Chapter Nine Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle

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					Chapter Nine: Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood (6-12 years)
Physical Growth children grow about 1 to 3 inches each year they gain about 5 to 8 pounds annually girls, at about 10 to 12 years (pre-adolescence), begin a growth spurt, gaining about 10 pounds/year boys, at about 12 or 13, begin their growth spurt

Cultural Differences in Growth African Americans tend to be a little taller and heavier than their counter-parts Mexican American girls tend to have a higher percent of body fat than European American girls In a study of 8-year-olds around the world, there was about 9 inches between the shortest and the tallest children - Shortest come from southeast Asia, islands of the Pacific, and South America - Tallest come from northern and central Europe, eastern Australia and the U.S.

Nutrition require an average of 2,400 calories - more for older, less for younger breakfast should supply ¼ of calories a majority of meals should be complex carbohydrates simple carbohydrates (sugar) should be kept to a minimum daily protein intake (RDA) should be about 28 grams for 7- to 10-year-olds, American children get about 71 fat intake should be no more than 30% of total calories

Obesity, Health, and Body Image obesity in the U.S. has become a major health issue 15% of children, 6- 11, are obese – compared to 11% in 1994 health risks associate with obesity: high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease obese children suffer ridicule from peers, impacts self-image concern for body image can lead to eating disorders

What accounts for the increase in childhood obesity? too little exercise and too much food wrong kinds of food

Girls and Body Image (Schreiber et al., 1996) 40% of 9- and 10-year olds work at trying to lose weight European American girls are usually more dissatisfied with their bodies than African American girls mothers exert a strong influence over their daughters' weight-control efforts

Malnutrition 27% of the world's children suffer from mild to moderate malnutrition; 3-7% are severely malnourished (UNICEF, 2002) 46% of children in south Asians, 30% in Saharan Africa, 8% in Latin America and Caribbean 1 in 5 U.S. children don‟t get enough to eat (USDA, 1999) malnourishment affects physical, cognitive, emotional and social development numerous studies show that intervention works, such as free school meals - low-income children who get school breakfast programs increased their achievement tests significantly

Motor Development and Physical Play (see Table 9-1; p. 312) girls develop superior movement accuracy earlier boys tend to run faster, jump higher, throw further, and display more strength by 6 years, children can throw with proper weight shift and step, skip accurately by 7 years, they can balance on one foot, walk on 2-inch-wide balance beam, do jumping-jacks by 8, they can do rhythmic hopping patterns by 9, boys boys can throw a ball 70 feet, run about 16 ft/sec. by 10, girls can run about 17 ft/sec by 10, both can intercept pathways of a small ball – understand physics and trajectories by 11, boys can jump 5 feet; girls 4.5 feet in early childhood, about 10% of play involves rough-and-tumble, which is universal U.S. boys engage in more rough-and-tumble play in middle childhood, rough-and-tumble diminishes between ages 7 and 11 differences in motor abilities between girls and boys increases with age

Exercise: Maintaining Health and Fitness 15% boys, 26% girls fail to meet physical fitness standards in the last 50 years, children have gotten fatter (obesity and skin-fold measurements) physical education has become diminished over the years school athletics tends to be aimed at the most fittest, through competitive sports children spend more time watching television, have a lower metabolic rate, more cholesterol adult hypertension has roots in childhood

Some schools are noticing improvements in the health of students. Why? health education (physical and nutrition information programs) improved physical education programs behavior modification techniques

Tooth Development and Dental Care most adult teeth arrive in middle childhood primary teeth fall out at about age 6, and are replaced at a rate of 4 per year for the next 5 years the first molars arrive at about age 6 second molars arrive at about 13 third molars, "the wisdom teeth" arrive in the early twenties dental care has improved; we have fluoridation 55% of 5- to 17-year-olds have no tooth decay


Medical Problems Acute Medical Conditions short-term illness, such as respiratory infections, strep or sore throats, ear infections

Chronic Medical Conditions illness or impairments, requiring medical attention about 18% of children under 18 have chronic medical conditions (1994) those with chronic conditions tend to be resilient, rarely showing problems with mental health, behavior, or schooling

Vision Problems children under 6 years tend to be farsighted their eyes are immature; shaped differently from adults by age 6, vision is more acute, greater focus, better mental processing of images (binocular vision) 13% under 18-years-old are blind or have impaired vision

Hearing Problems deafness and hearing loss affect an estimated 15.3% of children under 18 years, mostly boys

Asthma - chronic respiratory disease symptoms: sudden attacks of coughing, wheezing, difficulty in breathing seems to have an allergic basis affects 1.4% U.S. children under 18 y.o. 80% increase since 1984; 232% increase since 1969 those most seriously affected are minority, poor, inner-city children (poor health care & no medicine) nearly 30% of asthmatics must limit daily activity can be fatal , mortality rates increased in the U.S. and several other countries, but recently declined, perhaps due to improved diagnosis and treatment

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) almost always fatal disease, but infected children are living longer than predicted 90% acquired it from their infected mothers, almost all of them prenatal stigmatized, shunned, kept out of school transmission is only through bodily fluids sharing toys, toothbrushes, eating utensils, toilets or bathtubs does not transmit HIV those who do not show symptoms should be treated like well children; no isolation children with AIDS may develop central nervous system dysfunction, resulting in learning and behavioral problems


Accidental Injuries leading cause of death injuries increase between ages 5 and 14 (more physically active, less supervision, minimal fear of failure) injuries occur more often in homes that have stress - there is less care in safety or supervision children with siblings have more injures (imitation of older siblings; more physical activity) children over-estimate their skills parents overestimate safety

Cars - a leading cause of death for schoolchildren is being hit by a moving vehicle (while walking or bicycling) - pedestrian deaths for children under 15 years has decreased by 49% since 1978 - head injuries can result in disability or death - protective wear (helmet) could prevent head injuries Advances in Cognitive Abilities: Concrete Operational Stage (Piaget's theory) less egocentric can use thinking to solve concrete (actual) problems increased understanding of others' perspective still unable to think abstractly (hypotheticals - what could be, instead of what is)

Spatial Thinking by 6-7 years, children have a better understanding of spatial relationships intercept balls, walk to/from school 6-7 year olds can use simple maps and models by 9 y.o., can describe settings in accurate detail

Understanding Causality (Cause and Effect) children understand cause/effect relationships earlier than they understand spatial relationships even young infants can understand cause/effect

Categorization or Classification Seriation - ability to put items along a dimension by 4-5, they can align smallest object to largest by middle childhood, they mastered this skill

Classification Piaget claims that sorting is an innate capability (they sort buttons by many categories) By middle childhood, class inclusion is possible Example: 7 roses, 3 carnations are presented together "Are there more roses or more flowers?" Answer: "rose" because they compare the roses to carnations


Transitive Inference - ability to infer information by putting facts together, without having to physically see the objects in question (maintain a „mental picture‟ to make comparisons) Example: compare a yellow stick against a red one then, compare the red one against a green one. then, asked: "Is this blue stick longer than the yellow one?" Inductive Reasoning - ability to reason from particular to general observations Example: understanding that specific kinds of dogs are part of a general class of dogs Deductive Reasoning - ability to reason from general observations to particular ones Example: since all dogs can bark, understanding that Spot can bark even though it was never heard Conservation - ability to recognized that the amount of something remains the same when it is rearranged conservation depends largely on neurological maturation 7- and 8-year-olds can usually solve problems involving conservation of substance (clay) "Are the two pieces of clay the same amount?" 9- and 10-year-olds can usually solve problems involving conservation of weight "Does the ball of clay weigh the same as the 'sausage' clay?" 12-year-olds can usually solve problems involving conservation of volume - "Do these two glasses have the same amount?"

Mathematics 5 year olds tend to count on their fingers by 6 - 7, they can count in their heads, and add numbers 2-3 years later, they can do subtraction by 9, can perform addition and subtraction with ease

Should children get an allowance? Helps math calculations; appreciation for money; responsibility Word Problems and Math - requires complex linguistic skills After 8 or 9 years: Can do: If you went to the store with $5 and spent $2, how much would you have left? Can't do: If you spent $2 and you now have $3 left, how much did you start with? Fantasy and Reality - studies of television by age 7, can distinguish television roles from actual ones however, children who view more television are more likely to have difficulty

Piaget's Stages of Moral Development - three stages First Stage (2-7 years), corresponds with preoperational stage - based on obedience to authority - can‟t see complexity in issues (all “right” or “wrong”)


Morality of Constraint - egocentric approach to moral concepts; believe that rules can't be changed; things are either right or wrong (not negotiable); offense deserves punishment. Second Stage (7 or 8 – 10 or 11), corresponds with concrete operational stage - more flexibility in thinking and autonomy - based on mutual respect and cooperation - discard the idea that there is an absolute standard of right or wrong Morality of Cooperation - more flexible ideas of morality; no absolute standard of right or wrong Third Stage (around 11 or 12), corresponds to formal reasoning - based on concern for equity (not “equality”) – fairness for all, taking into account specific circumstances Example of moral problem: Piaget's Augustus story - Two scenarios 1. One boy wanted to help his father by filling the inkwell, but made a large ink stain. 2. The other boy, played with the inkwell against father‟s wishes and made a small spot. Which child was naughtier? Children under 7 say the first, older children take intentions into account.

Memory - studied by information processing theorists memory improves through better encoding, storage capacity and retrieval

Encoding - mentally processing information, preparing it for storage Storage - retention of memories Retrieval - mental process of accessing stored information (recall) Working memory - temporary memory storage (short term memory) Task: "repeat these 6 numbers" 5- and 6-year-old remember about two adolescents (beginning about 11-14 y.o.) remember all six Selective Attention ability to attend to only one or few details at a given time school-age children can now concentrate on single events and ignore intrusions controlled by central executive (controls processing of information)

Sensory Memory – initial, brief memory stored in perceptual senses Long-term Memory – storage with unlimited capacity, holds information for a long period Metamemory - awareness of, and knowledge about, the processes of memory 4-year-olds seem to know a bit about the temporal aspect of memory - immediate things are remembered better, older events are more poorly remembered 5- and 6-year-olds know that studying will help memory; relearning is easier the second time 7-year-olds understand that humans have different memory abilities

Mnemonics: Strategies for Remembering (more effective when taught)


External Aids - prompting by something (or someone) outside the person (visual clues and reminders) Rehearsal - conscious repetition, keeps the information into working memory longer, enabling encoding and storage. (similar to rote learning) Organization - placing the information into categories or groupings. adults tend to organize automatically 10- and 11-year olds tend not to do this, but can be taught

Elaboration - embed the information into a imagined scene or story Intelligence Testing IQ - intelligence quotient (mental age/chronological age x 100) Examples: 9/8 x 100 = 112; 9/9 x 100 = 100; 9/10 x 100 = 90

Otis-Lennon School Ability Test - (K-12 students), verbal and numeric concepts Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) – (6 – 16) verbal and performance skills - a child who does well on performance, but poorly on verbal may have language problems Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) - (2.5 - 12.5 years of age) - developed in the 1980s - intended to test culturally-diverse children and children with disabilities - tests simultaneous processing and sequential processing - uses scaffolding (if the child fails after three attempts, clues are given) Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test (STAT) - (K - college) - measures three kinds of intelligence: analytic, creative, practical - multiple choice tests in three domains: verbal, quantitative, figural (or spatial) Benefits of Testing they tend to be good predictors of academic achievement, especially highly verbal children they help identify youngsters who are either bright or need extra help

Problems with Testing may be unfair to many children may underestimate actual intelligence for children who don't do well in testing - sitting still - paying attention - awareness of test-taking strategies - motivation to excel - interest in the task since tests are timed, they equate intelligence with speed; children who work slowly are penalized some answers to tests are arbitrary: "What are houses made of? Walls? Stone? Brick?" rapport with the examiner and familiarity with the surroundings affect test performance tests can't measure actual abilities, they merely help infer it from tasks education affects IQ directly - some children are bright, but haven't had as much schooling some people's IQ changes, evidence that the test may not be reliable 7



tests don't include social skills, creative insight, self-knowledge and other kinds of intelligence

Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences (Table 9-4; p. 327): linguistic (reading, writing, speaking -- using and understanding words) logical (numbers and logical problems) spatial (finding one's way around an environment) musical (perceiving and creating patterns of pitch and rhythm) bodily-kinesthetic (moving precisely and awareness of body mechanics) interpersonal (understanding others) intrapersonal (knowing oneself) naturalistic (ability to distinguish species)

Ethnic and Cultural Differences any differences in how ethnic groups score on IQ tests does not mean that the differences are hereditary SES explains the differences: income, nutrition, living conditions, culture, expectations

Why do Asians tend to become academically successful? culture shapes attitudes and behaviors more time in school more classroom instruction (whole group vs. small groups) parents celebrate accomplishments with ceremony and gifts slow students must attend jukus (private or remedial training) parents hold education as the single most important achievement for their children parents spend more time helping with homework, and monitoring their work discourage after-school jobs, dating, sports, and chores encourage devotion to study; parents see education as "upward mobility" parents tend to be unsatisfied with their children's progress - have a critical view

Can tests be culture bias-free? Maybe "no" Evidence: Nigerians sort concepts according to function Westerners sort according to form (size, color and physical similarity) Language 6 year olds can use complex words, construct longer turns (or stories) they have a vocabulary of several thousand words they employ a practical use of language (pragmatics) they rarely use the passive voice, conditional sentences, and the auxiliary "have" ("I have already done it") syntax is already very sophisticated


Metacognitive Skills - awareness of one's own mental processes by 6 years, children are aware of the connection between instructions and results 7-year-olds notice if instructions are inadequate, pause and look puzzled, but don't ask for clarification older children will ask for more instructions or clarification adults need to realize that young children internalize faulty or unclear information

Pragmatics – knowledge about communication 1st graders don‟t communicate with complex details (they can with parents, however); they respond to questions with simple, short answers 2nd graders – stories are longer, more complex, organized with a beginning and an end 3rd graders – „set the stage‟ with introductory information, side-details, can change details in personal ways, omit unnecessary detail.

Reading literacy is not merely the process of manipulating symbols it becomes an effective tool for understanding and acting in the social world

Teaching Reading focus on making associations with prior knowledge ask questions, ask for predictions identify objects and activity, and summarize

Phonics vs. Whole Language Phonics - learning words by associating printed alphabets with sounds Whole Language - studying the whole word, using contextual cues, discovering the meaning

Which is best? Experts don't agree. Combing both approaches seems effective
Writing very difficult task for younger children requires skills beyond spoken language (spelling, punctuation, grammar, capitalization) requires fine motor control requires the ability to keep ideas in memory while going through the mechanics of writing children do better when they write in groups, share ideas, get immediate feedback they prefer topics that focus on relationships with others Evidence: Analysis of journal writing (4- to 8-year-olds) words reflect their relationship with others ("my best friend") topics include descriptions of relationship (stories of friends) stories strengthen bonds and are intended to be read by others friendships stimulate learning

Problem: most teachers discourage students from discussing their writing or collaborating on writing projects


Second Language Learning - nearly 2.5 million U.S. children come from non-English-speaking homes Equal Education Opportunity Act (1974) encourage linguistic minorities to learn English. English-Immersion Approach (sometimes called ESL) - immersed in full-time or part-time English instruction. The emphasis is on learning English immediately. advocates claim that the sooner one learns English, the sooner they speak it, and learn it better studies of ESL suggest that this method isn't successful in generating high test scores a focus on language development seems to interfere with building knowledge about other concepts (science, math, social skills)

Bilingual Education - children are taught in two languages (native and English) assumes that identity is entwined with language and culture children progress academically faster, the linguistic transition is easier to manage, information is clear one study demonstrates that students in bilingual programs can eventually surpass native English-speakers using native language can help illuminate new concepts respectful of cultural identity and encourages pride most U.S. states have banned bilingual education, but schools find it difficult to abide to this law

Two-Way or Dual-Language Approach - English-speakers and foreign-speakers learn both languages together avoids stigmatizing linguistic minorities; values both languages prevents segregation

Entering First Grade: The Beginning School Study (1998 study) pre-school or kindergarten are not required by law children who attended full-day kindergarten did better on achievement tests children from two-parent homes, or have grandparents who live with them, do better in school learning patterns are established early; first grade is a crucial for developing good habits

Influences on School Achievement - A holistic review (child, parent, and teacher) Qualities of the Child - children are different by culture, temperament, cognitive abilities, etc. children who are viewed as cooperative, usually score higher on achievement tests interest, attention and active participation increases test scores

The Child's Emotional State children's behavior is influenced by their emotional life depression and aggression interfere with development of cognitive skills empathy is associated (correlation studies) with good scores in reading and spelling frustration leads to aggression or quitting pride leads to greater interest in task completion, encourages bond-building shame inhibits participation


The Parents - those who have successful students: tend to be well educated themselves, and value education usually financially comfortable, but not always have effective learning resources; rich in intellectual stimulation are engaged with the child's homework have high expectations of their children positive home environment

Parents Motivation Strategies Extrinsic motivation - praise, money, special privileges, punishment Intrinsic motivation - internal rewards, such as desire and curiosity, are the most effective forms of motivation - parents can encourage this with praise for hard work, support when failure happens A Review of Parenting Styles - observations from correlation studies Authoritative - encouragement, praise, fostered with autonomy - these children tend to develop curiosity and interest in learning (intrinsic motivation) Authoritarian - supervise closely, very directive, control activity - these children rely too much on external control and don't trust their own judgment (external motivation) Permissive - uninvolved parents - children tend to be low achievers Socioeconomic Effects higher income parents tend to be more involved with the child's schooling home environment is more positive and nurturing children are more skilled at self-monitoring studies on African Americans indicate that children from middle-income families do much better than those from poorer families -- evidence that socioeconomic influence is more important than ethnicity.

Parental Attitudes and Beliefs - a study by Ginsburg and Bronstein, 1993 parents who assumed that „outside forces‟ control their fate had children who were: - less self-reliant - less self-motivated - less persistent - less successful at school.

The Teacher - many of us remember some with fondness, others were 'monsters' Self-fulfilling Prophecy - the Oak School Experiment (Rosenthal and Jacobson, 1968) - teachers who believe that a student will fail will treat that student accordingly, and those who they view as success will do well. - teachers are human, and have biases, preferences, etc.


The Educational System prior to 1960s, school systems focused on the three R's 1960s and 70s, there was a movement toward open classrooms as a result of poor SAT scores, we're moving back to basics some schools prefer cooperative projects where the basics are taught within a larger social context some prefer integrated curriculum , (reading and writing can include history, science, social studies, etc.) some emphasize a fourth R - reasoning many schools are attempting to reduce classroom sizes ethnically diverse schools that teach 'ethnic studies' tend to have more graduates, better scores, and more college entry tracking begins early, and can limit student progress many schools have a policy of social promotion, passing students who perform poorly

The Culture and Education it was once thought that 'minority' students had a cultural deficit most educators now view diverse populations as another form of difference

Examples of how schools can become more sensitive to cultural differences: findings from the Kamehamaeha Early Education Program (KEEP) Organization of the classroom Hawaiian culture emphasizes collaboration and cooperation - Students work in small groups together and help teach each other Navajo culture trains children to be self-sufficient, and they are typically separated by gender by 8 years - Students work in same-sex groups of 2 or 3


Accommodation to Language Styles Hawaiians typically overlap one another in speech (considered rude by European American teachers) Navajos speak slowly with frequent silent pauses teachers can adjust their own style and become sensitive to these differences

Adjustment to Learning Styles some cultures emphasize verbal and analytic thought (European Americans, Asians) other cultures stress visual and holistic patterns, and stress imitation, with little verbal instruction, no interruptions (Native Americans) teachers can be more helpful by adopting a style that is familiar to children

Mental Retardation - subnormal intellectual functioning; IQ of 70 or less about 1% of the population is mentally retarded about 60% are boys; 40% are girls in about 30-40% of cases, the cause is unknown known causes include embryonic problems - 30% - prenatal drug use



Other causes: - 15-20% - mental disorders from environmental influences (lack of nurturance) - 10% - problems with pregnancy (malnutrition or birth trauma) - 5% - medical problems (lead poisoning, injuries)

Learning Disabilities (LDs) - disorders that interfere with specific kinds of learning or school achievement 2.6 million students in 1995-96 school year; 2.1 million in 2001 may have average or higher-than-average intelligence, but have sensory problems (visual memory, hearing memory) they tend to be less task oriented and more easily distracted by other children less likely to use memory strategies children do not usually outgrow learning disabilities, but can learn to cope and adapt 4 out of five children with LD have dyslexia

Dyslexia - a developmental reading disorder reading achievement is at least 2 years below expected IQ level difficulty in converting written words into speech sounds confuse left and right, up and down, saw and was affects 5-17.5% of the school population no agreement on its definition or cause - (social) may be due to poor teaching and family problems - (biological) may be due to poor neurological pathways between the eyes and the brain, or inability to distinguish auditory nuances specialized training (self-pace computerized tutorials) seems to help -- improved tests scores however, dyslexia doesn't go away


Mathematical Disabilities - difficulty in counting, comparing numbers, calculating, and remembering basic mathematical rules more common than reading disabilities, and is relatively neglected in the U.S. cause may be neurological, poor training, anxiety, developmental delay

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can't sit still for a long period doesn't complete tasks; impulsive persistent inattention; easily distracted low tolerance for frustration some are inattentive, but not hyperactive; others show the reverse pattern affects 2 – 11% of school-age children, world-wide; 3-6% in the U.S. children boys are 3 to 4 times more likely to be diagnosed with it, than girls 1 in 4 learning disabilities is the result of ADHD it seems to be inherited - in 1 out of 4 cases, one biological parent has the disorder may be caused by irregularity in brain functioning (in the region that inhibits impulses) research has failed to substantiate links between ADHD and food (sugar, artificial additives) symptoms tend to decline with age


ADHD children tend to: become alienated, fail in school and drop-out become antisocial abuse drugs show poor cognitive skills

As adults, might: change jobs often have more marital disruptions experience more traffic accidents trouble with the law

Help for ADHD behavioral therapy, counseling, training in social skills, special classroom placement, and drugs

Parents and Teachers break up work into smaller tasks repeat questions and instructions to build metacognitive skills (What are you doing now? Why? When will you complete XYZ?) avoid timed tests offer alternative ways to demonstrate learning (tape-recordings instead of written reports) alternate study with physical activity allow many breaks

Drugs in 70-80% of cases, stimulants such as Ritalin may help children concentrate and improve behavior does not seem to improve long-range academic achievement should be discontinued if behavioral improvements aren't obvious long-term impact is still unknown

Educating Children with Disabilities Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 1975; 1997) assures free public education for all 51% are LD 22% speech-impaired 11% mentally retarded 9% serious emotional disturbances the study doesn't specify the remaining balance - presumably 7% are physical challenges education programs are either "special" or "inclusion" method (inclusion is mandated by federal law, IDEA) some studies indicate that inclusion seems to work best others say that smaller 'special' classes provide more individualized training


Gifted, Creative and Talented Children the relationship between giftedness, creativity and talent is unclear process information efficiently, especially novel tasks related to motivation, cognitive abilities, and creative insight usually determined by IQ tests, which excludes others who may have unrecognized aptitudes new "gifted and talented" programs include: - creative and productive thinking - leadership skills - artistic talent - psychomotor ability

Gifted Children physically healthier, taller, better-coordinated, better-adjusted, popular superior academic skills last throughout the lifetime successful achievers, reach Who's Who in America outstanding abilities driven to excel support from adults and mentors

Creative Thinking see things in a new way, producing new ideas and perspectives flexibility in thinking, open to new ideas, less dogmatic divergent thinkers (multiple answers), not convergent thinkers (single correct answers)

Enrichment - broadens knowledge - extra classroom activities - research projects - coaching and mentorship Accelerated Learning - recommended for gifted children, speeds up their education - skipping grades - special classes


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