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					                 Uluslararası Organik Zeytinyağı Yarışması
            Premiobiol 2007 Türkiye Etkinliği
                                     Dr. Yahya Laleli
                              Taylieli Zeytin ve Zeytinyağı İşletmesi
                                       Member of
Ege İhracatçı Birlik Binası
04 Mayıs 2007
Olive Oil & Health
• O.O has long been known for the beneficial health
  effects,
• Those effects are not only related with mono and
  polyunsaturated fatty acids and oil soluble vitamins,
• Also, minor components flavonoids, mainly
  polyphenols and sterols have dose related effects.
• Poylphenols level is related with harvesting time
  and the way of farming (organic).
• The lower the pesticide use, the higher the level of
  polyphenols, which act like anti-inflammatory
  compound and membrane stabilizer.
• Therefore, I would like to suggest adding the level
  of polyphenol on the label of content list, at least for
  the organic olive oil products.
Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests
that eating about 2 tablespoons (23 grams) of olive oil
daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due
to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil. To achieve this
possible benefit, olive oil is to replace a similar amount
of saturated fat and not increase the total number of
calories you eat in a day. One serving of this product
……. contains ……. grams of olive oil."
                                                 8.66 cal/gr
              BIOACTIVE CONTENTS IN OLIVE OIL

               Vitamin A
                                                      Oleic Acid
                                                    Linoleic Acid
                                                    Linolenic Acid
        Vitamin E             Beta Carotens         Palmitic Acid
    Alpha-Oliveopherol
                            Monounsaturated
                              Fatty Acids &                   Hexanal
                           Essential Fatty Acids          3 Metil Butanal
  Beta-Citosterol                                          1-Pentan-3-En
                               Tocopherol                    3-Hexanal
  5-Anemosterol
   Campesterol                  Squalene                     Octan-3-en
   Stigmasterol                                           3 Hexanil Acetat
                                  Sterols                 Nonanal Vanilin
                           Aromatic Substances
                              Phospholipid               Orto-difenol
                                                         Vanilic Acid
                               Polyphenol          Para Hydroxybenzoic Acid
                                                         Siringic Acid
 Phosphotidil-Colin           Terpenic Acid
                                                          Cafeic Acid
   Phosphotidil-                                      Para-Cumarik Acid
   Ethanolamin                                           Sinopic Acid
 Phosphotidil-Serin                                      Sinamic Acid
Phosphotidil-Inozitol
        Olive Oils High in Phenolic Compounds Modulate
               Oxidative/Antioxidative Status in Men




FIGURE 1 The percentage change in plasma oxidized LDL (A), 8-oxo-dG in mitDNA (B), and urine (C), malondialdehyde in
urine (D), plasma GSH-Px activity (E), and serum HDL-C (F) in men after 4 d of sustained consumption of olive oil with low
(LPC), moderate (MPC), and high (HPC) phenolic content. Values are means ± SEM, n = 12.

Weinbrenner et al, J. Nutr. 134:2314-2321, September 2004
Olive oil 'can cut cancer risk'

• A study of 182 European men found those who had
  25 milliliters of olive oil per day had reduced levels
  of a substance which indicates cell damage.
• The study is in the Federation American Societies
  for Experimental Biology.
• The researchers used three types of olive oil
  Adding plenty of olive oil to a diet could help
  protect against cell damage that can lead to
  cancer, experts say.
• The Danish team said it may explain why many
  cancer rates are higher in northern Europe than the
  south, where olive oil is a major part of the diet.
 The scientists added either virgin, common or refined olive oil
to their diets over two weeks, and measured 8-oxo-dG levels
which indicates oxidative damage to cells, in the men's urine.
At the beginning of the study, men from northern Europe had
higher levels of 8-oxo-dG than those from southern Europe,
 The men were found to have around 13% less 8-oxo-dG
compared with their levels at the beginning of the study.
Supporting the idea that olive oil had a reductive effect.
 Oxidative damage is a process whereby the metabolic balance
of a cell is disrupted by exposure to substances that result in the
accumulation of free-radicals, which can then damage the cell.
Olive oil contains a number of compounds, called phenols,
which are believed to act as powerful antioxidants.
Although this study suggests that olive oil can reduce DNA damage that could lead
to the development of cancer, more long-term research is needed to confirm these
effects

                                                      Dr Anthea Martin, Cancer Research UK ”

 But the Danish researchers said the men in the study used the three different oils,
 which had different levels of phenols, so that was unlikely to explain the protective effect.
w w w .n a tu re .co m
P h yto ch e m istry: Ib u p ro fe n -lik e a ctiv ity in e x tra -
v irg in o liv e o il
G ary K . B eau ch am p , R u ssell S . J. K east, D ian e M orel, Jian m in g Lin , Jan a Pik a, Q ian g
H an , C h i-H o Lee, A m os B . S m ith an d P au l A . S. B reslin

N ature 43 7 , 45 -46 (1 S e ptem ber 2 0 05

E x tra -v irg in o live o il h a s sim ila r a ctiv ity to
ib u p ro fe n
.
A recent study has sh ow n th at oleocanthal, a com p on en t of extra-virgin olive oil, has an
an ti-in flam m atory profile an d p oten cy 'strikin gly' sim ilar to th e n on steroidal anti-
inflam m atory drug ibu profen . A lth ou gh th e tw o m olecu les are stru cturally dissim ilar,
th e y both produ ce a stron g stin gin g sen sation in th e th roat, an d in h ibit th e sam e cyclo-
oxygen ase (C O X) en zym es in th e prostaglan din biosynth esis path w ay.

Phen ol com pou n ds in n e w ly pressed olive oils con tribu te to a u n iqu e balan ce of flavou rs.
O n e, an aldeh yde derivative of deacetoxy-ligstroside aglycon e (oleocan th al), m ay d o
rather m ore th an th at. Its pu ngen cy in du ces a stin gin g in th e th roa t sim ilar to that
cau sed by the n on -ste roid al an ti-inflam m atory dru g (N S A ID ) ibu profen . N ow it seem s
th at this sim ilar perception also in dicates a sh ared ph arm acological activity. O leocan thal
acts as a na tu ral an ti-in flam m atory com pou nd w ith a p oten cy an d profile very like th at
of ibu profen. Is it coin cidence th at som e of th e h ealth ben efits claim ed for a
M editerran ean diet, rich in olive oil, overlap w ith th ose attributed to N S A ID s?




H ow they un derpin th e sim ilar th roa t-irritatin g an d ph arm a cological properties of th e
tw o com poun ds is u n clear as yet..
        Progression of Obesity to Disease
                                                             Triglycerides

                                                              LDL                                                   Stroke
                                                              HDL                                     Diabetes

                                                              Visceral Fat                                          MI
Insulin               Hyper-                                                                                                  Death
Resistance            insulinemia
                                                             Angiotensin II                                         HF
                                                                                                            CHD
                                                             Sympathetic                                            ESRD
                                                             Activity

                                                         + Hypertension

                                                  Metabolic Syndrome                                              Morbid States
http://www.medreviews.com/cme_programs/beta_blockade/PPT/Abraham.ppt

LDL=low-density lipoprotein; HDL=high-density lipoprotein; MI=myocardial infarction; CHD=congestive heart
failiure; HF=heart failure; ESRD=end-stage renal disease
Adapted from Arch Intern Med. 2000; 160:1277-1283.
 Leptin is produced in and secreted by the Adipocyte. It enters
circulation and travels to the central nervous system where it acts on
the hypothalamus to decrease the excretion of Neuropeptide Y. This
    serves to down regulate Neuropeptide Y causing a decrease in
     hunger, increase in activity, and increase in Thermogenesis,
            reducing energy storage and fat accumulation.
      Hypothalamus                                                  Neuropeptide-Y



                     p tin
                Le
                                                             • Decreases Hunger
                                                             • Increases Activity
     Adipocyte                                               • Increases Thermogenesis



                     http://origin.www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/05/slides/2005-4179s1_04_Hassink_FDA.ppt
So far Dr. Sinclair and his colleagues have shown only that resveratrol, the chemical found in
red wine, prolongs life span in yeast, a fungus, by 70 percent. But a colleague, Dr. Mark Tatar
of Brown University, has shown, in a report yet to be published, that the compound has
similar effects in fruit flies. The National Institute of Aging, which sponsored Dr. Sinclair's
research, plans to start a mouse study later in the year.


According to ''The Oxford Companion to Wine,'' pinot noir tends to have high levels of the
chemical, cabernet sauvignon lower levels. ''Wines produced in cooler regions or areas with
greater disease pressure such as Burgundy and New York often have more resveratrol,'' the
book says, whereas wines from drier climates like California or Australia have less.

Besides resveratrol, another class of chemical found to mimic caloric restriction is that of the
flavones, found abundantly in olive oil, Dr. Howitz said.
                                                             Under normal conditions
                                                                   in a yeast cell, the
                                                                longevity protein Sir2
                                                              uses NAD as a cofactor
                                                                       to produce
                                                                 nicotinamide, which
                                                                then inhibits Sir2 in a
                                                             negative feedback loop.
                                                                 But when the cell is
                                                                       exposed to
                                                              environmental stresses
                                                               like calorie restriction,
                                                              heat shock, or osmotic
                                                              stress (top), PNC1 gets
                                                              switched on. The Pnc1
                                                                    protein converts
                                                             nicotinamide to nicotinic
                                                             acid, a molecule that has
                                                                 no effect on Sir2. No
                                                                  longer inhibited by
                                                                  nicotinamide, Sir2
                                                             becomes more active
                                                             and yeast live longer.
http://www.hms.harvard.edu/news/releases/0503sinclair.html
Some minor components of olive oil that can have
major effects:
 Beta-sitosterol lowers high cholesterol levels.
 Caffeic and gallic acids stimulate bile flow. Gallic acid also
inhibits lactic dehydrogenase activity, which is a sign of liver
malfunction.
 Phenolic compounds protect against peroxidation of fatty
acids and cholesterol.
 2-phenylethanol, present in many unrefined oils, stimulates
production of fat-digesting enzymes in the pancreas.
 Cycloartenol, which is stored in the liver, lowers the amount
of circulating cholesterol and increases bile excretion.
 A combination of Triterpenic acids and 2-phenylethanol
slows down cholesterol digestion and its absorption from
foods.

http://www.innvista.com/health/nutrition/fats/olive.htm
  Other compounds found in olive oil are:
   Palmitic acid, which can raise cholesterol levels, but olive oil
seems to protect rather than damage.
  Stearic acid, which neither raises or lowers cholesterol.
  Small amounts of lecithin.
  Beta carotene and Vitamin E, known antioxidants.
  Chlorophyll, known to be a good source of magnesium.
  Squalene, a precursor of phytosterols, which protects against
cholesterol absorption from foods.
  Modified sterols known as triterpenic substances, which
seem to benefit the cardiovascular system and have healing and
anti-inflammatory properties.

   Triterpenic acids (oleanolic and maslinic) found only in
olive oil, stimulate pancreatic enzymes.
   Polyphenols, with one such being oleoeuropein, known to
lower blood pressure.
   Plus more than 100 other compounds that give flavor and aroma
that have been identified but not studied.
http://www.innvista.com/health/nutrition/fats/olive.htm
    What are Flavonoids?
• The family of polyphenolic substances.
• There are 4000-5000 different flavanoid types
  in nature.
• They are found in fruits, the vegetables and in
  the roots of plants.
• They provide resistance for the defence to
  bacterial diseases, parasites and oxidation
• Some flavanoids have relatively high color
  magnitutes
  ANTIOXIDANTS
Any substance or mixture
having the influence on
affecting the oxidation
process of an other
substance.
             FREE RADICALS
 TOXIC SUBSTANCES THAT ARE CONTINUOUSLY
PRODUCED BY ALL CELLS OF THE HUMAN BODY.
FREE RADICALS CAN BE PRODUCED BY TRAUMA,
INJURY, SUNLIGHT, POLLUTION, EXPOSURE TO
      TOXINS, ALCOHOL AND CIGARETTE
  CONSUMPTION, AND SOME FOODS. THEY ARE
 ALSO A BY PRODUCT OF MANY OF THE BODY'S
            NATURAL PROCESSES.

  • Oils (Lipid peroxidation)
        Fatty acids
        Phospholipids
        Triglycerides
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic Acids (RNA, DNA)
         Antioxidant




Free Radical




                       Nucleus
  HYDROXYBENZOIC ACIDS
                     R2           R1



             R3                          COOH




                      R4


R1=R2=R4=H , R3=OH         p-Hydroxybenzoic acid

R2=R3=R4=H , R1=OH         Salicylic acid

R1=H, R2=R3=R4=OH          Gallic acid

R1=R4=H, R2=R3=OH          Gentisic acid
The quantitative and qualitative aspects of olive oil are
        attributable to the following factors;


       Region the olive trees are grown
               Harvest time & method
               Processing techniques
                   Storage condition
                  Bottling method
   What does organic mean?
• ‘Organic farming’ or ‘organic produce’ refers to
  food (and other products) produced by using feed
  or fertilizer of plant or animal origin without
  employing chemically formulated fertilizers, growth
  stimulants, antibiotics, or pesticides.
• Organic labeling is supposed to indicate more than
  just the constituents of products. It indicates that
  production methods focus on minimizing air, soil
  and water pollution.
      Health & Organic Farming
• Organic Agriculture should sustain and enhance the health
  of soil, plant, animal, human and planet as one and
  indivisible.

  This principle points out that the health of individuals and
  communities cannot be separated from the health of
  ecosystems –healthy soils produce healthy crops that foster
  the health of animals and people.
  Health is the wholeness and integrity of living
  systems. It is not simply the absence of illness, but
  the maintenance of physical, mental, social and
  ecological well-being. Immunity, resilience and
  regeneration are key characteristics of health.
Why is organic farming better?
Organic farming is better for the environment because it
values and protects wildlife (whose diversity plays an
essential role in maintaining crop and livestock health).
Organic farming is better for the soil because the soil and
its micro-organisms are nurtured as a resource for future
generations.
Organic farming is better for farm animals because their
welfare is protected they are free range and fed only
natural foods without antibiotics, growth promoters or BST.
Organic farming produces better, tastier and healthier
foods.
             Organic Olive Oil
• Scientific studies have confirmed that olive oil is of
  considerable health benefit.
• But olives are also subject to the same agricultural poisons
  that pollute other crops of otherwise beneficial foods.
• Harmful chemicals can compromise the quality of olive oil
  at both the growing and processing end.
• So that while you get enthused about the olive's health
  benefits, you also must be prudent regarding your choice
  of olive oils.
• Organic olive oil, with purity assured from tree cultivation
  through to bottling, is the obvious solution.
FACTORS DETERMINING THE QUALITY OF OLIVE OIL
The quality of olive oil can be determined both quantitatively and
qualitatively.
Analytical methods quantitatively measure the level of chemical
degradation expressed as follows. Lower levels signify higher quality.
(a) Free Acidity
Refers to weight percentage content of free oleic acid. As the oil
degrades, more fatty acids become free from the glycerides and the free
acidity level is increased.
(b) Peroxide level
Refers to weight percentage of peroxide which is produced when the
oil is oxidized (rancid).
(!) Polyphenol and Benzo(a)pyrene leval?
A photo from Klazomenai – near İzmir, TURKEY


     Stack of baskets filled with olive pulp is being pressed by a stone-weighted beam.
Zeytin bilinç ve kültürünü
lokal olarak artırmak için
 resim ve kompozisyon
 yarışmaları düzenledik,
Meslek Lisesi ve Yüksek
  Okuluna destek olduk.
Summary of Olive Oil & Health
• O.O has long been known for the beneficial health
  effects,
• Those effects are not only related with mono and
  polyunsaturated fatty acids and oil soluble
  vitamins,
• Also, minor components flavonoids, mainly
  polyphenols and sterols have dose related effects,
• Poylphenols level is related with harvesting time
  and the way of farming.
• The lower the pesticide use, the higher the level of
  polyphenols.
• Therefore, I would like to suggest adding the level
  of polyphenol and benzo(a)pyrene level on the
  label of the organic olive oil products.
                 Uluslararası Organik Zeytinyağı Yarışması
            Premiobiol 2007 Türkiye Etkinliği
                                  Dr. Yahya Laleli
                          Taylieli Zeytin ve Zeytinyağı İşletmesi


Ege İhracatçı Birlik Binası
04 Mayıs 2007

				
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