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EVOLUTION OF GREEN ICT IMPLEMENTATION IN EDUCATION SECTOR A STUDY OF DEVELOPED

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					 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT (IJM)
  International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –
  6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013)
ISSN 0976-6502 (Print)
ISSN 0976-6510 (Online)
Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013), pp. 91-98
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© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijm.asp                                            ©IAEME
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    EVOLUTION OF GREEN ICT IMPLEMENTATION IN EDUCATION
   SECTOR: A STUDY OF DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRY


                          Kavita Suryawanshi , Dr. Sameer Narkhede
                           North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon.



  ABSTRACT

          Today, our world is facing environmental challenges particularly with global warming.
  It has become necessary to address the environmental consequences of the rapid increase in
  information and communication technology (ICT) users. This paper outlines an analysis of the
  Green ICT implementation at educational institutes. The study identifies the need of eco
  sustainable or green ICT implementation in education sector. In this paper, we provide a short
  survey of the development of Green ICT implementation at various developed and developing
  countries and followed by the benefits of Green ICT.

  Keywords: Green ICT (GICT), Information and Communication Technology (ICT),
  Education Institutions, Need of GICT

  I. INTRODUCTION

           Information and communication technology (ICT) has become a part of everyday life in
  this modern era. It is impossible to imagine life without information and technology. Due to
  tremendous growth of information and technology activities throughout the globe, the climate
  of the earth is changing [1]. In education, use of ICT has become imperative to improve the
  efficiency and effectiveness at all levels. ICT is playing vital role in education.UNESCO aims
  to ensure that all countries, both developed and developing, have access to the best educational
  facilities necessary to prepare young people to play full roles in modern society and to
  contribute to a knowledge nation [2]. The government has a significant role to play in
  promoting green and cool ICT policies and initiatives against environmental concerns
  including Green house gas (GHG) emissions reductions.




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  Based on these observations, following questions arise:
    • What is the environmental impact of ICT and need of Green ICT in Education sector?
    • How has the Green ICT implementation in education sector developed in various
        countries?
    • What are the benefits of Green ICT implementation to education institutions?
      Today ICT infrastructure generates 2 per cent of the world green house gas emissions.
Gartner Group reported that the ICT industry was responsible for more than two percent of
global CO2 emissions [3]. The purpose of this paper is to study environmental impact of
ICT and to analysis the development of Green ICT among academic institutions. It is also
necessary to change the mindset of academic professionals and forced them to adopt Green
ICT in their day-to-day life through emphasizing on Green ICT implementation benefits in
terms of economical, social, environmental and technical.
        The paper will provide a brief review of the development of green ICT at various
developed and developing countries. The paper will contribute by providing number of
benefits of green ICT lead by discussion and the analysis.
        This paper presents an analysis of the Green ICT implementation at education
institutes. The structure of paper is as follows. We first review environmental impact of ICT
use and Green ICT concepts. This is followed by an analysis of need of Green ICT practices
at education institutions. Then we present the development of Green ICT implementation at
various developed and developing countries. A discussion on benefits of GICT is followed
by a conclusion.

II. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF ICT

        The ICT use is wide spreading around the world, especially in Asia region. The
emerging economy and technological advances will imply environmental problems due to
the sudden increment on the power request from ICT systems [4].
ICT have improved the quality of teaching and learning by providing access to a great
variety of educational resources.ICT equipment’s power consumptions and greenhouse
emissions are becoming major concerns among ICT professionals [5].
        If the ICT sector continues growing at the current rate, emissions are expected to
increase by another 60 % by the year 2020[3]. Due to huge amount of carbon emissions the
ozone layer getting thinner and which is dangerous for human body. The local effects of
ICT on human health and environment are Electronic waste, Health risk (disease), Air
pollution, Water pollution, and Land Pollution. The global impacts of ICT on human health
and environment are Global warming, Climate change, Level of ocean raising,
Temperature increase and Ice Cap to shrink [6]. The revolution coming is Innovative
economy. We have to find Innovative ways to minimize above mentioned impact.
Advances in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) over the past few years
shown an exponential growth in technology and global presence. Hence, there is need for
solutions to optimize energy consumption in the ICT sector. Such solutions are collectively
referred to as Green ICT.




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III. WHAT IS GREEN ICT (GICT)

         Green Information and Communication Technology is broadly understood as an
initiative to encourage individuals, groups, and organization engaged in the use of ICT to
consider environmental problems and find solutions to them [7].At the international level, in
2005, the G8 requested the International Energy Agency (IEA) to play a strong role in
implementing the G8 ‘Gleneagles Plan of Action’ on climate change, clean energy and
sustainable development [8].Environmental sustainability is not an option- it is necessity, we
have a compelling and ever more urgent duty of stewardship to take care of the natural
environment and resources on which our economic activity and social fabric depends [9].
Green ICT has an aspect of innovation in managing ICT related to the environment. Green ICT
is broadly understood as an initiative to encourage individuals, groups and organization
engaged in the use of ICT to consider environmental problems and find solutions to them.
Green ICT is understood as an initiative to encourage stakeholders engaged in ICT activities to
address environmental problems and find solutions to them [7].

A. Definitions

         Green or eco-sustainability is “the ability of one or more entities, either individually or
collectively, to exist and thrive (either unchanged or in evolved forms) for lengthy time frames,
in such manner that the existence and flourishing of other collectivities of entities is permitted
at related levels and in related systems” [10].
Keiichi Nakata extends the existing definitions as a coordination and convergence of strategy,
practice and measurement of Green ICT which addresses environmentally sustainability. Green
ICT aims to minimize carbon footprint, minimize hazardous ICT waste, reduce energy cost,
achieve corporate social responsibility (CSR), and finally comply with regulations.

IV. GREEN ICT AT EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

         There is increasing pressure on universities and colleges to adopt more sustainable
approaches to ICT use .This pressure need to come from government, from external
stakeholders and the public who are increasingly aware of the environmental cost. Recently
biggest challenge facing the environment is global warming caused by carbon emission. It is
very much necessary to save the environment and ultimately the earth .Use of ICT in education
is a cause of carbon dioxide emission, high energy consumption and hazardous waste
production. These pressure led education institutions to adopt Green ICT so as to minimize
energy consumption, carbon footprint, ICT waste, to maximize recycling & reuse and to reduce
energy cost. Moreover savings can be achieved by minimizing the wastage of computational
facility. With the increase in the number of institutions offering professional education, green
ICT implementation at institutions has become key ingredient to achieve cost effective
solutions.
         All educational institutes need to satisfy AICTE norms as well as need to apply for
NBA (National Board of Accreditations) in India when establishing new course or running
existing course. The institutions where computer and IT related courses are conducted,
consider an Institute with yearly intake of 60 students of MCA Course. According to AICTE
norms Institute requires a Computer Lab of 30 Computers with latest configuration. These

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computers become outdated after three years because at that time “Latest Configuration” will
be different [12].
         Green ICT has an aspect of innovation in managing ICT related to the environment
,We(researcher) will further elaborate some of these motivations to understand why education
institutions need to pay attention to green ICT by examining three kinds of demands :
environmental, social and economic.
  B. Green ICT and Environmental Demands

       Generally, Green ICT issues are spoken in environmental terms due to the impact of
ICT on the environment. ICT is cause of carbon dioxide emissions, high energy consumption,
and hazardous e-waste produced toxic in nature and pose severe risks to humans and the
environment. Regarding India’s higher education systems, students and staff have increased the
number of ICT used in their day to day life. Accordingly, these pressures based on these
assessments direct institutions to adopt Green ICT so as to minimize energy consumption,
carbon footprint, ICT waste, and to maximize recycling, refurbishing and reuse. Everyone
should become Green ICT trendsetter for cultural change and savings mankind from
environmental pollution.

 C. Green ICT and Social Demands

        ICT has social impacts which are both affirmative and pessimistic. Even if Green ICT is
generally approached from scientific, technical and environmental points of view, a
consideration of social challenge should be addressed .In terms of education institutions; Green
ICT operates to achieve social aspects which are related to Corporate Social Responsibility.
Thus Green ICT helps education institutions to achieve social benefits like enhanced image,
higher reputation and credibility.

 D. Green ICT and Economic Demands

       ICT has directly affected financial cost including utilities and maintenance & operation
cost, which increase every year. The energy consumption of India ICT infrastructure is forecast
to grow by 30% to over 31 trillion-watt hours by 2014, a study of Global research firm Gartner.
Green IZCT proposes to use energy efficient equipment and reduce energy cost. As such, Green
ICT in education institutions can also address economic demands through cost effectiveness
and optimum resource utilization.

V. DEVELOPMENT OF GICT IMPLEMENTATION AT DEVELOPED & DEVELOPING
COUNTRIES

        Internationally, The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCC), which came into force in 1994, established the first intergovernmental framework
aiming to tackle climate change. The Kyoto Protocol, enforced in 2005, imposed on Member
States to reduce green house gas (GHG) emissions. The commitment period for the Kyoto
Protocol ends in 2012. With many current scientific studies pointing to global warming and
climate changes caused by greenhouse gases, there is an ever increasing societal push for
renewable environmentally friendly green technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

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Preminda Fernando, Atsuko Okuda has studied the Green ICT in multiple meltdowns
considering Least Develop Countries (LDC) in Asia and pacific region. The study found that
approximately 7.8 Gt CO2 (Gigatonnes of CO2) emission can be reduced by 2020 through
proper ICT deployment. The study also identified that many countries in the region may not
have taken into consideration environmental impacts in designing, implementing and
evaluating ICT policies and initiatives in the region [14].
A. India Government Policy

         Government policy plays a vital role in the development of green policy. At the last year
‘s Copenhagen Summit , India has committed to reduce it emission by 20-25% as compared to
the 2005 emissions levels. Government of India ministry of Environment and Forests (2011)
have developed national mission for Green India under the National Action Plan on Climate
Change (NAPCC). They have presented tentative action plan for Implementations of the Green
India mission during 2011-12 [15].Maharashtra IT/ITES Policy-2009 proposes path breaking
initiatives to promote ‘green’ IT and electronic hardware, as well as e-waste recycling [16].

B. United Kingdom (UK)

      The United Kingdom (UK) is one of the first countries to focus on Green ICT policies
and strategies and UK higher education institutions are under pressure to implement green ICT
.The Climate Change Act (2008) sets a legally binding target for reducing UK carbon dioxide
emissions by 80% from 1990 levels by 2050. It also sets up the Carbon Reduction Commitment
(CRC), which requires many universities and large colleges to monitor their electricity
consumption and purchase carbon credits. There will penalties for poor performance and
rewards for good performance [17].
       An online survey from 49 institutions of UK universities, which gathered 183 responses,
provided an overview of the environmental and social impacts of ICT in further and higher
education [9].
       Supaporn Chai-Arayalert, Keiichi Nakata (2011) have reviewed the concept of Green
ICT and presented a framework to analyze Green ICT strategy, practice and measurement in
UK Higher Education Institutions. The study analyzed the Green ICT practices in UK HEIs
based on web based data collection in 2009 and 2011 [7].

C. Korea

        The educational institutions in Korea seek to adopt responsible environmental
practices. The study conducted on ICT uses to go Green in institutional education at Korea have
evaluated blended learning system, distance online learning system and learning management
system which effects environmental savings associated with reduced commuting costs and
usage of institutional facilities [18].

D. Australia

         RMIT Green ICT framework for RMIT University categorizes four general areas or
pillars of Green ICT: Life cycle, End user, Enterprise and Enablement and breaks each of these
down further. The study also presented Green ICT – Capability maturity model and determined

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the maturity levels through administration of a survey which asks questions about each aspect of
Green ICT [19].Tony Chan (2010) addressed the Australian Government ICT sustainability plan
2010-2015 which outlines strategies and actions for its agencies to lower their emissions [20].
The current administration commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions for the Australia
country by 605 of 2000 levels by 2050.

E. United State of America (USA)

         America begins a fundamental culture shift toward a truly sustainable economy and
universities will be one of the greatest sources of ideas and innovation. Cornell University has
already taking advantage of green building practices. Also the Harvard University’s Green campus
initiative designed to foster continuous improvement in cost effective green building design [21].
  Glenn A. Cummings (2009) conducted a study on the behaviors of successful higher education
leadership in implementing sustainability within two U.S. community colleges and two U.S. public
research universities. The study suggested that multiple strategies that leadership can employ to
overcome obstacles and create significant institutional achievement in the area of sustainability
[22].

 F. Canada

         The first article which addressed sustainability practices of Canada’s higher education
institutions, analyzed Canadian universities reporting on sustainability performance, how is
information being reported, and what is being reported. The findings showed that only 7
universities published sustainability reports in the period 2006-2008 [23].

G. China

        Zuqiang Wu have presented constraints that hampered the development of green schools
in China includes outmoded conventions of educators, shortage of equipment, finance and trained
teachers, inadequate environmental teaching methods and the limitations of Green school criteria.
The paper also suggested strategies to foster Green schools in China [24].

VI. BENEFITS OF GREEN ICT IMPLEMENTATION IN EDUCATION SECTOR

        The main motivation for implementing Green ICT is to reduce costs. Actions to minimize
the environmental impacts of ICT use can help the education institutions in some of the benefits -
appealing to all stake holder groups: faculty, student and staff satisfaction increases, the institute
image improves in the society. Some of the benefits which are mentioned below:

E. Reduce energy cost

        GICT study is beneficial for reduction in environmental impact and power bill which is
very essential for future sustainability. By following simple methods of reducing power
consumption like Power-down the CPU and all peripherals during the periods of inactivity and so
on, each institution can reduce energy cost and ultimately contribute towards sustainable earth.




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F. Minimize carbon footprint, hazardous ICT waste:

         The ICT generates large amount of hazardous waste. Hazardous ICT waste not only has
impacts on people’s health but also consumes space in a landfill .Examples of reducing ICT wastes
are recyclable or reusable equipment which can extend the ICT lifecycle equipment. Therefore,
institutions need to minimize hazardous ICT waste, which is one of the objectives of Green ICT.
GICT study is beneficial for reduction in environmental impact and cost saving which is very
essential for future sustainability.

G. Comply with regulation

        The institute can comply with the environmental laws, protocols for sustainability by way
of reducing e-waste, providing healthy environment, minimizing power bill. Environment friendly
is good for the overall geo-economic condition. There is no negative of adopting Green ICT
practices, therefore no regrets. It saves the resource of the country as a whole. It is now high time
we start saving clean air, fuel sources and energy for the future generations along with saving
money and assets for them.

H. Sustenance of ICT

        The Government sets targets for carbon emissions and other environmental impacts which
require strict regulations. Institutions should comply with the regulatory standards for ICT
procurement, procedures, ICT waste, ICT-related aspects of buildings, etc. Green ICT
implementation will ensure that Natural resources are conserved and are available for our next
generation to continue a way of life that is environment friendly.

VII. CONCLUSION

         This paper examined Green ICT concepts and discussed the reasons why educational
institutions need to pay attention to Green ICT. The paper provides a short survey of the
development of Green ICT implementation at various developed and developing countries. This
research focuses Green ICT implementation at educational institutes with environmental
sustainability in mind that is, to contain the minimum amount of hazardous materials, to be energy
efficient during the use period of their life cycle, and to be disposed or recycled with the minimum
effect on the environment and human health.

REFERENCES

[1] Shalabh Agarwal Asoke Nath “ Green Computing – a new Horizon of Energy Efficiency and
    Electronic waste minimization “, IEEE International Conference on CSNT ,2011, pp 688-693.
[2] Prof    C.    Blurton,”    UNESCO's       World      Communication    and     Information
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[3] Mingay S. (2007), “Green IT: Dealing with the shockwave”, Gartner Symposium ITXPO,
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[4] Simon Forge ,” Powering down : remedies for unsustainable ICT “, foresight , Journal,
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[5] Info Tech (2007) Top 10 Energy –Savings Tips for a Greener Data Center, Info Tech Research
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[6] Onkar Kendhe, “Basics of Green IT and India Perspective”, CSI communications: Green
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[9] P. james and L.Hopkinson, “ Sustainable ICT in Further and Higher Education- A Report for
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[17] J.Porritt, “Green IT a Global Benchmark: a Report on sustainable IT in USA, UK, Australia
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[19] Graeme Philipsan, “A Green ICT Framework – Understanding and measuring Green ICT”,
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[20] Tony Chan, “Inside the Australia Govt. ICT sustainability plan 2010-2015”, posted in green
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[21] Toryn Holowka, “Leed and higher education”, Sustainable facility the LEED guide, July 2009,
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[22] Glenn A. Cummings, “Turning higher education Green from the inside out: A qualitative
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[24] Zuqiang Wu, “Green schools in China”, The Journal of Environmental Education, volume 34,
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