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					  LAUNCH OF THE REPORT OF THE TISDA
            WATER STUDY
                Overview of the Report


                          by


             Vitus Adaboo Azeem – ED/GII


Coconut Groove Hotel, Accra
September 22, 2011
             Outline of Presentation
•   Introduction of Ghana Integrity Initiative
•   The Research Project
•   Broader Governance Issues
•   Overview of the Water sector
•   Country Data
•   Water Resources Situation
•   Water Sector Governance
•   Rural Water Supply
•   Urban Water Supply
•   Achievements, Challenges, Opportunities &
    Recommendations
         Ghana Integrity Initiative

• GII was established in 1999 as a non-profit civil
  empowerment organization with a vision of a
  corruption-free Ghana
• GII is the local chapter of Transparency
  International (TI), the leading international non-
  governmental organization (NGO) devoted solely to
  the fight against corruption worldwide.
• It strives to be the leading anti-corruption
  organization empowering citizens to demand
  responsiveness, accountability and transparency
  from people and institutions in Ghana.
            The Research Project
• Following a decision to focus on improved service
  delivery through a reduction in corruption TI sought
  funding to undertake the project -
• “Transparency & Integrity in Service Delivery in
  Africa” (TISDA) in a number of African countries
  focusing on Health, Water and Education.
• The project is sponsored by the Bill and Melinda
  Gates Foundation through Transparency
  International Secretariat for a three-year period
• Participating chapters were allowed to choose the
     Why GII Chose to focus on Water
•   Water is a basic necessity and cannot afford to be
    inaccessible.
•   Quality water positively impacts all other basic
    necessities of life.
•   If water is priced at an economic rate, the poor turn to
    low quality sources with negative implications.
•   Low quality water and inadequate sanitation facilities
    have health implications
•   The poor who already cannot afford quality health
    care face a double jeopardy
•   Access to water impacts enrolment in school by the
    girl-child
•   The Water sector is also a national policy focus – GPRS
    & MDGs
       The Research/Project Approach
• The project aims at identifying risks related to a lack
  of transparency and integrity and their potential
  negative impacts on water supply performance.
• Comprised two phases:
   – The Assessment / Survey phase (2009 - 2010)
   – Advocacy Phase (2011)
         Sectoral Mapping Exercise
• Sector-related expertise available within the
  national chapter
• Sector-related studies and research carried out by
  others
• Sector-related projects/activities carried out by
  others
• List of existing and potential partners with expertise
  in the sector and/or interest in anti-corruption work
• Donors supporting work in the sector
• Journalists and other members of the media
  potentially interested in the programme
                 The First Phase
• Identification of key stakeholders in the water
  sector
• Consultative meetings with key stakeholders.
• Establishment of a Steering Committee
• Preparation of water sector diagnosis
• Case studies – Madina & Nima (GAR), Ahoe &
  Adaklu Aboadi (VR), Bekwai (AR)
• Community meetings on the case studies
• Validation workshop on National study
   Rev 1: Broader Governance Issues
• The basis of Ghana’s governance is the 1992 Constitution
  which emphasises
   – transparency,
   – integrity,
   – Accountability; and,
   – Participation in all spheres of development.
• Several Acts & Regulations aimed at ensuring transparency,
  accountability:
   – Audit service Act 2000;
   – Asset Declaration Act 1998;
   – Public Procurement Act 2003;
   – Financial Administration Act 2003,
   – Whistleblower Act 2006; and
    Rev 2: Broader Governance Issues
• The media is the most free in Africa and has been at
  the forefront in the fight against corruption.
• The establishment of state institutions like the CHRAJ,
  the SFO (EOCO) and Office of Accountability (Research
  Unit at the Castle) seek to curb corruption
• The formation of Ghana Integrity Initiative and the
  Ghana Anti-corruption Coalition (public, private and
  Civil Society Organizations) to focus on the fight against
  corruption
• However, the general perception is that corruption is
  prevalent and a serious problem in the country.
      The Current Situation - Urban
• Most urban communities have access to pipe-borne
  water.
• However, some of these communities, even in
  Accra, do not have access to water delivery
• Even those who have access to water delivery, it is
  irregular and unsatisfactory
• Yet, water tariffs are relatively high and
  unaffordable by poor urban communities
• Illegal connections to the systems and inability to
  collect water tariffs compound the problems of
  urban water supply.
      The Current Situation - Urban
• Sanitation in the cities has become a major problem
  due to lack of proper planning and enforcement of
  building regulations
• Natural water bodies and choked gutters breed
  mosquitoes, resulting in high rates of malaria
• Women and children are the worse affected.
       The Current Situation - Rural

• Rural communities depend on water from natural
  sources such as rivers, streams, etc. as well as wells
  and boreholes.
• Rural communities, unlike the urban communities,
  are required to contribute to the cost of the systems
  and maintain them.
• Rural water sources are more reliable, especially
  when the rains are regular but are less hygienic.
       The Current Situation - Rural
• Some of the water sources have problems of
  taste, high levels of flouride, etc.
• In the rural communities, there is virtually no
  sanitation facilities or limited facilities
• Malaria is a problem in the rural areas due to
  ignorance of, and non-adherence to, hygienic
  practices & poverty.
• Guinea worm (a water-borne disease) is also
  prevalent in some rural communities,
  requiring serious attention to avoid infection.
                            Country Data
Indicator                              Value
•Total Land size                       238,533km2
•Pop. Density                          Average 79.3
•Total Pop. 2005                       21.4 million (Urban 46%, rural 54%)
•Total Pop. 2015 (Projection)          28.1 million (Urban 49.6%, rural 50.4%)
•Pop. Growth 2005-2015                 Urban 4.6%, rural 1.5%
•No. of Settlement (2000)              Urban 366; rural 88,290 (below 5000
                                       pop)
•GDP (PPP) (USD/capita) 2009           USD 1452 (country ranking: 140)
•% below poverty line (2005/6)         Gen. 28.5%; urban 10.8%, rural 39.2%
•% below extreme poverty line          Gen. 18.2%; urban 5.7% , rural 25.6%
•Level of poverty (USD/capita)2005/6   USD433, urban USD 563, rural USD 332
•Level of extreme poverty (2005/6)     USD 314
•Water supply coverage, 2007           Urban 59%, rural 53%
•Sanitation coverage, 2007             Urban 40%, rural 32%
                       Country Data Contd
Indicator                                       Value
Under five mortality, 2006                      Gen. 111, urban 106, rural 114
Corruption Perception Index (2008/9)            3.9 (ranking 67th out of 180 countries)
Human Development Index 2008                    Index: 0.533; (ranking 135th out of 177
                                                countries)

National Investment in the water sector         2004 – 118 billion cedis (USD 13.1 million)
                                                2006 – 882 billion cedis (USD 95.9 million)
                                                2007 – 1144 billion cedis (USD 117.9 million )




Sources: GSS 2005, 2007; Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 2006,; UNDP 2008
GII 2008
Exchange rate 1USD = 9000 cedis(2004), 9200 cedis (2006), 9700 cedis (2007)
            Water Resources Situation
Indicator                                 Value
Renewable water resources                2637m3/capita (2002)
Water Scarcity Level                     Well below the water scarcity level, but
                                          locally water scarcity may occur
Trend in Water scarcity situation        Water availability is reducing
Regional Variation                       Regional variation in water scarcity is
                                          considerable
Water distribution (2000                 Agriculture -  655 million m3 (66%)
                                          Industry    -  98 million m3 (10%)
                                          Domestic use - 235 million m3 (24%)
Proj. Dmd for consumptive water (2020)   5 billion (12% of surface water)
Proj. Dmd for hydropower generation      378,430m3 (22% of surface water)
Trans-boundary basins and related        Volta Basin – Ghana, Togo, Burkina Faso,
countries                                 Ivory Coast, Benin
                                          Bia Basin - Ghana and Ivory coast
         Water Resources Situation
• Domestic and industrial urban supplies are based
  on surface water (Some with quality problems due
  to mining activities).
• In rural areas, groundwater is used in hand pump
  schemes (200,000 boreholes and hand dug wells
  country wide).
• Rainwater harvesting is becoming more common
• The main non-consumptive uses are hydropower
  generation, inland fisheries and water navigation
                Overview of the Water Sector
Indicator                                  Value
Access to improved water supply systems Overall 80%; urban 59%; rural 53%
(2006)
% increase over previous five years (2000- Overall 1.85%; urban 0.38%; rural 3.38%
2006)

MDG water (2015)                           Overall 78%; urban 91%; rural 69.5%
Regional Differences                       Strong regional variations in access to
                                           improved water exist ranging between
                                           53% in Volta region and 95% in upper
                                           West region

Differences in access in water between     On the average, 64% of poorest
rich and poor (MICS 2006)                  households have access to improved
                                           water supply against 96% of the richest.
                                    Cont’d
Indicator                                     Value

•Access to improved sanitation (2006)        •Overall 60.7%; urban 82.6%; rural 45.3%
•% increase over previous 5 years 2000-      •Overall 60.7%; urban 1.18%; rural 3.33%
2006
•MDG Sanitation (2015)                       Overall 53%; urban 55.5%; rural 51.5%

•Progress with MDG’s in water and            •Meeting MDG’s for water and sanitation
sanitation                                   may be feasible, but progress may be
                                             limited by lack of resources and cost
                                             involved in sustaining systems. Rural
                                             sanitation coverage is lagging behind.
•Regional Differences                        •Significant differences exist between
                                             regions with average coverage ranging
                                             from 17% to 87% with lowest coverage in
                                             the three northern regions
Sources: MICS 2006, JMP 2009, CWSA SIP 2008, TREND/TPP, 2008
                              Cont’d
Item                                  Definition
Access to improved urban water        12 hours of access to between 75 and
supply                                100 liters per capita per day


Access to improved rural water supply Access to between 20 and 60 liters of
                                      water from pipe scheme, borehole
                                      fitted with pump, hand dug well fitted
                                      with pump, protected spring for
                                      between 50-70% of the time with a lag
                                      between breakdown and repair not
                                      exceeding two weeks and within a
                                      distance of not more than 500 meters
                                      or within 15 min of walking distance.
                           Cont’d
Access to improved urban      Access to improved toilet
sanitation                    facility within a house or from
                              a shared facility
Access to improved rural       Access to adequate excreta
sanitation                    disposal facilities-VIP at
                              household, a simple but
                              protected pit latrine, a pour
                              flush latrine, KVIP, Aqua Privy
                              or connected to a septic tank
                              system
Source: JMP (2008)
                 Water Policies
• National Water Policy (2008)
• Aims at sustainable development of water
  resources.
• Stresses the coordination between sector
  institutions and encourages private sector
  participation in the management of water systems.
• Anti corruption policies
• There are no special anti-corruption policies for the
  WASH sector - same as those that apply for other
  sectors in the country
                Sector Legislations
Specific acts and legislations related to water and sanitation:
• Article 269 of the 1992 constitution, Local Government Act,
   1993, The Statutory Corporations (Conversions to
  Company) Act 1993 (Act 461), PURC Act, 1997, CWSA Act,
  1998, WRC Act (1996), Water Use Regulation (2001),
  Standard for Drinking Water Supply (1998) - GSB.
• The existing legislations as well as institutional
  responsibilities need to be reviewed for possible gaps and
  performance problems of the different organizations.
• This requires strong political commitment as it is clearly
  necessary. For example, sanctions and rewards are missing
          Sector Regulation
Item              Weakness identified

Tariff            Formal tariff setting is only established
                  independently for part of urban water supply
                  systems owned by GWCL.
                  Poorer sections end up paying more per liter
                  because they buy water from vendors at
                  higher price.




Access            Equal access is established in the law, but in
                  practice is not the case, with the poorer
                  sections having less access

Quality           Quality guidelines are existing but not
                  monitored and not been adhered to in piped
                  water supply but also in sachet and bottled
                  water
                 Water sector Financing
    Funding            Purpose                2004          2006             2007
    Source
                                             Million        Million          Million   %
•                                            USD     %      (USD      %      (USD)

    National           Rural WS              1.68    8.0    2.38      2.5    3.36      2.9
    Funding            Urban WS              1.45    6.8    1.70      1.8    2.06      1.8
                       Sub total             3.13    14.8   4.08      4.3    5.42      4.7
    International      Rural WS              13.46   63.8   58.14     60.3   60.27     52.5
    Funding            Urban WS              4.52    21.4   34.15     35.4   4.94      42.8
                       Sub total             17.98   85.2   92.29     95.7   10.99     95.3
    Overall Total                            21.11   100%   96.37     100%   114.91    100

    Source: MOFEP 2004, 2006, 2007 budgets
            Water Sector Financing
• Water sector financing depends on three main pillars;
   Donors (90%), Payment of tariffs by users, modest
  contribution from government .
• Grant funding from donors are managed by PMU financed
  by the donors who work closely with RWSTs and MMDA’s in
  project management, contract management.
• National funding for water service delivery by MMDA’s are
  obtained from DACF and IGF.
• The contribution of NGO’s is largely unknown because it is
  not captured in the budgeting process at national or local
  level.
     Affordability, cost recovery, cost sharing
• Urban supplies: Tariffs paid by users are used:
  – to recover cost,
  – to meet operations & maintenance cost
  – For repayment of investment cost.
• Tariff structure is based on progressive pricing,
  allowing cross-subsidies from large users.
   GHC 0.66/ M3 (lifeline tariff)
   GHC0.91 M3 (excess 20M3)
   GHC1.10 (commercial tariff) making the poor pay higher
    price
      Affordability, cost recovery, cost
                   sharing
• Rural Supplies: Tariffs paid by users are used to meet O&M cost ,
  major repairs, replacement and extension to new areas.
• 90% of construction cost is subsidized
• 5% contribution each by community and MMDA’s towards capital
  cost of water supply systems
• Tariffs
      Domestic rate: GHC 1.65 /M3
      Commercial rate: GHC 1.85 /M3
• Estimate of family expenditure on rural/small town system range b/n
  USD 0.94 – USD 2.76
• 90% of households pay for water through pay as you fetch or monthly
  fees
           Funding Requirement
• An amount USD 1.49 billion would be required for
  expansion of water supply to meet demand to 2020
  (Sector Development Program – 2009).
• An amount of USD 811 million would be required to
  meet the MDG on water in 2015.
• Average inflow of resources forms 35% of the level
  that would be required annually.
• Total financial investment needed to achieve MDG
  for rural water is USD 505 million.
• Donor pledge from 2008-2012 (USD 175 million)
  leaving a gap of USD 330 million for the RWS.
           Water Sector Governance
• Transparency – Measures for ensuring transparency in the
  sector are established which include
• Regular reporting systems (financial reporting/project
  activities),
• Regular meetings ,
• Regular auditing of accounts and publications and
  documentation of the tendering process.
However, compliance is weak.
• Accountability - Accountability efforts have been upwards
  through routine submission of monthly, quarterly, annual,
  project completion and financial reports required by law and
  project agreements.
However, processes for ensuring downward accountability is
  very low.
         Water Sector Governance
• User participation:
  • This is a central theme in NWP but is very low.
  • Users do not participate in decision making and meetings are
    not held with users.
• Gender issues have duly been acknowledged in the
  sector including the participation of women in decision
  making. In the formation of watsan committees, at
  least 3 members (7) of the watsan committees are
  females.
      Water Sector Governance - Grand
                Corruption
• Single contractor buying and pricing all bidding
  documents,
• Award of a number of contracts to the same contactor
  under different names,
• Procuring entities making payment before due dates;
• Advancing funds for mobilization beyond the 15%
  allowable limit,
• Over- invoicing, poor contract management,
• Poor training and working conditions of construction
  workers and
• Shoddy work through the use of poor quality materials.
     Water Sector Governance – Petty
               Corruption
•   Illegal connections,
•   Meter tampering,
•   Direct payment to meter readers and
•   Under reporting of daily sales by vendors
•   Illegal charges and/or over-invoicing of materials for
    new connection
               Rural Water Supply
Indicators     Assessment
Coverage     Rural water supply coverage is estimated at 69% in 2006.
             (17,280 boreholes, 4,236 hand dug wells, 185 piped schemes).
             Considerable difference exist ranging from 52.7% in the Volta
             region to 94.8% in the Upper West region.
Quantity     The water quantities used seem to be on the low side and
             below the standards that CWSA uses. Actual consumption are
             8-10 liters for hand pumps and 8-15 for small town systems
             (TREND /TPP – 2008).
             NRW varies with systems (50% level found)
Legal        WATSANS and WSDB are semi autonomous voluntary
Situation    community members acting on behalf of the MMDA’s who are
             the legal owners of the systems. WATSANS and WSDB are
             recognized by MMDA’s but not legally established entities so
             they cannot be legally prosecuted or controlled.
                    Rural Water Supply
Continuity         Considerable waiting lines may occur at hand pumps at peak
                   hours and breakdown periods may take 3-4 weeks.
                   Small piped schemes with public stand posts usually operate 12
                   hours. In the wet season usage of hand pumps and small piped
                   schemes is lower as people revert to cheaper sources such as rain
                   water harvesting
Quality            Water quality standards are not implemented. Most systems
                   depend on relatively good quality ground water. Yet 20% of drilled
                   wells have iron and manganese problems and some face salt water
                   intrusion.

Cost &Efficiency   Construction cost are paid by donors or the government with 5%
                   each contribution of the community and the MMDA.
                   Running cost are paid by users through user charges.
                   Small town systems may cost USD 0.60 per M3
               Integrity Analysis
Indicator         NCWSP                Service provision
Transparency      •Information is      Reporting to users
                  available about      is less well
                  procedures and       established.
                  shared among
                  different actors.
                  •Reporting to users
                  is less well
                  established.
                  •Lack of information
                  about unit cost of
                  services, sector
                  standards and
                  quality measures
        Cont’d (Integrity Analysis)
Accountability   Technical and          Technical and
                 financial audits are   financial audits are
                 being implemented.     not implemented.
                 The application        Complaints are
                 procedures and         dealt with the
                 sanctions are weak     watsan committees
                 (due to challenges),   or WSDB
                 inadequate
                 monitoring of
                 procurement and
                 selective bidding
            Cont’d (Integrity Analysis)
Anti corruption          Control mechanisms are in     Control mechanisms are in
                         place as clear procedures     place.
                         are included in the project
                         implementation manual         Staff are requested to sign
                                                       a code of conduct
Participation of users   Users are consulted in the    Public do not participate
                         process and need to take      in decision making.;
                         action as a demand            Involvement of public in
                         responsive approach is        tariff setting is yet to be
                         applied.                      fully realized.
                         Users/CSO’S are not
                         involved in the
                         procurement process.
                  User Perception
• Some interference from politicians and traditional leaders
  in decision making in the Watsan and WSDB.
• Revenue collectors may not deposit all the money they
  receive.
• Powerful board members can illegally borrow money from
  the account and even forget to repay.
• Vendors at stand posts without meters can under report
  sales
• Remote communities are susceptible to cheating - a spare
  part could not be procured from a regional distributor but
  only the Zonal center which involves significant transport
  cost
                 Urban Water Supply
Coverage (MICS 73% of the urban population have access to pipe borne water of
2006)          which 43% obtain water outside the house; 15% have access to
               water from wells, 22.5% have access to natural sources; 8.4% have
               access to tanker services; water vendor (3.4% ) and sachet/bottled
               (4%). Only 15% of the poor have direct access to piped water
                 Design standards use 75-150 liters while actual consumption is 50-
Quantity         60 liters. Poorer sections of the community have a much lower
                 consumption level. GWCL current average output is 551,000m3/ per
                 day as against daily demand of 939,000/ M3

Continuity       Most of the design systems are over 30 years old and cannot cope
                 with increase in water demand. Water is rationed to many
                 consumers. Some (25%) have 24 hours supply, (30%) have 12 hours,
                 five days a week, (35%) have water 2 days each week or less; (10%)
                 are without access to piped water
                    Urban Water Supply
Quality         Water quality is questionable as most of the supply is intermittent
                and drainage problems are visible in many areas which may cause
                contamination. Although PURC has issued some guidelines for
                tankers, in practice the quality of water from tankers is not being
                monitored.
Cost and        AVRL makes an operation surplus which is handed over to GWCL. The
Efficiency      cost is GHC0.66. In 2001, the connected poor used 35 liters per capita
                whilst those depending on other suppliers used 15 liters
                NRW = 51.5%

Legal           GWCL’s management contract with AVRL has been terminated.
Situation       Majority of secondary providers are not strictly regulated.

Source: GLSS (2008), PURC (2001), JMP (2009), Nyarko et al (2007), TPP/TREND (2008) NWP
(2008
               Integrity Analysis
Indicator         GWCL (Water service         GWCL (Service
                  Development)                provision
Transparency      •Information is available   Information is available
                  about procurement           about the performance
                  procedures &                of AVRL through its
                  international tendering     annual report to GWCL.
                  is a condition of ESA.      Information on tariff
                  •Reporting to users is      are published and
                  less established.           available in AVRL offices
                  •Getting a connection is    Reporting to users is
                  cumbersome giving           less established
                  room for corruption
                 Integrity Analysis
Accountability      •Technical and financial   Technical and financial
                    audits are being           audits are being
                    implemented.               implemented and
                    •The MWRWH has             include audits by GWCL
                    established                and PURC.
                    procurement evaluation     AVRL has a consumer
                    unit but have staff        service which handles
                    limitations                complaint
                    •Application of            PURC has a complaint
                    sanctions & procedures     section and routinely
                    are weak; Inadequate       organizes interactions
                    monitoring of              with consumers
                    procurement and
                    selective bidding.
                  Integrity Analysis
Anti corruption      Control mechanisms are        •Control mechanisms are
                     in place and clear             in place and clear
                     procedures are included in     procedures are included in
                     the conditions that ESA        the management
                     apply for providing loans.     agreement b/n GWCL
                     Staff are requested to        &AVRL
                     sign a code of conduct and     •Staff are requested to
                     transparency rules and         sign a code of conduct and
                     regulations apply to           transparency rules and
                     different actors               regulations apply to
                                                    different actors.
Participation        Public can only participate   Public can only participate
                     through its public rep.;       through its public rep.;
                     GWCL has a code for           Involvement of public in
                     public hearings but not        tariff setting is yet to be
                     strictly applied;              fully realized.
                     Users/CSO’s not involved
                     in decision making.
                Achievements
• The research /risk mapping phase has been
  completed and the report is being printed.
• Due to the delay in the advocacy phase not much
  progress has been made so far with regards to real
  change
• However, informal influence and awareness raising
  through various stakeholder meetings and feedback
  in the community have been achieved
• Partnerships and working relationships established
• A non-functional borehole in Adaklu Abuadi
                 Achievements
• Publication of reports by water committees for
  community members
• Organization of regular meetings by water
  committees for users to enable them participate in
  decision making
• Publication of price list of spare parts and charges
  by area mechanics for water committee to ensure
  accountability
• Proper record-keeping, including obtaining receipts
  for spare parts purchased by area mechanic
                      Challenges
• Difficulty in accessing relevant data due to unavailable
  records or reluctance to provide information needed.
• Suspicion of GII’s intention by some stakeholders
• Most anti-corruption work has taken place on national level
  and not at the local level.
• Inadequate networking and advocacy on corruption in
  service delivery
• Inadequate information and data on what happens at the
  decentralised level, which sets new challenges for
  addressing corruption and improving transparency and
  accountability in the sector.
                 Opportunities
• Establishment of fair wages commission and single
  spine pay structure may lead to payment of realistic
  salaries and living wages
• Since 2003, a number of laws have been enacted to
  strengthen transparency and accountability
  although many of them are not enforced;
• Anti-corruption institutions and CSOs educating the
  public to eschew greed and be loyal to the state
• Some attempt at introducing policies such as LEAP
  to address poverty and improve the living
  conditions of people.
               Recommendations
• There is the need to streamline and strengthen anti-
  corruption tools and the capacity of sector agencies to
  implement these tools.
• There is also the need for donors to introduce anti-
  corruption clauses in all cooperation agreements, train
  their own staff or local staff to put these policies into
  practice and communicate on related activities and
  progress made,
• Donors too should adhere to the highest standards of
  information disclosure and consultation for all water
  projects they support, put in place adequate
  monitoring mechanisms and enforce effective sanctions
  against corrupt employees and contractors.
               Recommendations
• There is the need to create anti corruption awareness
  and systems within public organizations so that they
  can cooperate with civil society effectively to ensure
  that corruption can be prevented from occurring or
  dealt with adequately when it occurs.
• There is also the need to institutionalize the
  involvement of a representative of civil society at each
  of the levels of public procurement.
• There is the need to increase access to information to
  the public on the operations of the utility providers by
  publicizing utility accounts, public expenditure reviews
  and audit information, budgets, contracting
  arrangements and annual report.
                Recommendations
• Involving users in decision making, tariff setting etc. to
  ensure that beneficiaries are empowered to play a
  meaningful role in the management of water resources,
  from the design to the implementation and supervision
  of WRM projects.
• Strengthen complaint mechanisms for users and provide
  adequate whistle blowing protection to promote
  meaningful citizen participation.
• There is the need to strengthen monitoring and
  oversight mechanisms such as oversight committees,
  ombudsman offices, complaint offices, etc.
                 CONCLUSION
• Lack of transparency and integrity in aid promotes
  corruption, which poses a threat and has
  devastating consequences on poverty reduction and
  development.
• With regards to water supply, corruption increases
  the risks that resources are lost thus affecting
  adequate access of basic services to the poor.
• Thus, there is a need to strengthen accountability
  mechanisms and institutions of oversight and the
  sanctioning of violators to ensure clean
  infrastructure projects and water delivery.
               Appreciation
• Thank You for your attention

				
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