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					Overview of IntelliDrive / Vehicle Infrastructure
               Integration (VII)




                           By:
                    Ashwin Amanna
                Senior Research Associate

                     May 31, 2009
Table of Contents
Executive Summary ............................................................................................................ 2
1. Goals of the VII Program ............................................................................................ 4
2. History of VII Programs ............................................................................................. 4
  2.1. Recent Projects ..................................................................................................... 4
     1.1.1. VII Activities in California ........................................................................... 4
     1.1.2. VII Activities in Michigan ............................................................................ 5
     1.1.3. VII Activities in Arizona .............................................................................. 6
  2.2. Relationship with CICAS ..................................................................................... 6
  2.3. Communication Technology ................................................................................ 7
     1.3.1     DSRC and WAVE ........................................................................................ 7
     1.3.2     Standardization Process ................................................................................ 7
     1.3.3     Frequency Allocation .................................................................................... 8
     1.3.4     Progress in DSRC ......................................................................................... 8
     1.3.5     DSRC Applications....................................................................................... 8
3. Future of IntelliDrive .................................................................................................. 9
References ......................................................................................................................... 11




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Executive Summary
Vehicle infrastructure integration (VII) is an initiative undertaken by the U.S. Department
of Transportation (DOT) to provide an infrastructure where vehicles can identify threats
and hazards on the roadway and communicate this information over wireless networks to
alert and warn drivers. At the core of VII is a networked environment facilitating high-
speed communication among vehicles, and between vehicles and infrastructure or hand-
held devices. This initiative, recently renamed IntelliDrive, will significantly impact
DOT operations and should be monitored on a continual basis. This report summarizes
the history of VII and discusses current statewide initiatives in this area across the
country.    A major component of IntelliDrive is the Dedicated Short Range
Communications (DSRC) spectrum which is discussed in detail in this report. As the
program enters a new planning phase, a future view of IntelliDrive is presented.
Accompanying this report under separate cover is an introductory tutorial presentation on
DSRC geared towards DOT personnel.




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1. Goals of the VII Program
The Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office (ITS JPO) is positioning the
Vehicle infrastructure integration (VII) program to significantly reduce (90% by year
2030) traffic-related deaths and the resulting economic costs. The ITS JPO has identified
the following areas to focus research activities of the VII program in [1]:
     Technology scanning and research to identify and study a wide range of potential
        technology solutions;
     Research, demonstration, and evaluation of technology-enabled safety
        applications;
     Establishment of test beds to support operational tests and demonstrations for
        public and private sector use;
     Development of architecture and standards to provide an open platform for
        wireless communications between vehicles and roadside infrastructure;
     Study of non-technical issues such as privacy, liability, and application of
        regulation; and
     Research on ancillary benefits to mobility and the environment.


2. History of VII Programs
Many VII programs have been undertaken in various states over the last five years. Some
of the important projects with their goals and timelines are listed here. Also, there is a
discussion of the progress made in the Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance
Systems (CICAS) initiative taken by the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT).
Technology-related issues such as underlying communications technology, spectrum
allocation, standard development, etc., are also discussed. The USDOT has recently
renamed the VII program to IntelliDrive and the VII moniker will slowly fade out [2].

2.1. Recent Projects
Major VII projects have been initiated in the states of California, Michigan, and Arizona.
This section provides a brief overview of some of these projects.

1.1.1. VII Activities in California
California’s VII activities are the result of collaboration between the Metropolitan
Transportation Commission (MTC), San Francisco and California Department of
Transportation (Caltrans). Their recent work includes [3]:
    Establishment of a “sniffer” working with a 170-type controller (and conceivably
       with any controller), combined with a message set, that provides wireless
       (Dedicated Short Range Communications – DSRC) signal state information to
       approaching, equipped cars (Page Mill Rd and SR 82, El Camino Real);
    A 2070-type controller interface to provide signal state information via DSRC
       link directly from controller-to-computer-to-radio roadside equipment, in support
       of the Federal Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance Systems - Violation
       project (5th Av and SR 82);


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      In an original equipment manufacturer (OEM)-academia collaboration,
       development of a curve overspeed warning system with an accident-prone, tight
       on- and off-ramp (US 101 and Marsh Rd.);
      Scalable channel switching experiments by saturating an intersection with DSRC
       transceivers;
      Integrated probe (with light duty passenger vehicles traveling on arterials), 511
       (from the existing 511.org electronic toll collection (ETC)-based probe data), in-
       vehicle signage, transit signal priority, and signal sniffing experiment to a bus
       platform;
      Use of emerging SAE J2739 standard for large scale probe simulations; and
      Plans for real-world VII tolling and probe vehicle applications, leveraging
       infrastructure in the SF Bay Area.

1.1.2. VII Activities in Michigan
The State of Michigan has been at the forefront of VII activities, especially in developing
concept of operations for a VII test bed.
    Michigan VII test bed: Michigan DOT (MDOT) started developing a self-
       supporting test bed info-structure in 2005. The goal of this program is to provide
       a real-world laboratory to test products and technologies related to VII. It aims to
       provide a geographically scalable system that adopts national standards and is
       coordinated by USDOT’s VII Consortium [4]. It will support data collection
       server and analysis tools. Figure 1 shows the conceptual plan of the test bed and
       linkages between its various components [5].




                               Figure 1: Michigan VII test bed


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      Connected Vehicle Proving Center: It offers facilities for development of vehicle-
       to-infrastructure (and vice versa) and vehicle-to-vehicle communications systems.
       Started operating in 2008 [6].
      Data Use Analysis and Processing Project (DUAP): The purpose of this project is
       to support MDOT and its partners in evaluating uses and benefits of VII-related
       data in transportation agency management and operations. The key goals of this
       project are: a) to identify uses for the VII data; b) to develop algorithms to use and
       process the VII data; c) to develop prototype applications and data management
       software; and d) to evaluate how well the data and the algorithms function in a
       department of transportation [7].

1.1.3. VII Activities in Arizona
VII-related activities in Arizona are focused on supporting emergency responders and
incident management activities. The Emergency VII (E-VII) program has identified four
key capabilities to improve incident response [8]:
     Preemption and Priority Operation at Traffic Signals: This project will utilize
        DSRC between the vehicle and the traffic signal to request preemption, as well as
        to allow the traffic signal to send information to the incident response/emergency
        vehicles about the status of the traffic signal and other approaching first response
        vehicles that are, or have requested, priority. It is envisioned that this capability
        will extend the range of the preemption request (up to 1000m) and will improve
        safety of the vehicles at the intersections.
     Preemption Operations at Ramp Meters: It will extend the preemption concept to
        ramp meter operations.
     Ad hoc incident warning broadcast: It will utilize the vehicle-to-vehicle
        communication capability of VII to allow an incident response vehicle to
        broadcast information from the incident site to approaching vehicles to alert them
        to lane blockages and road closures.
     Lane and Road Closure Information to the Transportation Operations Center
        (TOC): This will leverage the result of Capability 3 to collect incident data and
        communicate it back to the TOC where it can be integrated with the AZ 511
        system. The ad-hoc road-side unit (RSU) will establish a connection using either
        DSRC to a nearby RSU that has backbone communication capability or via radio
        or cellular capability on the vehicle to communicate the data to the TOC.


2.2. Relationship with CICAS
The CICAS initiative was started in 2004 as a partnership between USDOT, automobile
manufacturers, and State and local departments of transportation. Its purpose is to
develop VII systems that address intersection crash problems related to stop sign and
traffic signal violations, stop sign movements, and unprotected signalized left turn
movements [9]. The USDOT has started different projects for avoiding crashes resulting
from these violations.



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2.3. Communication Technology
Most VII applications plan to use DSRC to achieve high-speed data transfer between
vehicles and road-side infrastructure over ranges of up to 1000 m.

1.3.1 DSRC and WAVE
DSRC is a general-purpose radio frequency (RF) communications link between the
vehicle and the road-side infrastructure, or among vehicles. The set of standards
developed to support this interface provide a short to medium range communications
service for a variety of applications, including public safety (obstacle detection, collision
warnings and avoidance, intersection safety), commercial vehicle applications (weigh-in-
motion/inspection clearances, border crossing), electronic toll collection, parking lot
payment, in-vehicle signing, and many others [10]. The Federal Communications
Commission (FCC) allocated the 5.9 GHz band for DSRC, which is now termed as
Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment (WAVE) operations.

WAVE introduces enhancements to the IEEE 802.11 standard to support
communications with [11]:
    Short latency (100 microseconds to 50 milliseconds);
    Ranges from 1 m up to 1000 m;
    WAVE devices in vehicles moving at speeds up to 120 mph; and
    Multipath and Doppler shift (typically encountered in urban, suburban, and rural
      terrain).

1.3.2 Standardization Process
The standards for DSRC/WAVE were developed by ASTM and the Institute of Electrical
and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). The Intelligent Transportation Society of America
(ITS America) acts as the primary interface between the standards bodies and the FCC.
The WAVE system concept emerged after a review of hundreds of potential applications
ranging from various forms of collision avoidance techniques to entertainment. Most of
these applications required communications capabilities that were beyond the scope of
existing technologies. An ASTM DSRC (WAVE) standards development activity
resulted in the publication of ASTM E2213-03, which incorporated IEEE 802.11a after a
test and analysis effort demonstrated that it most closely met the requirements. This
ASTM effort also led to formal rules by the FCC for the use of the 5 GHz ITS Radio
Service band within the United States [11]. The DSRC community asserted that
licensing the 5 GHz band would enable DSRC to share the band with minimum
interference from other users [12]. The IEEE 802.11p standard defines specifications for
physical and medium access control layers for DSRC [13]. Higher layer standards are
defined in the IEEE 1609 family of standards.

Organizations involved in the standardization effort include automotive companies (Ford
Motor Company, General Motors Corporation, Chrysler LLC, Daimler AG, etc.),
communications companies (ARINC Inc., Hitachi, Toshiba, Motorola, Raytheon
Company, etc.) and trade groups (Connected Vehicles Trade Association) [14]. It should
be noted that some of major players involved in the development of IEEE 802.11

                                                                                           7
standards (such as Cisco Systems Inc., Qualcomm Inc., Nokia Siemens Networks, and
AT&T) did not participate in the DSRC development effort.

1.3.3 Frequency Allocation
DSRC operates in the 5850-5925 MHz licensed band where it has co-primary status
(other users of this band include military radar and satellite communication systems)
[15]. Spectral environment and propagation characteristics in this band are suitable for
short-range communication requirements of DSRC. This also allows for sufficient signal
coverage as well as considerable frequency reuse.

The DSRC spectrum consists of seven 10-megahertz channels that include one control
channel and six service channels. The DSRC physical layer uses an orthogonal frequency
division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation scheme which enables it to support high data
rates (6 to 27 Mbps) in multipath and high-mobility environments. The DSRC physical
layer follows exactly the same frame structure, modulation scheme, and training
sequences specified by the IEEE 802.11a physical layer. However, DSRC applications
require reliable communication when vehicles are moving up to 120 miles/hour and have
communication ranges up to 1000 meters. According to the updated version of the DSRC
standard, the medium access control (MAC) layer of the DSRC adopts the 802.11a layer
specification with minor modifications. The 802.11a MAC protocol is not able to provide
predictable quality of service. Therefore, the DSRC MAC protocol defined in 802.11p
sets priority levels for different applications. Every packet gets access to the medium
based on the priority level of the application that generated it. The development of a
robust and efficient MAC protocol will be central to the new generation DSRC devices.

1.3.4 Progress in DSRC
Developments with regards to DSRC activities have been:
    FCC allocated the 5.850-5.925 GHz band for DSRC-based transportation
      applications. This licensing of the frequency band eliminates the possibility of
      interference from unlicensed users.
    The OmniAir consortium was founded by public- and private-sector DSRC
      players to enable deployment of effective, interoperable 5.9 GHz DSRC systems
      through a certification program [16].
    DSRC devices are based on an open standard to ensure interoperability. Approval
      of the WAVE family of standards by the IEEE 802.11 working group is expected
      by January 2010 [17].
    As noted earlier, extensive prototype testing has been going on for DSRC devices
      on test beds in California and Michigan.

1.3.5 DSRC Applications
Current and future DSRC applications include:
   1. Toll collection: 900-MHz DSRC has been used for toll collection on highways for
       quite some time. Since the 900 MHz band is unlicensed, devices in this band
       suffer from interference and can provide data rates only up to 500 kbps. Many
       new DSRC applications plan to use the 5.9 GHz band which grants the users co-
       primary status and supports high data rates.

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   2. Transactions through cars: DSRC devices can be used for carrying out
      transactions (such as fuel purchases) between vehicles and business kiosks.
   3. Collision avoidance: DSRC can be used to coordinate between roadside
      infrastructure and vehicles approaching an intersection to avoid collisions.
      Collision avoidance applications require the infrastructure to sense vehicles
      approaching intersections and warn other vehicles or dynamically update message
      signs. The vehicles should have the ability to communicate to the driver the
      messages it receives from the infrastructure.
   4. Relaying weather and traffic-related data: Information related to current weather
      and traffic conditions can be used along with global positioning system (GPS)
      data to avoid congestion or mishaps on highways.
   5. Rollover warnings: Vehicles approaching a curve can be warned about speed,
      bank angle, and radius to avoid rollovers.
   6. Vehicle and cargo tracking.
   7. Weigh station monitoring for overweight/oversize cargo.
   8. Diagnostic data transfer from vehicles.


3. Future of IntelliDrive
5.9 GHz DSRC technology offers standardized and interoperable products and services
for large-scale deployment of ITS applications. USDOT, state DOTs, and OEMs will be
strategic players in making deployment decisions for VII. In July 2008, the USDOT
convened a roundtable meeting involving representatives from industry, state and local
governments, and academia to discuss the path forward for incorporating advanced
wireless technologies in transportation systems [18]. The theme of that meeting can be
summarized into the following points.
     Private sector and academic players in the wireless communications arena agree
        that open platform for technology innovations provides for rapid innovation and
        deployment with evolving business and consumer needs. It was suggested that
        DOT technological investments should use open platforms that can serve multiple
        purposes and be accessible to others to build upon.
     Three primary application areas of advanced wireless communications in
        transportation systems were identified, viz. dissemination of safety information,
        use of traveler information for convenience of system use, and improvement of
        situational awareness.
     Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) were identified as potential candidates for
        use in VII activities. MANETs involve mobile nodes that communicate with each
        other by learning the route from source to destination in an ad hoc fashion.
        Vehicle-to-vehicle communication presents a similar scenario where source and
        destination may not be in each other’s communication range. Thus, they need to
        identify, in an ad hoc manner, intermediate mobile nodes that can forward their
        packets to the final destination. MANET is still an area of active research and
        needs to be integrated with DSRC standards to develop real-world VII solutions.
     Finally, it was observed that the DOT should provide a generic open platform in
        the mobile space. It was recommended that the DOT use open standards and open
        networks in its infrastructure investments which would increase the likelihood of

                                                                                       9
long-term interoperability as well as drive innovation with evolving wireless
standards.




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References
1.    S. Row, M. Schagrin, and V. Briggs, The Future of VII, US Department of
      Transportation, Editor. 2008.
2.    IntelliDrive.     What      is    IntelliDrive?        2009;    Available    from:
      http://www.intellidriveusa.org/overview/.
3.    VII California. About VII California.                    2009; Available from:
      http://viicalifornia.org/about/intro.html.
4.    S. E. Underwood, S.J. Cook, and W.H. Tansil, Line of Business Strategy for
      Vehicle-Infrastructure Integration Part IV: History and Background, Michigan
      Department of Transportation, Editor. 2008.
5.    Krueger, G.D., VII Michigan Test Bed Program: Concept of Operations,
      Michigan Department of Transportation, Editor. 2005.
6.    IntelliDrive. Survey of Michigan Related Testbed Activities. 2009 03-27-2009];
      Available from: http://www.intellidriveusa.org/research/us-activities/michigan/.
7.    Mixon/Hill of Michigan Inc., VII Data Use Analysis and Processing: System
      Architecture Description, Michigan Department of Transportation, Editor. 2008.
8.    F. Saleem and S. Nodes, Arizona Emergency VII (E-VII): Program Overview and
      Focus Areas. 2008.
9.    Research and Innovative Technology Administration. Cooperative Intersection
      Collision Avoidance Systems (CICAS). 2008 03-27-2009]; Available from:
      http://www.its.dot.gov/itsnews/fact_sheets/cicas.htm.
10.   Dedicated Short Range Communication at 5.9 GHz Standards Group. DSRC
      5GHz.                            [cited         2009;        Available       from:
      http://www.iteris.com/itsarch/html/standard/dsrc5ghz.htm.
11.   Fisher, W., Development of DSRC/WAVE Standards. 2007.
12.   Research and Innovative Technology Administration. DSRC ITS Standards
      Advisory.              2003              [cited     2009;     Available      from:
      http://www.standards.its.dot.gov/Documents/advisories/dsrc_advisory.htm.
13.   Jones, B. DSRC - Linking the Vehicle and the Road. Available from:
      http://www.itsa.org/itsa/files/pdf/DSRCJones.pdf.
14.   ABI Research Inc., Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC): The
      Emerging Market for Advanced Automotive Safety and Communications 2007.
15.   National Public Safety Telecommunications Council. DSRC Presentation. 2004;
      Available                                                                    from:
      http://www.npstc.org/meetings/Cash%20DSRC%205.9GHz%20Introduction%20
      061404.pdf.
16.   OmniAir Consortium Inc.; Available from: http://www.omniair.org.
17.   IEEE.       IEEE        802.11      Official     Timelines.    Available     from:
      http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/11/Reports/802.11_Timelines.htm.
18.   Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Advanced Wireless
      Communication for the Transportation Sector - A Roundtable Discussion, US
      Department of Transportation, Editor. 2008.



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