UCO Action Project Process - University of Central Oklahoma

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     the UCO
   Action Project
– Part 4 Analyzing Data –
      Office of Planning & Analysis
     University of Central Oklahoma
     UCO Action Project Process
• Based on PDCA cycle
  – Walter Shewhart (Bell Labs); W. Edwards Deming
• Managed by the UCO CQIT
  – Continuous Quality Improvement Team
  – Cross-functional
• 5 to 10 projects per year
PDCA Cycle
PDCA Cycle
PDCA Cycle
          • Present findings

            –   Benchmarking results
            –   Interview results
            –   Focus group results
            –   Flowchart results

          • ID common
          • Root cause analysis (RCA)

          • Process problems
What is Root Cause Analysis?

                    You can easily see
                      problems and

                    Can’t easily see the
                     underlying “root”
                     causes very easily
Too Simple Root Cause Analysis
           What happened?
 Find someone to blame the same way …

                                    Lack of

                                           Human Error
            to detail

             Unknown                     Act of God

Too Simple Root Cause Analysis

 Find someone to blame the same way …

                Ed        Ed

           Ed                  Ed

            Ed             Ed
         Real Root Cause Analysis
• Seemingly disparate issues and problems may be
  arising from common underlying root causes.
• Root Cause Analysis (RCA)is a process:
   – Reveals underlying root causes (often more than one).
   – Limits attempts to latch on to simple, quick fixes that don’t
     address underlying root cause. (Problems will be like
     weeds – they keep coming back.)
• Common uses:
   – Incident investigation
   – Problem solving
   – Quality control
RCA: Basic steps
     Define     Understand the full
                  scope of the problem

                 Why does this problem
    Analyze       occur?

                 Develop corrective
    Solutions      solutions to prevent
                   problem from recurring.
           Some RCA Techniques
• 5-Whys
  – Start w/ problem or incident.
  – Keep asking “Why?” .
• Fishbone or Ishikawa Diagram
  – Start w/ problem or incident.
  – Ask “Why?” in categories.
• Factor Tree Analysis
  – Start w/ problem or incident.
  – Use tree structure to trace actions and conditions that
    led to problem.
• Many others + hybrids

• Facilitator writes group’s issue or problem on board.
• Facilitator: “What causes this problem?” or “Why does this
  problem exist?” or …
• Team members give a reason.
• Facilitator: “Then what causes that problem?” or “Then why
  does that problem exist?”
• Keep working down to underlying problem or until reason is
  beyond control of group.
                        5-Whys Example

                 ↑                                      ↓
•   Very simple. Easy to facilitate.   •   May only expose one root cause.
                                       •   Easy to get diverted to a symptom.
                                           Make sure you get down to root
                                           (If reason is outside control or
                                           influence, good point to stop.)
                                           (Interesting ideas or symptom
                                           solutions can be stored in
                                           “parking lot” for possible later
           Five Whys – Useful questions
•    What could be causing that?
•    What underlying skills might he/she be missing?
•    What has kept the typical interventions from working?
•    What is interfering with… ?
•    What is a cause that we can influence or change in school?
•    Why are we continuing to use this strategy?
•    What else could be causing or influencing this problem?
•    Do you think “x,” “y,” or “z” could be the cause?
•    Why is “X” stopping him/her from learning?
•    Why do you think he/she is or continues doing that?
•    What could be the motivation for doing that?
•    What do you think is happening that keeps him/her from solving
     this problem?
   Fishbone (Ishikawa) Diagram
                                                 Still using 5-Whys

Cause Categories:
• Manufacturing (4 M’s): Machine, Method, Material, Manpower
• Service(4 S’s): Surroundings, Suppliers, Systems, Skills
Many others. These can be anything that makes sense to the team.
UCO Fishbones (from NSSE Action Teams)
Why a fishbone?

                 ↑                                         ↓
•   Still fairly simple.                 •   Categories can sometimes be
•   Provides pathways to more than one       restrictive – or you may waste time
    potential root cause.                    arguing about which category.
                                         •   Perceived need to find something in
                                             every category sometimes limits
                                             ability to dive down to root cause
Modified “5 Whys” (factor tree analysis)
Modified “5 Whys” (factor tree analysis)
               Modified “5 Whys” (factor tree analysis)

                   ↑                                             ↓
•    Still simple. Easy to get folks to do.   •   No categories, so facilitator may need
•   Provides pathways to more than one            to stretch people’s thoughts.
    potential root cause.
•   Categories no longer restrictive.
•   Tree structure is very easy to see and
    work with.

Modified 5-Whys
About how many hours do you spend in a typical 7-day week doing each of the following?
1=0 hrs/wk, 2=1-5 hrs/wk, 3=6-10 hrs/wk, 4=11-15 hrs/wk, 5=16-20 hrs/wk, 6=21-25 hrs/wk, 7=26-30 hrs/wk, 8=more than 30 hrs/wk
                                                                                  2009 UCO - 2009 2009 UCO - 2009 2009 UCO - 2009
              2009              2006               2003               2001            URBAN          CARNEGIE          NSSE
FY            4.05              4.65               4.26              5.04             -1.02            -1.44             -1.70
SR            5.22              5.20               5.08              4.93             -0.59            -0.99             -1.49

                                                           According to NSSE, both Freshmen and Senior UCO
                                                           students spend more hours working off campus
                                                           than: students at other schools, students at
                                                           Carnegie peers, and students at urban peers
     Activity – Modified 5-Whys

UCO’s overall retention rate is only 53% while
 our peer average is 74%.
          • Immediate solutions

          • Long range solutions
          • Process improvements
The End (last CIF is Apr 16)

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