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Effectively Standing Out

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					Effectively Standing Out
(or All presentations provide a great deal of happiness when they end.)

By Leeland Artra
President, Hero Network™ LLC E-Mail: leeland@heronetwork.com
Objective: Develop effective techniques for making winning presentations. Topics Covered: Differences between poor, good and great presentations, how to structure details, dealing with distractions, etc.
May 9, 2002 1 of 74

Why Are You Here?
• Recognize need to persuade an audience • Feel existing presentation skills can improve • Looking for ways to improve future presentations Objective: Enhance or learn skills to create strong presentations that provide good information and are persuasive

May 9, 2002

Banging your head against a wall uses 150 calories an hour.

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Why am I here?
• Computer researcher & educator for 16 yrs • Developed and implemented 3 professional training and certification series • Given successful presentations & courses to live audiences of up to 35,000+ • Special training for writing questions, creating tutorials and giving persuasive presentations • Need some consulting referrals and thought this would be good marketing • No one else volunteered
May 9, 2002

Car sickness is the feeling you get when the monthly car payment is due.

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The Plan
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
May 9, 2002

Introduction Planning Style Step-by-Step Packaging Visuals Administering Your Talk Evaluation Sheets
Chances of a white Christmas in New York: 1 in 4.
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Why Develop Presentation Skills?
• Ability to create and give effective presentations was ranked one of the top five required skills in today’s technical workforce • 83% of jobs require technical skills, but 75% of all jobs also want at least a basic presentation competency • Presentation skills will affect your professional future
May 9, 2002

Success is a choice.

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Interesting Presentation Facts
• Audiences: » Start with a very positive attitude and high expectations of value to be received » Do not have expectations of absolute professionalism • Speakers usually are best at telling their story • People remember the stories that teach them lessons Every presentation is an opportunity to have a positive impact on people
May 9, 2002

"Decaf" is a four letter word in my world.

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The least important part of a presentation is? • The audience • Visual aids • Current events • Speaker’s clothing

"A conclusion is simply the place where you got tired of thinking.“ Anonymous May 9, 2002

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Presentation Principles
• Present only enough to persuade » Avoid too much information » Have one clear goal in mind • Use tools » Keep attention • People do not remember a lot » goals - memorable and keep people listening » boredom breeds discontent » Repeat main ideas often
May 9, 2002

It is incredibly difficult to build the chicken and the egg at the same time.

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A Great Presentation Is
• Audience learns one to three important skills or tips that will help them succeed. • Audience develops respect for the speaker.

May 9, 2002

"A witty saying proves nothing.“ Voltaire (1694-1778)

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Common Speaking Fears
• Speaking in public causes death by embarrassment • You’ll be nervous forever • I’ll get nervous and forget what to say • The audience knows more then I do • I’ll look completely dumb if I get asked a hard question I can’t answer

"Nearly all men can stand adversity, but if you want to test a man's character, give him power." Abraham Lincoln May 9, 2002

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The Plan
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
May 9, 2002

Introduction Planning Style Step-by-Step Packaging Visuals Administering Your Talk Evaluation Sheets
"A pat on the back is only a few centimeters from a kick in the butt." Dilbert's Law of Work
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Planning
1. Checklists are an invaluable tool » Organize your thoughts under stress » Your Memory is fallible » Only help people who use them

May 9, 2002

Androphobia - fear of men

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Starting Out
• Pick the main points • Choose what to cover and what to leave out • Design the visuals (with notes) • Decide on extras • Multiple speakers must plan how to present a coordinated picture and agree on question handling
“Advanced BASIC” # 42 of 45 top oxymorons

May 9, 2002

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Preparations
• Rehearse, rehearse, rehearse » Introductions » Openings » Closings » Transitions » Questions » Hand-offs • Presenting without practice just causes you to look less professional
May 9, 2002

“Software documentation” # 25 of 45 top oxymorons

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On Site Preparations
• Get there early (60-90 minutes) • Examine the room layout and decide the location for materials & co-speakers • Test your equipment, visuals, light controls, audio systems and find out if you can adjust the temperature • Locate physically the bathrooms and phones • Ask when and where any breaks will be (coffee, lunch, etc.)

May 9, 2002

“Business ethics” # 29 of 45 top oxymorons

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The Plan
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
May 9, 2002

Introduction Planning Style Step-by-Step Packaging Visuals Administering Your Talk Evaluation Sheets
“Peace force” 16 / 45 top oxymorons
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Style
Style shapes the audience’s perceptions of you and your message. • There are three measures audiences use • Audience perception of you matters » bad perception make you ineffective » rarely “what” matters more than “who” • Common errors
May 9, 2002

"Words were given to man to enable him to conceal his true feelings." Voltaire

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Style Is Measured By
• Your Authority » Attention getting • Your Energy » activating • Your Awareness » meaningful You will be memorable The question is “in what way?”
May 9, 2002

"Don't use a big word where a diminutive one will suffice." Anonymous

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Rules To Remember
1. First impressions last a long time • The audience is evaluating you continually • They do remember • Each encounter lets them adjust their perceptions 2. Communication is an act of a listener • You are talking to a group
May 9, 2002

“’Be Yourself’ is about the worst advice you can give to people.” Mark Twain

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Oh Those Pesky Butterflies
• • Errors Starting too soon Pockets, at ease, crossed arms, sumo wrestler, praying, figleaf Fiddling with toys, jingling change “You know,” “uh,” “like,” “any ways” Corrections • Interview a attendee • Balanced stance, open smile, hands at your sides • Nothing in your hands • Stop, Think, Speak

• •

May 9, 2002

There are more than 10 million bricks in the Empire State Building.

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Dealing With Verbal Habits
• Very difficult to stop saying “like” or “you know” or “any hoo” or …. • Solution: » Pick a charity » Put jar on your desk » Get LOTS of quarters » Tell all your friends » Every time they catch you SOME money goes in the jar (no quarters, a dollar or worse)
May 9, 2002

The Bible has been translated into Klingon.

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Hiding Behind A Podium
• Myth: » A commanding speaker uses the lectern • Reality: » Podiums are a barrier blocking your gestures

Step out and connect
May 9, 2002

Starfish don't have brains.

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Clothing
• Myth: “Your attire should match the occasion.” • Things that can cause you trouble: » Overdressing: GQ or Mademoiselle » Under-dressing: Grunge • The wrong clothes can send the entirely wrong message • Technical audiences are especially sensitive to this
May 9, 2002

Sometimes I think I understand everything, then I regain consciousness.

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Dress For Success
• Follow these simple guidelines: » One notch above audience » Shoes Darker than your outfit » Long sleeves are better » Skirts appear shorter on-stage » Non-distracting ties to the middle of belt • Project a solid “professional” look and confidence will follow
May 9, 2002

Only one person in two billion will live to be 116 or older.

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Blending In
• Don’t blend in

My Mother taught me TO THINK AHEAD. May 9, 2002 "If you don't pass your spelling test, you'll never get a good job!"

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Eye Contact
Errors • Staring at a Spot • Scanning foreheads or ties Corrections • Speak to one person • Eyes contact for a thought or clause Acknowledge Move on to another audience member • Practice, rehearse

• Reading your slides • Reading a script
May 9, 2002

More people are killed by donkeys annually than are killed in plane crashes.

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Great Speakers have Conversations
• One on one familiar comfortable • Comfort in answering questions • Goal: Make presentation a conversation in which you help each member meet their needs

May 9, 2002

Five Jell-O flavors that flopped: celery, coffee, cola, apple and chocolate.

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Body Language
• • • • Walk in front of the projection Match your expression to what you are saying Too much motion distracts Move: » Forward – emphasize, change, openness » Backward – end of point, end of questions » Towards slides – emphasize (don’t look) » Use hands – high=reinforce low=negative • Don’t forget to smile occasionally
May 9, 2002

By law, in France, no pig may be addressed as Napoleon by its owner.

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Voice
• • • • • No one likes their voice Vary the pitch and inflection Vary the speed Vary volume Don’t be afraid of silence

May 9, 2002

Butterflies taste with their feet.

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Style Summary
• Authority: stance, movement, clothes, voice • Energy: movement, voice • Awareness: talking to people, respond to interruptions, get out from behind lectern

May 9, 2002

Intelligent people have more zinc and copper in their hair.

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The Plan
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
May 9, 2002

Introduction Planning Style Step-by-Step Packaging Visuals Administering Your Talk Evaluation Sheets
Over-constrained management is indistinguishable from mis-management.
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Step By Step Teaching
A major theme missing from most presentations

May 9, 2002

On a bar of Dial soap: "Directions: Use like regular soap."

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Spare Time
• I don’t have a lot of spare time • Neither do most people today • If the audience had spare time they’d probably figure it all out themselves • Don’t present the entire topic • Present just how to solve a problem

May 9, 2002 On a cigarette lighter label: Do not light the flame near the face.

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Three Steps
• Don’t skip the first 1. Make sure they buy the problem 2. Teach them a step by step solution 3. Show them a little theory (optional)

May 9, 2002

On a fence: "Salesmen welcome. Dog food is expensive."

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The Plan
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
May 9, 2002

Introduction Planning Style Step-by-Step Packaging Visuals Administering Your Talk Evaluation Sheets
Polar bears are left handed.
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Packaging
• • • • • • • Introductions Openings The most common error Signposts Stories Humor Keep things fresh

May 9, 2002

Pound for pound, hamburgers cost more than new cars.

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Introductions
• Short • Relevant content • Related respect

May 9, 2002

Reno, Nevada is west of Los Angeles, California.

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Opening
• Dangerous opportunity » But good • “I know who you are” • “I will not waste your time” • Relate directly to the audience » Start a “conversation” experience » Relate a short story about topic

May 9, 2002

Some lions mate over 50 times a day.

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Light Switch
• Seven to ten seconds of attention is all you get • “So what?” • Mentally gone • “Coffee break is close”

May 9, 2002

Lack of water, the #1 trigger of daytime fatigue.

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The Most Common Error
• Starting into the core of your talk before the audience agrees there is a reason for the talk

May 9, 2002

Just when I was getting used to yesterday, along came today.

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Signposts
• • • • • Lists Transitions Summary of important points Maps In Conclusion

May 9, 2002

February 1865 is the only month in recorded history not to have a full moon.

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Stories
• • • • • The most important tool you can use Nothing more powerful Demonstrate why a problem matters Counter objections Change decision criteria

May 9, 2002

A mere 2% drop in body water can trigger fuzzy short-term memory, trouble with basic math, and difficulty focusing on the computer screen or on a printed page.

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Humor
• Only use relevant jokes • Keep the humor believable • Make sure the joke is acceptable in all audiences • If embarrassing make it self directed

May 9, 2002

A cat has 32 muscles in each ear.

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Keep Things Fresh
• Pay attention to local and national news • Include some up to the minute content • When giving the same presentation over refresh the content • Knowing current events will help you avoid topics that might be in poor tact • A small bit of timely news or interesting item will build a rapport with audience and show preparedness
May 9, 2002

On most brands of Christmas lights: "For indoor or outdoor use only."

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Packaging Summary
• • • • Stories work well Introductions – someone else & short Openings – practice, plan The most common error – make sure there is a problem before presenting a solution

May 9, 2002

On Maternity Room door: "Push, Push, Push."

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The Plan
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
May 9, 2002

Introduction Planning Style Step-by-Step Packaging Visuals Administering Your Talk Evaluation Sheets
On average, 100 people choke to death on ballpoint pens every year.
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Visuals
• • • • • • Using Visuals What You Expected Why Do Visuals Work What You Didn’t Expect Good Visuals Spare The Eye Candy

May 9, 2002

On a Japanese food processor: "Not to be used for the other use."

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Using Visuals
• Wharton Study, expanded at University of Minnesota
Who Did The Best? In Favor Against

With Visuals Good Visuals

No Visuals

With Visuals Good Visuals

No Visuals Bad Visuals

Bad Visuals

May 9, 2002

Two-thirds of the world's eggplant is grown in New Jersey.

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What You Expected
• Visuals made a difference
Who Did The Best? In Favor

Against

With Visuals Won 67%

No Visuals Won 33%

With Visuals Won 67%

No Visuals Won 33%

• Second place is better
May 9, 2002

"Few problems can resist an all out attack.“ Edwin Bliss

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Why Do Visuals Work
• Two reasons: » They alter the audience’s perception » New perception alters decision • Speakers with visuals appear » More professional » Better prepared » More persuasive » More Credible » More Interesting » More Authoritative
May 9, 2002

"There cannot be a crisis today; my schedule is already full.“ Anonymous

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What You Didn’t Expect
• The impact of poor visual aids
Who Got Them To Spend More Money? Bad Speaker Visuals None Success 78% Bad 99% Good 99% Good Speaker None 100% Bad 90% Good 121%

May 9, 2002

"If it wasn't for the last minute, nothing would get done." Dilbert's Law of Work

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Good Visuals
• Fonts - one, thick, san-serif Sans Serif Font (Arial; Helvetica) Serif Font (Times; Times New Roman) • Less then 7 lines, Few Words / Line • Large - Big fonts – 36 to 18 pt • High Contrast Colors – Use carefully

May 9, 2002

"When you don't know what to do, walk fast and look worried." Dilbert's Law of Work

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First Show - Then Tell
• • • • • Titles Page / Slide Numbers Keep it simple Consistency Sign painters law: if it doesn’t fit then it’s too much • Information / Ink ratio as large as possible
May 9, 2002

Did you know you share your birthday with at least 9 million other people in the world?

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Spare The Eye Candy
• • • • • • Just say no to extensive use of animation Avoid sound effects Don't use standard templates Brief slides Graphics that support message Cautious of certain color combinations (red and green together) • Colors to support your message
May 9, 2002

Did you know that there are coffee-flavored PEZ?

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Summary On Visuals
• Use them in every presentation • Make them easy to read • Make sure the graphics and charts make the point you want

May 9, 2002 Pez was invented in 1927 in Vienna, Austria by Edward Haas III.

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The Plan
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
May 9, 2002

Introduction Planning Style Step-by-Step Packaging Visuals Administering Your Talk Evaluation Sheets
The first fruit Pez flavors where cherry, lemon, orange and strawberry.
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Administering Your Talk
• • • • • • When to start Handling visuals Breaks Changing Speakers Handling interruptions and problems Evoking questions

May 9, 2002

The word "Pez" comes from the German word for peppermint, which is phefferminz.

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When to start
• On time • Ask for delays • Do as audience requests

May 9, 2002

The world's termites outweigh the world's humans 10 to 1.

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Handling visuals
• • • • • Do not adjust unless falling Be sure the projection is on the screen Do not use a pointer Stand next to the screen Walk in front of the projection occasionally

May 9, 2002

There are more chickens than people in the world.

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Breaks
• Have some • At least one every 90 minutes

May 9, 2002

When Heinz ketchup leaves the bottle, it travels at a rate of 25 miles per year.

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Changing Speakers
• Practice, rehearse • Make sure it makes sense

May 9, 2002

Women blink nearly twice as much as men.

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Handling Questions
• • • • • Moment to shine Questions belong to the whole audience Maintain your authority Show you care Repeat the question

May 9, 2002

"Ever stop to think and forget to start again?“ Anonymous

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Really Tough Questions
• They cannot hurt you, but you can hurt yourself • Stop, take a step back • Look elsewhere • Restate the question (positively) • Answer the restated question • Ask for the next question
"Television has raised writing to a new low.“ Samuel Goldwyn

May 9, 2002

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Monopolizing Questioners
• Answer at least one question • Ask if it is OK to take questions from others

May 9, 2002

"When dog food is new and improved tasting, who tests it?“ Anonymous

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The Exception
• • • • Your boss The owner of the company Well known wizards A major client

• You can think of others

May 9, 2002

"Why didn't Noah swat those two mosquitoes?“ Anonymous

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A “Speech” Question
• • • • • Audience wants you to take control Interrupt Say “I don’t understand the question.” Keep interrupting Don’t attack

May 9, 2002

"Why do you need a driver's license to buy liquor when you can't drink and drive?" Anonymous

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Irrelevant Questions
• Answer VERY briefly if possible • Ask the person to come see you after the talk

May 9, 2002

"Why are there Interstates in Hawaii?“ Anonymous

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The Really Easy Questions
• Take your time • Give them choices • Give them the right answer

May 9, 2002

"How does the guy who drives the snowplow get to work?“ Anonymous

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The Ones You Don’t Know
• Do not say “I’ll get back to you” • Take out paper, ask for the person’s name, number and email address • Write down the question, repeating what you wrote • Pass the paper around to let others sign up to the list to get the answer • Before you let people leave ask where these papers are • Find the answer and send it as soon as possible
May 9, 2002

"Every morning is the dawn of a new error.“ Anonymous

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Question Handling Summary
• • • • Audience wants you to succeed Don’t cede power to a monopolizer Opportunity to show you care Opportunity to restate your main points

May 9, 2002

"A day without laughter is a day wasted.“ Charlie Chaplin

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In the End
• • • • • Have Fun Be Nervous Use technology properly Low tech verses high tech Be kind to presenters - it could be you!

May 9, 2002

"Installing [Exchange 2000] is just about as hard as firing a rocket launcher into your data center, just point and click." Chuck Yerkes

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Quotes
• • All the quotes came from my personal collection gathered from lots of sources. Some places to find more quotes are: » Witty Wisdom Quotes:
› http://www.iol.ie/~taeger/wisdomqu/wisdomq1.html

» Online Quotes:
› http://www.idynamics.com/quotes/

» Witty Quotes:
› http://www.angelfire.com/ma/hubpoet/pquote.html

» Witty, Thought-Provoking, and Humorous:
› http://www.tk421.net/essays/wit.shtml

» Funny Facts:
› http://www.jokersweb.com/ "Power corrupts, absolute power is kind of neat.“ John Lehman

May 9, 2002

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Bibliography
• • • • • “What computer skills do employers expect from recent college graduates?”; P. Davis; 1997, September; T.H.E., Technological Horizons in Education. “Workplace competencies: Trends in advertised entry-level technology, interpersonal, and basic communication job skills, 1992-1995”; A.B. North and W.E. Worth; Spring 1997; Office Systems Research Journal, vol. 15. “What work requires of schools, Washington, DC.”; U.S. Department of Labor; 1992; Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS). “The Modern Presenter’s Handbook”; Jim Macnamara; 1999; http://www.masscom.com.au/archipelago/ebook/modern.html. “How to give a talk”; Bruce Randall Donald; Department of Computer Science Dartmouth College; http://www.cs.dartmouth.edu/~brd/Teaching/Giving-a-talk/giving-atalk.html. “Some Lecturing Heuristics”; Patrick H. Winston; Department of Computer Science Dartmouth College; http://www.cs.dartmouth.edu/~brd/Teaching/Giving-a-talk/phw.html. "A little inaccuracy sometimes saves a ton of explanation.“ H. H. Munro (Saki) (1870-1916)

•

May 9, 2002

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In Conclusion

It's impossible to sneeze with your eyes open.

May 9, 2002

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