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					Cytology – the study of cells
                     (pg. ??)
Day 1
   Cells Alive – www.cellsalive.com

BrainPOP – www.brainpop.com
 username: edhpop
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Check out these videos:
 - Cells
 - Cell specialization
Cell Theory
The Cell Theory states that:
1. All living things are composed of a cell or cells.
2. Cells are the basic (smallest) unit of life.
3. All cells come from preexisting cells.
4. Cells contain hereditary information which is
   passed from cell to cell during cell division
5. All cells are basically the same in chemical
   composition
6. All energy flow of life occurs within cells
Microscopes
“Seeing is Believing”
   The light microscope or compound microscope
    allows us magnify objects up to 1000 times!
   Female egg cell is the largest cell in the body &
    can be seen without a microscope!
A microscope can be used to view animal
and plant cells. Do you see any visible
organelles?




Plant cells                   Animal cells
Magnification 10X 40 = 400X   Magnification 10X 40 = 400X
Parts of a Microscope
  Match the names of microscope parts with the correct
  letter from the microscope diagram.
_____1 Arm
_____2 Body Tube
_____3 Base
_____4 Coarse Adjustment Knob
_____5 Diaphragm
_____6 Fine Adjustment Knob
_____7 Light Source
_____8 Objective (Lenses)
_____9 Ocular Lens (Eyepiece)
_____10 Revolving Nosepiece
_____11 Stage
_____12 Stage Clips
     Observation of Plant Cells
Materials: Forceps, Microscope, Microscope Slide, Onion, Scalpel

Onion Cells Procedure
1. Using a scalpel and forceps, remove a small piece of ONE LAYER
   of onion skin off of an onion and place it on a microscope slide.
   Avoid wrinkling the specimen.
2. View the onion cells on low power. Center the group of onion cells
   in field of vision.
3. View the onion cells on medium power. Only use the fine
   adjustment knob. If needed, center cells in field of view.
4. Use colored pencils to draw what you see. Label your drawing.
   Labels should include the name of the specimen, magnification
   level, and cell parts that can be seen.
5. Observe onion cells on high power. Only use the fine adjustment
   knob. As you focus through the group of cells you might see
   different layers of cells.
Day 2
     2 major types of cells
Prokaryotic cell     Eukaryotic cell
• No nucleus         • Have nucleus

• No membrane-bound • Membrane-bound
  organelles           organelles
• Circular           • Evolved - like u & me

  chromosome         • Linear chromosomes

• Eubacteria Kingdom • Protista Kingdom
                     • Fungus Kingdom
• Archeabacteria
  Kingdom            • Plant Kingdom
                      •   Animal Kingdom
           Organelles
   Very small size, can
    only be viewed with a
    microscope.
   Have specific
    functions.
   Found throughout
    cytoplasm in
    eukaryotic cells.
                 Cell Structures and Functions
  Structure       Plant, Animal,   Function      City
                      Both                    Comparison
Cell Wall
Centriole
Chloroplast
Cytoplasm
Endoplasmic
Reticulum (ER)
Golgi Bodies
Lysosome
Mitochondrion
Nucleus
Plasma
Membrane
Ribosome
Vacuole
Cilia
Organelles Found in Cells

Endoplasmic reticulum (rough &
smooth) – canals for movement
Golgi Bodies – wrap & export proteins
Nucleolus – makes ribosomes
Lysosomes – digests & gets rid of
wastes
Ribosomes – makes proteins
             Golgi Bodies
 Stacks of flattened
  sacs
 Have a shipping side &
  a receiving side
 Receive & modify
  proteins made by ER
 Transport vesicles
  with modified proteins
  pinch off the ends
                           Transport
                            vesicle
            Lysosome
   Contain digestive
    enzymes
   Break down food
    and worn out cell
    parts for cells
   Programmed for
    cell death (lyse &
    release enzymes to
    break down &
    recycle cell parts)
             Nucleolus
   Cell may have 1 to
    3 nucleoli
   Inside nucleus
   Disappears when
    cell divides
   Makes ribosomes
    that make
    proteins
       Smooth & Rough
    Endoplasmic Reticulum
Smooth ER lacks
ribosomes &
makes proteins
USED In the cell
Rough ER has
ribosomes on its
surface & makes
proteins to
EXPORT
          Cell Powerhouse

Mitochondrion
( mitochondria )
    Site of Cellular
    respiration
    Active cells like
    muscles have
    more of these
    Burn sugars to
    produce energy
    ATP
 Surrounding the Cell
Cell membrane

 Lies immediately
  against the cell wall in
  plant cells
 Made of protein and
  phospholipids
 Selectively permeable
Cell or Plasma Membrane
Cell membrane

 Living layer
 Controls the
  movement of materials
  into and out of the cell
 Selectively permeable
    Cytoplasm of a Cell

Cytoplasm

 Jelly-like substance
  enclosed by cell
  membrane
 Provides a medium
  for chemical
  reactions to take
  place
               Nucleus/Inner
                membrane


 Nucleus

 Each cell has fixed
  number of chromosomes
  that carry genes
 Genes control cell
  characteristics
       Plant Cell
   Cell wall


 Made of cellulose
  which forms very
  thin fibers
 Strong and rigid
Stations lab activity
Station 1: Label Prokaryotic
Cell - Bacteria
 All bacteria

                Ribosomes




                            Label the 6
                            most
                            important
                            organelles!
Station 2: Label Eukaryotic
Cell - Plant




  Label the
  13 most
  important
  organelles!
Station 3: Label Eukaryotic cell
- Animal




                      Label the 13
                      most
                      important
                      organelles!
Station 4: Create a Venn Diagram on
LEFT PAGE to show organelles in
common and organelles unique to each.
Bacteria Cell
Example Venn Diagram

            Animal                Plant


   Unique                                 Unique
  Organelles                         Organelles
                      Shared
                     organelles




                      Bacteria
Study your labeled cells – Quiz
          to follow!
Quiz
Quiz:




15.What kind of cell is cell A?
16.What kind of cell is cell B?
17.What type of cells are both A and B?
Answers to quiz
1. Cell wall         9.  Nucleus
2. Cell membrane     10. Chromatin
3. Mitochondrion     11. Rough
                         endoplasmic
4. Vacuole               reticulum
5. Golgi apparatus   12. Chloroplast
6. Cytoplasm         13. Centriole
7. Nuclear           14. Lysosome
   membrane          15. Plant
8. Nucleolus         16. Animal
                     17. Eukaryotic

				
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posted:4/3/2013
language:English
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