Methods
Location
           The experiment was carried out at the out reach building, at the Hajee
Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University (HSTU), Dinajpur, during
15th June to 10th August 2009. Seed supply

Seed supply
           Okra seeds used in this experiment were supplied by the Agronomy
department of Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University,
Dinajpur. The experiment was factor-



 FACTOR - A container                            FACTOR- B moisture content of seed
 1. C1= Sealed container                         1. M1= 14.0%
 2. C2= Poly bag. (Transparent)                  2. M2= 14.6%
 3. C3= Gunny bag                                3. M3= 15.3%
      Seeds were stored at room temperature and RH for 2 months. The Sealed
pot was covered tightly and the Poly bag and Gunny bag were tight with rope.
Moisture test
           Moisture content was determined by using high constant temperature
oven method following International Rules for Seed Testing (Anonymous, 2000) in
the Agronomy laboratory of HSTU. 3g of seeds from each 3 containers were taken.
After grinding the seeds in grinding mill the weighed ground materials were
poured in a small container with cover and kept in an oven maintained at a
temperature of 130-133oC for a period of 2 hours. The moisture content of seeds
(wet basis) was determined by the following formula (Anonymous, 2000).

                         (X2 - X3 )
            % MC =                  X 100
                         (X2 - X1)

            X1 = Wt. of container
            X2 = Wt. of container + ground materials before drying
            X3 = Wt. of container + ground materials after drying
Germination test

           Germination test was conducted using sand as substratum. The sand was
sieved to discard particles bigger than 0.8 mm and smaller than 0.05 mm in
diameter. Rectangular plastic boxes were used to put the sand. For every test
new sand was used.




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Effect of Biotic and Abiotic Factors                                                   1015
           Seed was placed on a uniform layer of moist sand and then covered to a
depth of 10 mm with sand, which was left loose. 100 seeds were planted in each
plastic tray and replicated four times. The plastic trays with seed were incubated
at room temperature and irrigated at every odd day as and when necessary.
After 5days and 8 days, germination percentage was recorded. The normal
seedlings and abnormal seedlings and ungerminated seed were classified
according to the prescribed rules given by ISTA. (1976).

                                          Number of seeds germinated
           Germination (%) =                                         x 100
                                            Number of seeds tested
      Seeds were stored at ambient condition in different containers and
germination test was performed every 20 days.

Record keeping of dry bulb and weight bulb temperature and relative humidity
           Reading of dry bulb and weight bulb temperature and relative humidity of
inside the room and out side the room were recorded in 7.30 am- 3.30 pm, and
10.30 pm every day. Amount of rainfall and maximum and minimum temperature
were collected from Research laboratory of HSTU.

Results and Discussion
           The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of initial
moisture content and storage containers at different storage period on the
quality of okra seed .The effect of these two variables on storage quality has been
discussed. Related tables and graphs are presented in this chapter. The results of
this experiment have been presented under the following heads

Germination Percentage
           Three types of containers, i.e. sealed container, poly bag and gunny bag
were used to preserve the seeds. Seed preserved in these containers had
different germination percentage at different days but initially it was 75 percent.
Germination is the most important function of a seed as an indicator of its viability
and worth as seed. The germination capacity of okra seeds observed in this study.

Effects of storage container on germination of okra seed
            From first observation(after 20th days of storage) it was observed, among
the three containers, average germination of the seeds of sealed container was
the highest (69.48%) and is significantly vary from poly bag                 and gunny bag.
.Average germination percentage of the seeds of the gunny bag was the lowest
(53.62%) at 60th day (Table 1).




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Aktaruzzaman et, al.,                                                                                                1016

Table 1. Effects of containers (sealed, poly bag, gunny bag) on germination of
      Okra seeds
 Containers                                                                   Germination%
                                                      20th day                     40th day               60th day
    Sealed container                                   69.48                        64.87                  63.27
           Poly bag                                        65.37                    63.46                   62.21
         Gunny bag                                         62.87                    59.72                   53.62
           CV%                                             6.72                     2.12                    2.81


                                                           Germination Chart

                                           80

                                           70

                                           60
                           Germination %




                                           50
                                                                                              Sealed container
                                           40                                                 Poly bag
                                                                                              Gunny bag
                                           30

                                           20

                                           10

                                           0
                                                20th day       40th day       60th day
                                                            Storage Period



                    Fig 1. Effect of storage period on germination of okra seed
           But      increasing                   with      storage        period     germination     percentage      was
decreased. At 60th days, germination percentage observed in sealed container,
poly bag and gunny bag were 63.27%, 62.21% and 53.62% respectively and have
significant variation between them.

Effect of initial moisture content on germination of okra seed
           Among the three different initial moisture contents, average germination of
the seeds were 67.27%, 63.13% and 58.42% respectively at 20th days, without any
significant variation. (Table 2) This same non significant observation was found in
both 20th and 40th days. But in 40th and 60th days it was different.

Table 2. Effects of initial moisture content on germination of Okra seeds
 Containers                                     Germination%
                              20th day            40th day                                                60th day
            M1                  67.27              64.39                                                   63.27
            M2                  63.13              62.87                                                   60.49
            M3                  58.42              54.43                                                   52.57
M1= Initial moisture content after 3 days drying (14.0%).
M2=Initial moisture content after 2 days drying (14.6%).
M3=Initial moisture content without drying (15.3%).

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Effect of Biotic and Abiotic Factors                                                                       1017



                                                        Germination Chart

                                 80

                                 70

                                 60
                 Germination %


                                 50
                                                                                                    M1
                                 40                                                                 M2
                                                                                                    M3
                                 30

                                 20

                                 10

                                  0
                                          20th day            40th day           60th day
                                                           Storage Period



                                 Fig. 2. Effect of moisture level on germination of okra seed


Interaction effect of storage container and moisture level on germination of Okra
seed
           The highest germination percentage (72.42%) was found in sealed
container x third initial moisture (C1M1) at 20th day which was statistically
significant. Minimum germination percentage 48.6% was found in gunny bag at
first initial moisture level (C3M3) in 60th day which was statistically similar to C3M3 at
20th days and C3M2 at 60th day which shows significant statistical difference from
the others

Table 3. Interaction effect of moisture levels and containers on germination of
      okra seed
  Storage container                                                Germination
  X
                                            20th days            40th days                  60th days
  Moisture level
  C1M1                                      72.42                69.38                      67.47
  C1M2                                      66.37                64.32                      63.78
  C1M3                                      62.65                59.32                      58.47
  C2M1                                      69.21                67.72                      65.47
  C2M2                                      63.94                63.43                      63.22
  C2M3                                      57.43                56.21                      55.76
  C3M1                                      64.32                63.54                      60.76
  C3M2                                      59.00                56.72                      56.21
  C3M3                                      54.79                53.32                      48.68
C1=Sealed container                             M1= Initial moisture content after 3 days drying (14.0).

C2=Poly bag                                     M2=Initial moisture content after 2 days drying (14.6)

C3=Gunny bag                                    M3= Initial moisture content without drying (15.3).



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Aktaruzzaman et, al.,                                                                                 1018


                                                    Germination Chart

                    80

                    70

                    60
    germination %




                    50
                                                                                               20th days
                    40                                                                         40th days
                                                                                               60th days
                    30

                    20

                    10

                    0
                         C1M1   C1M2   C1M3       C2M1   C2M2   C2M3   C3M1   C3M2   C3M3
                                        Storage container X Moisture level



Fig. 3. Interaction effect of moisture level and storage container on germination
        of okra seed
Abnormal Seedling
                     The initial abnormal seedling at 20 days Storage of seeds                  in sealed
container, poly bag and gunny bag were 11.38, 12.82 and 12.82 percent, but it
was increased with increasing storage time. At the end of 2 months the abnormal
seedling of okra seed were increased to 14.57, 16.22 and 16.87 percent. The
increasing rate was higher in seeds of gunny bag, because it was due to high
moisture and fungal activities (Anam et al., 2002).

Table 4. Effect of moisture levels, containers and storages period on germination
       of okra seed
  Containers                                                    Abnormal seedling
                                             20th day              40th day             60th day
   Sealed Container                              11.38              12.22                   14.57
    Polythene Bag                                12.82              14.53                   16.22
      Gunny Bag                                  13.22              14.62                   16.87
         CV%                                     23.42              20.78                   19.44




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Effect of Biotic and Abiotic Factors                                                      1019


                                                 Abnormal Seedling %

                     18

                     16

                     14

                     12
     Germination %




                     10                                                             20th day
                                                                                    40th day
                     8                                                              60th day
                     6

                     4

                     2

                     0
                          Sealed Container          Polythene Bag      Gunny Bag
                                                  Storage Container



Fig 4. Effect of moisture levels, containers and storages period on germination of
        okra seed
Dead Seed
                     The amount of dead of seed in poly bag and gunny bag were 5.64
percent, but it was increased with increasing storage time. At the end of 2 months
the amount of deed seed were increased to 7.32, 9.28 and 11.32 percent.

Biotic Factors
                     No biotic factors like insects and pathogen was observed      during the
storage period in all the containers, but during investigation like germination
analysis, several fungi was observed such as Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium,
Penicilium and Rhizopus. No insect was found to any storage container. Higher
number of fungus was observed in seeds of gunny bag than poly bag. Because
as is highly hygroscopic living materials and it absorbs moisture from the
surrounding atmosphere, this higher moisture in the seed may be the main reason
for growing of fungus in the seeds of gunny bag (Anam et al., 2000).

Meteorological Information
                     The meteorological information in terms of average air temperature (OC)
and relative humidity is given to the Figure-6.




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Aktaruzzaman et, al.,                                                                                  1020


                                            100                                Average air
                                             90                                temperature (OC)




                      Air temperature and
                                             80                                Relative Humidity (%)




                       Relative humidity
                                             70
                                             60
                                             50
                                             40
                                             30
                                             20
                                             10
                                              0
                                                  1   8 15 22 29 36 43 50 57
                                                          Time (in days)


                Fig. 5. Trend of average air temperature and relative humidity.
Reference

Adams, C.F. (1975). Nutritive value of American foods in common units,
U.S. Department of Agriculture,Agric Handbook, 425, pp 29.
Anonymous, (2000). International Rules for Seed Testing. International Seed Testing
     Association, Seed Sci. and Technol. 4:3-177.
Barton, L.V. (1954). Storage and packeting of seeds of Doglas fir and western
      hemlock. Contr. Boyce Thompson Inst, 18, 25-37.
BBS (2008). Year book of Agricultural Statistics of Bangladesh, Ministry of Planning,
       Dhaka, Bangladesh, PP: 96.
Fakir, G. A., M.H. Rahman, and G.M.M.Rahman, (1989). Survey on Prevalence of
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        Pathology, 5: 19-29.
Griffiths, D.A.; A.C. Hodson, and C.M.Christensen, , (1959). Grain storage fungi
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Harrington, J. F. (1960). Drying storing and packaging seed to maintain
       germination, vigor. Seeds men’s digest. 11(1): 16, 56-57, 64, 68.
Huda, M.N. (2001) Why Quality Seed? Reality & Vision Bangladesh context.
      Bangladesh German Seed Development Project (B-GSDP), 158-191.
International Board for Plant Genetic Resources IBPGR (1990). Report on
International Workshop on Okra Genetic resources held at the National bureau
       for Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi, India.
Islam, M.S. (1997). Off-season performance of okra for vegetable and seed
production. M.S. Thesis. Institute of Post graduate Studies in Agriculture, Salna,
      Gazipur, Bangladesh, PP: 2.
ISTA. (1993). Proceedings. International Seed Testing Association.31:1-5.
Nandkarni, K.M. (1927) Indian Meteria Medica. Nadkarni and Co Bombay.




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