Essential Questions – What are two reasons why Constantinople was a good location for the capital of the Roman Empire? – Who was Justinian? – What was the Justinian Code? – What was the third (and final) name of Constantinople? The Byzantine Empire: The New Rome Important Terms 1. Rule of law Government by law. The rule of law implies that government authority may only be exercised in accordance with written laws, which were adopted through an established procedure. 2. Autocrat Ruler who has complete authority The Division of the Roman Empire In 284 C.E. Diocletian became Roman emperor. He decided that the huge Roman empire could only be ruled by splitting it into two parts. The Division of the Roman Empire From World History: Connections to Today Prentice Hall, 2003 Constantine In 330 C.E. Diocletian’s successor, Constantine, rebuilt the old port of Byzantium, at the mouth of the Black Sea. He renamed it Constantinople and made the city the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. What are the advantages of building a major city here? Advantages Peninsula Provided natural safe harbors for ships – both merchant and military ships Provided natural defense – water on three sides. (the Black and Aegean Seas) Advantages Trade Easy access to the Mediterranean Sea Located at an important land route that linked Europe and Asia (Silk Road) The Fall of the Western Roman Empire By 395 C.E., the Roman Empire was formally divided into two empires: East and West. With the invasion of Germanic forces from the north, the Western Roman Empire was conquered and further divided. This left the eastern part of the Roman empire to carry on the Greco-Roman tradition. Byzantine Empire At first, this Empire controlled only a small area around the eastern Mediterranean, but during the reign of Justinian (527-565), it started to recover much of the territory of the old Roman empire. The Byzantine Empire Under Justinian This map depicts the Empire at the death of Justinian I, who had reigned from 527 to 565 as sole Emperor, sometimes in concert, and sometimes in conflict, with his powerful wife Theodora. The New Rome The Byzantine Empire was wealthy and produced: gold, silk, grain, olives and wine It traded these for spices, ivory and precious stones on the Silk Road with China and India. The Silk Road Justinian and Theodora Justinian ruled as an autocrat with the help of his wife, Theodora. They created a huge Christian empire and the empire reached its greatest size. Justinian and Theodora They also built Hagia Sophia And rebuilt the Hippodrome Justinian and Theodora Created Justinian’s Code – which organized all the laws of ancient Rome. Justinian’s Code of Laws Laws were more fair to women. They could own property and raise their own children after their husbands died. Children could choose their own marriage partners. Slavery was legal and slaves must obey their masters. Punishments were detailed and fit the crime His work inspired the modern concept and, indeed, the very spelling of "justice". Justinian's Achievements Revived classical Greco-Roman culture Improved the wealth and power of Byzantine Empire by expanding trade Reconquered lands and doubled size of Byzantine Empire Codified Roman law, basis of European legal systems The End of the Byzantine Empire The Byzantine empire drew to a close in 1453 when forces from the Muslim Ottoman Empire surrounded and conquered Constantinople. Theancient city was renamed Istanbul and became the capital of the Ottoman Empire.
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