Civil Defence in India Building People Disaster Resilience by dominic.cecilia


									      Civil Defence
  Disaster Management
Building People’s Disaster Resilience
           Civil Defence
Civil Defence all over the world and in
India has been a government program that
provides guidance and assistance in
preparing for, responding to and
recovering from public emergencies that
result from conflict or natural disasters.
               CD Measures
   Civil Defence measures are designed to
    deal      with   immediate         emergency
    conditions, protect the public and restore
    vital services and facilities that have been
    destroyed or damaged by disaster.
    Major Tasks of Civil Defence
   To make sure that the public is warned of danger and
    provided with instructions on how to avoid hazards.
   Advice people to protect themselves by either
    evacuating the area or remain and take shelter.
   Organizing immediate relief to the survivors.
   Support emergency services
       Rescue Operations
       Firefighting
       Law Enforcement
       Medical Care
       Public Works repair
       Provision of voluntary Food, Shelter and Clothing.
   Assist in Recovery Operations
       Clearance of debris
       Restoring utility services
       Managing relocations centers
   Why Civil Defence ?
         It is true that -
 “ the Response of a person
     closest to the place of
 Emergency will be the fastest
and most effective, provided he
        is well trained.”
        What was the need ?
 The  number of incidents happening
  during World War II were enormous &
  beyond the capacity of local
  Emergency services.
 There was a need for unifying the
  overall efforts of the country to survive
  a catastrophe & raise public morale.
      Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949,
       and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed
                      Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977.
                           Chapter VI. Civil Defence
                        Art 61. - Definitions and scope
For the purpose of this Protocol:
   (1) "Civil defence" means the performance of some or all of the under-mentioned
   humanitarian tasks intended to protect the civilian population against the dangers, and
   to help it to recover from the immediate effects, of hostilities or disasters and also to
   provide the conditions necessary for its survival. These tasks are:
   (a) warning;
   (b) evacuation;
   (c) management of shelters;
   (d) management of blackout measures;
   (e) rescue;
   (f) medical services, including first aid, and religious assistance;
   (g) fire-fighting;
   (h) detection and marking of danger areas;
   (i) decontamination and similar protective measures;
   (j) provision of emergency accommodation and supplies;
   (k) emergency assistance in the restoration and maintenance of order in distressed
   (l) emergency repair of indispensable public utilities;
   (m) emergency disposal of the dead;
   (n) assistance in the preservation of objects essential for survival;
   (o) complementary activities necessary to carry out any of the tasks mentioned above,
   including, but not limited to, planning and organization;
     Art 62. General Protection
    Civilian civil defence organizations and
    their personnel shall be respected and
    protected, subject to the provisions of
    this     Protocol,      particularly   the
    provisions of this section. They shall
    be entitled to perform their civil
    defence tasks except in case of
    imperative         military      necessity.
          Article 15 : International
               Distinctive sign
   The international distinctive sign of Civil Defence provided for in
    Article 66, paragraph 4, of the Protocol is an equilateral blue triangle
    on an orange ground. A model is shown in Figure below:

   It is recommended that:
        if the blue triangle is on a flag or armlet or tabard, the ground to the
         triangle be the orange flag, armlet or tabard;

        one of the angles of the triangle be pointed vertically upwards;

        no angle of the triangle touch the edge of the orange ground.
   Civil Defence in India
The Civil Defence program in
 India relies on the individual
  and the locality, doing that
which is necessary to increase
  the chances of survival, to
   minimize damage and to
        recover quickly.
The Threat
India’s Security Concerns

         India faces varied and complex
          security challenges ranging
          from low intensity conflicts
          characterized by tribal, ethnic
          and left wing movements and
India is one of the most disaster
 prone countries in the world.
 Over 65% land area vulnerable to earthquakes;
 70% of land under cultivation prone to drought;
 40 million hectares to floods;
 8,000 km coastline to cyclones.
 A Major Disaster occurs every 2-3 years;
 5 crore people affected annually
  10 lakh houses damaged annually along with human,social and
other losses
  During 1985-2003, the annual average damage due to natural
disasters has been estimated at 7 crore US $
Civil Defence Towns in
   The global environment has
reduced the probability of conflict
 considerably but Terrorism is on
 the rise and becoming a cheap
mode for nations to commit acts
  of aggression with less fear of
Why Worry about
Radiological Weapons ?
   Enough fissile material is missing to construct
    numerous nuclear devices
   Enough radioactive material is missing to
    contaminate large areas using Radiation
    Dispersion Devices (RDD)
   Technology to build a nuclear device, radiation
    bomb, or RDD is readily available
   Nuclear weapon facilities within the former
    Soviet Union have not been well guarded or
    financed, which increased the probability of theft
Why Worry about
Chemical Weapons?
   Some countries covertly allow terrorists to use their
   The production technology is widely available
   Production facilities can be disguised as legitimate
    chemical business activities
   Terrorists have already used chemical weapons
   At least 28 nations have chemical weapons
Why Worry about
Biological Weapons?
   Theft from production facilities is likely
   Production technology is widely available
   Terrorists have already used biological weapons
   Biological weapons production can be disguised
    as a legitimate pharmaceutical enterprise
   At least 12 nations possess biological weapons
        Why Worry about
    Big Conventional Bombs?
   Technology is more available
   Terrorist have used large
   Military grade explosives are
    more available
   Yield big news media
Hazardous Chemical Incident
               Methylisocyanate (MIC)
                incident at Bhopal, India
               3,300 people killed
                immediately; 16,000 after
                ten years
               40 tons of MIC released
                that covered 20 Km2
               Over 500,000 people
                suffered effects of gas
               Ground water hazard for
                ten years
            Climate Change
 Even if we go by the estimates of
  Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,
  by 2100, 5764 sq. km of India’s coastal area
  will be submerged under the sea, triggering
  massive migration of the people towards
 63 million people in India and 62 million in
  Bangladesh live within 10 meters of the sea
  levels that includes the population of cities of
  Mumbai, Calcutta and Chennai.
       Beginning of the conflicts
   Displaced people will need food, water shelter
    and jobs
   Government may be in a position to provide
    shelter but already in dire state government will
    be not be able to provide food, water and jobs
   Desperation will lead to agitation
   Unable to solve the root cause of agitation will
    result in conflicts
   Radical Groups will exploit the situation & major
    conflicts will begin leading to breakdown of any
    semblance of administration and internal
      Can Civil Defence do Anything?
   Relatively, small investments in Preparedness
    against emergencies enable communities to speed
    up Recovery by months or years and thereby
    prevent millions of deaths due to hunger, weather
    and epidemics that may occur consequent to many
    major disasters.
   According to the human capital theory in economics,
    the country’s population is valued more than other
    factors like land, industry and wealth due to its
    capacity to rebuild a country after its destruction by
    nature’s forces. Therefore, to ensure economic
    stability and security of the country it is essential that
    a strong Civil Defence Corps is available for
    protection of its people.
Civil Defence builds Resilience
   Civil Defence has stressed on building
    confidence, reducing fear and uncertainty,
    ensure higher survival rate, assist in raising
    people’s quality of life that has made
    economic benefits feasible. The Civil
    Defence concept’s core objective has been
    to instill in people, the strength to
    understand that they are in control of their
    own destiny and well prepared for the
    uncertainties of the future.
Concept of Civil Defence
 During times of War and Emergencies the
 Civil Defence Organization has the vital
role of guarding the hinterland, supporting
 the Armed Forces, mobilizing the citizens
    and helping civil administration for:

•Saving life and property
•Minimizing damage
•Maintaining continuity in production centers
•Raising public morale.
    “Civil Defence” includes any measures, not
amounting to actual combat, for affording protection
 to any person, property, place or thing in India or
 any part of the territory thereof against any hostile
   attack, whether from air, land, sea or any other
   places, or, for depriving any such attack of the
 whole or part of its effect, whether such measures
are taken before, during, at or after the time of such
   attack or any measure taken for the purpose of
  disaster management, before, during, at, or after
                     any disaster.
       CD CORPS
   The “Civil Defence Corps”
means the Corps formed wholly
or mainly to meet the needs of
 civil defence and includes an
 organization deemed to be a
corps under the proviso to sub-
     section(1) of section 4.
    Powers of State Government
 Constitution of Civil Defence Corps and
  appoint controller.
 Appoint Director Civil Defence.
 Enforce discipline.
 Penalties.
 Power to Delegate.
 Protection for action taken in good faith.
          Section 19
   Any person authorized by the
Controller or the State Government
under this Act & every member of
 the Corps, while functioning as
such, shall be deemed to be public
  servants within the meaning of
 Section 21 of Indian Penal Code.
          The Civil Defence Rules,1968
   Control of Light & Sounds.
   Measures for dealing with outbreak of Fires.
   Camouflage.
   Keeping of dangerous articles & substances.
   Evacuation of areas.
   Accommodation of evacuated persons.
   Power to slaughter dangerous animals in event of attack.
   Power to local authorities for taking precautionary
   Protection of factories and mines.
   Watching of premises to detect fires.
   Prevention of disease.
   Air raid shelters.
   Civil defence exercises.
   Penalties.
           Civil Defence Regulations,1968
   Definitions.
   Eligibility.
   Manner of application.
   Enrolment.
   Organisation.
   Membership certificate.
   Conditions of service.
   Duty.
   Discipline.
   Uniform and accoutrement.
   Compensation.
   Resignation.
   Recovery of Loss
   Power of Competent authority as regards preventing
    the contravention of regulations, etc.
                  UNION HOME MINISTER


                     HOME SECRETARY
                                            SECRETARY (BM)

               Director General NDRF & CD   JOINT SECRETARY

  JOINT PLANNING STAFF                       DY. SECRETARY

                                              CD BRANCH
       DY. DGCD H.G. & CD
                                    FIRE ADVISOR
                     HOME DEPARTMENT

     COMMITTEE                              DIRECTOR OF
                                            CIVIL DEFENCE

                     LOCAL LEVEL

                  CIVIL DEFENCE OFFICER

                                    CIVIL DEFENCE SERVICES
Organization in a Town
        CD Controller
       Dy. CD Controller

       Zone (6 lakh) ………………….

    Divisional Warden (2 lakh)……………
     Dy. Divisional Warden

     Post Warden (20,000)…………..

       Sector Wardens (4000)………….
Civil Defence Corps
  Services Rendered
      Do we need it today ?
         Obviously YES, because –
 The Emergency Services are still not
 The Response time-lag for services to
  arrive at the scene of incident is growing
 The higher degree of stress for the
  Emergency Services personnel needs
  large resource of back-up volunteers.
   The tasks performed by Civil Defence
    volunteers with the assistance of local
    authorities are
     Immediate search & rescue
     Medical support and transportation
     Security and Traffic arrangements
     Fire Fighting support
     Immediate relief in the form of food, shelter,
     Disposal of dead and carcasses.
        Civil Defence means
 Preserving yourself always comes first.
 Your alertness can help in containing the
  consequences of an attack.
 The authorities will depend on you for
  timely warnings.
 Your contribution in augmenting the
  existing emergency services will be
   Research into Human reactions to
    Disaster has overwhelmingly recognized
    that Resilience to Disasters is much more
    commonly displayed by individuals having
    pre-knowledge and training to withstand
    the consequences.
We Can’t do Everything
We Can Do Some thing
 We Intend to do them
      Very Well
Thank you

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