Solar Thermal Heating Lessons Learned and New Opportunities Presented to: Better Buildings by Design Conference – 2009 Leigh Seddon Alteris Renewables, Inc. End of an Energy Era 100 years of exponential growth in fossil fuel use HAS come to an end due to environmental and economic constraints Our Solar Power Plant Safe Reliable No Transmission Costs No Emissions Delivered to Everyone Solar Corona: Yohkoh Satellite The Solar Energy Resource In a single one hour period, the sun sends enough energy to our planet to meet all of our energy needs for an entire year. 150,000 kWh a year of solar energy falls on every 1,000 sq feet of south facing roof in N.E. Solar thermal conversions efficiencies run as high as 50% for low temperature applications like radiant heating and domestic hot water. Solar Technologies Daylighting 0 - 4¢/kWh saved Passive Heating & Cooling 0 - 4¢/kWh saved Active SHW & Heating 4 - 8¢/kWh saved Photovoltaics 15 -30¢/kWh saved Isn’t Solar Water Heating for California and Florida? The Northeast is one of the best regions for solar thermal because: Fuel costs are among the highest in the country. Solar radiation is plentiful enough on a year-round basis to supply 2/3 of a facility’s water heating energy. Ground water temperatures are much lower in the Northeast, raising solar thermal conversion efficiency. Solar technology is proven, affordable, and cost-effective in Vermont. 50% energy savings are possible with less than 10% increase in construction costs. Solar electric and thermal system Annual energy savings – 4,000 kWh Weybridge, VT Solar “Net Zero” is Possible in Vermont “River House” By William Maclay Architects Solar/Geothermal 13 kW grid-tie PV 15 kW solar thrm Solar Assisted Geothermal Heat Pump “River House” Mechanical Design by LN Consulting & Energy Balance Solar Energy Profile & Load Matching Average BTU per Day by Month Flate Plate collectors - 9 sq meters Boston, MA insolation 90,000 80,000 Hot water 70,000 load for 4 60,000 person 50,000 household Solar BTU 40,000 per day 30,000 20,000 Optimal Annual Solar Fraction -- 10,000 about 65% 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Solar Energy Profile – Heat Load 180,000 192 SF collector array 160,000 Heat Load 140,000 120,000 100,000 Unused Energy 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Effect of Collector Angle Average daily Insolation for different collector angles Boston, MA 7 6 5 0 4 25 kWh/M2 40 55 3 90 2 1 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Month SHW & Radiant Floor Heating 6 - 4x10 Flat Plate 240 Sq. Ft Array 10,000 kWh/Year thermal 60 degree collector tilt to optimize winter performance Building Integrated Systems Integration at design phase can provide: •Easier installation •Better aesthetics •Better performance •Material savings Thermal Energy Storage Systems Thermal energy must be used immediately or stored “Softank” systems Non-pressurized tank EPDM rubber lining Ships as 4 x 12 flat Copper coil heat exchangers Commercial Heating Systems •Pool heating •Process heat •Dairy farms •Hotels •Laundramats Very cost-effective due to high solar conversion efficiency and economies of Southern VT Recreation Center, Springfield VT scale 130 kW thermal array saves $15,000 a year in fuel Solar Pool Heating S. VT Recreation Center 130 kW thermal $15,000 / year savings The Battle of the RTUs Planning in the design stage can help avoid unnecessary shading and layout costs. Hospital Hot Water System Santa Rosa Hospital SanAntonio, TX Drainback SHW Operation Commercial Radiant Floor Heat Thermodynamics Halifax, NS 90 sq. meters Collector surface 285 MMBTU/yr Vertical Wall Installation Thermodynamics, LTD Halifax, NS 5 4x8 collectors per “bank” to control expansion Building integrated but using modular collectors Evacuated Tube or Flat Plate? Which is best depends on application, climate, and delivery temperature Thermomax System Pentagon Washington, DC Efficiency in Perspective DHW HEAT Cost of Energy in Vermont (Jan 2009) Delivered Cost of Energy End use cost with high efficiency equipment 45 40 35 $/MMBTU 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 s ty * as il d ne e r t O oo en lle ci la G pa tr i el So W os Pe at Fu o ec r Pr N Ke El Fuel Type *Solar – 20-year annualized cost Life-Cycle Analysis – SHW Example Cost Item Electric LPG Solar Capital Cost $750 $750 $6,250* First year fuel cost $850 $860 $250 25-yr fuel cost** $18,760 $18,980 $5,520 25-yr maintenance** $550 $550 $1,500 Total Life Cycle Cost $20,910 $21,140 $13,520 * includes $750 for back-up LPG hot water heater, less state incentives ** present worth based on inflation at 4%, discount rate at 7% ** prices based on January 2006 average cost for New England System Performance Monitoring Necessary for thermal billing and RECs Fat Spaniel Web View Solar Cooling – An Emerging Market Solar Cooling – The Perfect Load Match Quiz What state has the highest per capita number of solar installers? In what state was the first New England solar collector manufacturer located? The contractor who installed the first White House solar system in 1978 was located in what state? Vermont is Solar “Shovel” Ready!
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