ASPECTS OF TEACHER TURNOVER _WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TECHNICAL EDUCATION_ by iaemedu

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									    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324
   International Journal of Advanced Research OF ADVANCED RESEARCH
   (Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- April 2013 © IAEME
                           IN MANAGEMENT (IJARM)
ISSN 0976 - 6324 (Print)
ISSN 0976 - 6332 (Online)                                                   IJARM
Volume 4, Issue 1, January- April 2013, pp. 45-55
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijarm.asp                                          ©IAEME
Journal Impact Factor (2013): 4.7271 (Calculated by GISI)
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                  ASPECTS OF TEACHER TURNOVER
        (WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TECHNICAL EDUCATION)

                                   Dr.Amarja Satish Nargunde
    Faculty, Department of Management Studies at Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Institute of
               Management & Rural Development Administration, Sangli 416416


   ABSTRACT

            The task of motivating and retaining teachers and that too talented and genuinely
   interested teachers seems to be full of challenges as it was found in the research conducted.
   The research was carried on keeping scope of the study to the region of Western Maharashtra
   and to the 2 Districts in it i.e. Kolhapur & Sangli. The researcher has chosen Engineering,
   Polytechnic, Technology and Management institutes. The research was conducted among
   total number of 215 teachers working on different posts. Aspects like the number of job
   switches, the reasons for job switching were studied. It was found that almost 52% of
   teachers who have worked in different organizations before joining the current organization.
   The more seriousness can be found in the fact that migration has taken from one organization
   to other in teaching profession only. Almost 75% of teachers do not want to change their
   current profession of teaching. However alarm bells are ringing for the institutions that
   almost 40% which is quite a sizable in number; like to change their current institute of work.
   It can only be on account of the poor experience they must be getting in their current
   institution. Time and again in different questions, the factor of “Additional Activities apart
   from Teaching” has found to be one of the significant factors affecting teachers negatively.
   There are almost more than 50 activities mentioned by teachers in which they are spending
   time apart from teaching. A teacher who has to take lectures and is also suppose to complete
   administrative job, would they have enough of time for lecture preparation and more of for
   research, is anybody’s guess.
            Significantly large number of i.e. 31% teachers have to take their work home and 45%
   of teachers stay back in the institute after working hour. Due to this, teachers get less time to
   spend with their family. Most of the time, the teachers who are sincere in their work are given
   the entire load relying on them that they will surely do the work. On aspects of working
   conditions in which teachers are doing their work, almost 28% of teachers do not have any
   separate place to sit after finishing their lecture. To add agony even further, almost 10% of

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324
(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- April 2013 © IAEME

teachers do not have fan facility. It certainly resembles a pathetic scenario on working
conditions for teachers. 42% of teachers do not have fresh and clean fresh rooms, general
parlance termed as toilets. 32% of teachers do not have fresh and hygienic drinking water.
45% of teachers do find relation between performance and reward; however 76% of teachers
do not find any incentive for good work. The reason for such contrasting picture may be the
reward is also given in non economic format e.g. Best Teacher Award. In the same research
conducted teachers have replied positively on payment satisfaction. So mere extra
compensation can not be the reason for the teacher turnover. Aspects like working conditions,
career opportunities, performance – reward relation should be improved by the management
of the institutes.

Key Words: Motivation, Retention, Working Conditions, Performance - Reward, career
opportunities

Aspects of Teacher Turnover (with Special Reference to Technical Education)

       The researcher has confined the scope of her study to the region of Western
Maharashtra and to the 2 Districts in it i.e. Kolhapur & Sangli. The researcher has chosen
Engineering, Polytechnic, Technology and Management institutes. In sample of the institutes
also only known and those institutes which are performing for a considerable number of years
have been selected; exceptions being of couple of institutes.

              Table 1.1 Classification of Institutes on the Basis of Disciplines
                                         Classification of Institutes
    Type of          Management Engineering Polytechnic Technology Total
    Institution         Count           Count           Count         Count      Count
    Total                 9                10             6             1         26
    (Source : Primary Data)

                    Table 1.2 Number of Teachers in Each Type of Discipline
          Engineering      Polytechnic   Technology Management        Total
              122              27            04            62          215
        (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1)




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International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324
(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- April 2013 © IAEME

        The researcher has studied the opinions of teachers of 26 institutions which are
approved by AICTE in the districts of Sangli and Kolhapur. The institutes come under the
category of Engineering, Management, Polytechnic and Technology. The largest size i.e.
56.7% is grabbed by Engineering, followed by 28.4% of Management Institutes. Technology
institutes forms the least slice of 1.86%.
        There is dominance of Engineering, Polytechnic institutes teachers in the sample as
on the ground too there are more number of Engineering, Polytechnic institutes than
Management institutes in the 2 districts.

            Table 1.3 Classification on the Basis of Gender and Designation
                                                      Gender
                                            Male      Female   Total
                       Designation          Count     Count    Count
                 Head of Department              10         4       14
                 Professor                        2         0        2
                 Reader                           2         0        2
                 Assistant Professor             18         4       22
                 Senior Lecturer                 21         4       25
                 Lecturer                        88       62      150
                 Total                         141        74      215
                 (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1)




       Designation wise largest number of Sample is of Lecturers which is of 69.77%;
followed by that of Senior Lecturers i.e. 11.63% and Assistant Professor i.e. 10.23%. The
research has deliberately made distinction by keeping a separate designation of Head of

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324
(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- April 2013 © IAEME

Department. It is very likely that these Heads of Departments may be having post of Assistant
Professor or Professor. Deliberate attempt has been made to get the opinions of Head of
Departments as they do get to work many lecturers as well as Assistant Professors under
them.

                             Table 1.4 Type of Job Migrated From
                                Type of Job Migrated From
                                                        No Previous
           Industry Teaching      Both     No Response      Job              Total
              32        68         16           2            97              215
          (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1)

              Table 1.5 Total Number of Organizations Earlier Worked In
                     Total Number of Organizations Earlier Worked In
                  0          1         2        3          4       Total
                  97        62        33        20         3        215
              (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1)




         There are 45% of teachers who have not worked in any organization before joining
the current organization. But there are almost 52% of teachers who have worked in different
organizations before joining the current organization. There seems to be less stability and less
loyalty to institutions as teachers have migrated on even more than one count. The more
seriousness can be found in the fact that migration has taken from one organization to other in
teaching profession only. There are only 14.88% of teachers who have come from the
Industry and 31.63% teachers who were earlier working in educational institutions only.
7.44% of teachers have done both industrial and academic jobs before being on current job.
So the figure percentage teachers migrated from academic profession comes to 38% as
against only 15% from industry. Retention and motivational policies in technical education
institutions need to be seriously looked at.



                                              48
International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324
(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- April 2013 © IAEME

        On response to the reason of changing the job, most of the teachers who have replied
that it was done on account of better job prospects. The growth motive can also be traced in
these teachers. After seeing no growth opportunity in organization, teachers seem to have
changed their organization.

                   Table 1.6 Would you Like to Change In Profession?
                                  Change In Profession
                          Yes      No      No Response Total
                          38       160          17        215
                     (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1)




        Almost 75% of teachers do not want to change their current profession of teaching. It
seems to be a good sign. It can only be on account of the experience they have so far and also
the like and love for the profession.

                       Table 1.7 Change In Current Institute of Work?
                                Change In Institute of Work
                                                  No
                          Yes       No        Response      Total
                           87       112           16        215
                       (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1)




         After the above good sign, next is this bad sign where alarm bells are ringing for the
institutions that almost 40% (87 in number and 7% of teachers have decided to keep silence
on the issue) which is quite a sizable in number; like to change their current institute of work.

                                               49
International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324
(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- April 2013 © IAEME

It can only be on account of the poor experience they must be getting in their current
institution. The management of these institutions has failed in their retention and motivational
policies.
Some of the other reasons can be traced into the following aspects:

  Table 1.8 Do you have to looking After Too Many Activities Apart From Teaching?
                       Looking After Too Many Activities Apart From
                                          Teaching
                        True        False     No Response     Total
                        150          58             7          215
                   (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1)

                   Table 1.9 Too much Clerical Work Involved in your Work?
                                 Too Much Clerical Work
                         True      False No Response           Total
                          119        89           7             215
                   (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1)




Time and again in different questions, the factor of “Additional Activities apart from
Teaching” has found to be one of the significant factors affecting teachers negatively. There
are almost more than 50 activities mentioned by teachers in which they are spending time
apart from teaching. Teachers find too much clerical work involved in their job. One of the
teachers has called it as “Donkey Work”. This include basically administrative duties,
preparation various reports for various bodies and reporting to seniors. Until and unless there
is reduction in these activities, teachers will not get enough time for lecture preparation and
research. A teacher should have teaching as well as research as his first priority. A teacher
who has to take lectures and is also suppose to complete administrative job, would they have
enough of time for lecture preparation and more of for research, is anybody’s guess.

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324
(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- April 2013 © IAEME

               Table 1.10 Do you have to Take Institute Work Home?
                           Have to Take Institute Work Home
                         True      False No Response Total
                          67        143          5        215
                      (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1)


               Table 1.11 Do you have to Stay Back After Working Hours?
                           Staying Back After Working Hours
                         True      False No Response Total
                          97        112          6        215
                      (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1)




       These 2 factors affect the family life of teachers. Although majority of the teachers
have replied negatively on these 2 aspects but still significantly large number of i.e. 31%
teachers have to take their work home and 45% of teachers stay back in the institute after
working hour. Due to this, teachers get less time to spend with their family.

        Organization Behavior calls for making balance between professional and personal
life. Any imbalance on family front can affect working life ultimately. It should also be seen
that there should be equitable distribution of workload. Most of the time, the teachers who are
sincere in their work are given the entire load relying on them that they will surely do the
work. And the teachers normally found to be lethargic in their work, continue to be the same
and it is the sincere teachers who face the brunt of heavy workload. So it affects the
motivation of sincere teachers who after a time, too start finding excuses for avoiding the
work.

It is also very interesting to see some of the aspects of teachers’ working conditions


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International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324
(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- April 2013 © IAEME

        Table 1.12 Is there Separate Arrangement of Cabin or Cubical for you?

                         Arrangement of Separate cabin or cubical
                     Yes       No       Shared No Response Total
                     146       61          1          7           215
                  (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1)


            Table 1.13 Is there Availability of Fan at the place where you sit?

                                    Availability of Fan
                     Yes       No       Shared No Response           Total
                     186        21         1            7            215
                  (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1)




        The above some aspects enquire into the working conditions in which teachers are
doing their work. Almost 28% of teachers do not have any separate place to sit after finishing
their lecture. Obviously a teacher would like to keep his things on desktop according to his
convenience or work or prepare for lecture in alone or meet his students or have interaction
with them, even this little privacy the teachers are not getting. Libraries can not solution for
separate work area.

        To add agony even further, almost 10% of teachers do not have fan facility. This is
the basic minimum facility. It certainly resembles a pathetic scenario on working conditions
for teachers.




                                              52
International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324
(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- April 2013 © IAEME

                   Table 1.14 Do you get Separate Clean Fresh Room?

                                 Separate Clean Fresh Room
                          Yes        No      No Response Total
                          115        91            9       215
                      (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1)

                 Table 1.15 Do you get Fresh Hygienic Drinking Water?

                              Fresh Hygienic Drinking Water
                          Yes       No      No Response Total
                          139        69           7         215
                      (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1)




It’s even more appaulling picture on hygiene conditions. 42% of teachers do not have fresh
and clean fresh rooms, general parlance termed as toilets. 32% of teachers do not have fresh
and hygienic drinking water. Someone who is the basic necessity for running educational
institute, the teachers are really the neglected elements as far as the working conditions are
concerned. Even after facing such tough times on working conditions, teachers who doing
their work (whether qualitative or otherwise), one must salute them, one feels.

          Table 1.16 Is there No Relation Between Performance and Reward?

                           No Relation Between Performance and
                                          Reward
                          True      False No Response Total
                           96        105         14        215
                       (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1)



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International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324
(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- April 2013 © IAEME

              Table 1.17 Are Incentives Provided For Good Performance?
                        Incentives Provided For Good Performance
                         Yes        No     No Response     Total
                          30       164          21          215
                      (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1)




45% of teachers do find relation between performance and reward; however 76% of teachers
do not find any incentive provided for good work. The reason for such contrasting picture
may by the reward is also given in non economic format e.g. appreciation by superiors, Best
Teacher Award, sending teacher for summer or winter schools etc. But the second question
was pertaining to economic aspect. There is no such economic reward which teachers are
getting for their good performance. 10% of teachers have preferred to keep mum on question
of incentive and good work. It’s only on one occasion teachers replied that they were getting
incentives in money if the result of the subject which they are teaching is 80% or more,
teachers were given Rs. 1000/- as incentive.

CONCLUSION

        Retaining teachers and that too dedicated teachers has really become a challenging
task. The problem of teacher turnover has too be seriously looked into. In the same research
conducted teachers have replied positively on payment satisfaction. So mere extra
compensation can not be the reason for the teacher turnover. Aspects like working conditions,
career opportunities, performance – reward relation should be improved by the management
of the institutes. This frequent job hopping by teachers can not only hamper the overall
working of the institutes but also the learning process of the students and students can be
deprived of real good knowledge if a dedicated and genuinely good teacher decides to leave
the institute on account of frustration and complete apathy of management towards his good
performance.

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324
(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- April 2013 © IAEME

REFERENCES

1. E. Raj Kumar and K.Annamalai, “An Investigation on Faculty Development and Retention
in Technical Education” International Journal of Management (IJM), Volume 2, Issue 1,
2011, pp. 117 - 125, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-6510.
2. Saket Jeswani and Dr. Sumita Dave, “Emotional Intelligence as an Antecedent of Turnover
Intention: An Empirical Analysis on Faculty Members” International Journal of Management
(IJM), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 387 - 400, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-
6510.
3. Dr. C. Kavitha and S. Sushma Raj, “A New Paradigm in Management of Higher
Educational Institutes of Government Sector, India” International Journal of Management
(IJM), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 32 - 42, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-
6510.




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