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					        Solar Thermal Heating
     Lessons Learned and New Opportunities


                 Presented to:
Better Buildings by Design Conference – 2009
                Leigh Seddon
           Alteris Renewables, Inc.
             End of an Energy Era
100 years of exponential growth in fossil fuel use HAS come
 to an end due to environmental and economic constraints
               Our Solar Power Plant

Safe
Reliable
No Transmission
Costs
No Emissions
Delivered to
Everyone

                                  Solar Corona: Yohkoh Satellite
The Solar Energy Resource
In a single one hour period, the sun sends
enough energy to our planet to meet all of our
energy needs for an entire year.
150,000 kWh a year of solar energy falls on
every 1,000 sq feet of south facing roof in N.E.
Solar thermal conversions efficiencies run as
high as 50% for low temperature applications
like radiant heating and domestic hot water.
          Solar Technologies
Daylighting
  0 - 4¢/kWh saved
Passive Heating & Cooling
  0 - 4¢/kWh saved
Active SHW & Heating
  4 - 8¢/kWh saved
Photovoltaics
  15 -30¢/kWh saved
    Isn’t Solar Water Heating for
       California and Florida?
The Northeast is one of the best regions for solar
thermal because:
  Fuel costs are among the highest in the country.
  Solar radiation is plentiful enough on a year-round
  basis to supply 2/3 of a facility’s water heating energy.
  Ground water temperatures are much lower in the
  Northeast, raising solar thermal conversion efficiency.
Solar technology is
proven, affordable,
and cost-effective in
Vermont.

50% energy savings
are possible with less
than 10% increase in
construction costs.

Solar electric and thermal system
Annual energy savings – 4,000 kWh
Weybridge, VT
   Solar “Net Zero” is Possible in Vermont

“River House”
By William Maclay
Architects
Solar/Geothermal
13 kW grid-tie PV
15 kW solar thrm
 Solar Assisted Geothermal Heat Pump

“River House”
Mechanical Design
by LN Consulting
& Energy Balance
  Solar Energy Profile & Load Matching
                                       Average BTU per Day by Month
                                         Flate Plate collectors - 9 sq meters
                                                Boston, MA insolation


90,000


80,000
                                                                                                     Hot water
70,000
                                                                                                     load for 4
60,000                                                                                               person
50,000
                                                                                                     household
                                                                                                         Solar BTU
40,000                                                                                                   per day

30,000


20,000                                                                                              Optimal Annual
                                                                                                    Solar Fraction --
10,000
                                                                                                    about 65%
    0
         Jan   Feb   Mar   Apr   May      Jun         Jul       Aug         Sep   Oct   Nov   Dec
          Solar Energy Profile – Heat Load

180,000
                                        192 SF collector array
160,000
                Heat Load
140,000


120,000


100,000

                                         Unused Energy
 80,000


 60,000


 40,000


 20,000


     0
          Jan   Feb   Mar   Apr   May      Jun    Jul    Aug     Sep   Oct   Nov   Dec
                   Effect of Collector Angle
                                     Average daily Insolation for different collector angles
                                                     Boston, MA

         7



         6



         5



                                                                                                            0
         4
                                                                                                            25
kWh/M2




                                                                                                            40
                                                                                                            55
         3
                                                                                                            90



         2



         1



         0
             Jan   Feb   Mar   Apr        May      Jun           Jul   Aug      Sep       Oct   Nov   Dec
                                                         Month
        SHW & Radiant Floor Heating

6 - 4x10 Flat
Plate
240 Sq. Ft Array
10,000
kWh/Year
thermal


60 degree collector
tilt to optimize
winter performance
           Building Integrated Systems

Integration at design
phase can provide:
•Easier installation
•Better aesthetics
•Better performance
•Material savings
    Thermal Energy Storage Systems

Thermal energy must be
used immediately or stored




  “Softank” systems
  Non-pressurized tank
  EPDM rubber lining
  Ships as 4 x 12 flat
  Copper coil heat exchangers
          Commercial Heating Systems
                                                    •Pool heating
                                                    •Process heat
                                                    •Dairy farms
                                                    •Hotels
                                                    •Laundramats

                                                    Very cost-effective
                                                    due to high solar
                                                    conversion
                                                    efficiency and
                                                    economies of
Southern VT Recreation Center, Springfield VT       scale
130 kW thermal array saves $15,000 a year in fuel
                 Solar Pool Heating

S. VT
Recreation
Center
130 kW
thermal
$15,000 / year
savings
          The Battle of the RTUs

Planning in
the design
stage can
help avoid
unnecessary
shading and
layout costs.
             Hospital Hot Water System




Santa Rosa
Hospital
SanAntonio, TX
Drainback SHW Operation
       Commercial Radiant Floor Heat


Thermodynamics
Halifax, NS

90 sq. meters
Collector surface

285 MMBTU/yr
           Vertical Wall Installation

Thermodynamics, LTD
Halifax, NS

5 4x8 collectors
per “bank” to
control expansion

Building integrated
but using modular
collectors
           Evacuated Tube or Flat Plate?

Which is best
depends on
application, climate,
and delivery
temperature




Thermomax System
Pentagon
Washington, DC
Efficiency in Perspective
       DHW   HEAT
           Cost of Energy in Vermont (Jan 2009)

                                      Delivered Cost of Energy
                                  End use cost with high efficiency equipment
          45
          40
          35
$/MMBTU




          30
          25
          20
          15
          10
           5
           0




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                                                                            Pe
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                                                        El


                                                        Fuel Type



*Solar – 20-year annualized cost
  Life-Cycle Analysis – SHW Example

Cost Item              Electric                 LPG              Solar
Capital Cost            $750                     $750            $6,250*
First year fuel cost    $850                     $860              $250
25-yr fuel cost**     $18,760                 $18,980            $5,520
25-yr maintenance**      $550                    $550            $1,500
Total Life Cycle Cost $20,910                  $21,140          $13,520


* includes $750 for back-up LPG hot water heater, less state incentives
** present worth based on inflation at 4%, discount rate at 7%
** prices based on January 2006 average cost for New England
System Performance Monitoring
    Necessary for thermal billing and RECs
Fat Spaniel Web View
Solar Cooling – An Emerging Market
Solar Cooling – The Perfect Load Match
                Quiz
What state has the highest per capita
number of solar installers?
In what state was the first New England
solar collector manufacturer located?
The contractor who installed the first
White House solar system in 1978 was
located in what state?

Vermont is Solar “Shovel” Ready!

				
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posted:4/1/2013
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