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					              OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health
                                      Panama City, Panama
                                           28-30 June 2011




OIE Aquatic Animal Health Standards

                    Barry Hill

                      President
   OIE Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission
Aquaculture has been experiencing a boom since
the mid-1970s, sustaining an average annual
growth rate of around 9% until a recent slight fall
back.
Today it continues to expand in almost all regions of
the world and is the fastest growing food animal
production sector globally.
There is substantial and growing international trade
in live aquatic animals and their products.
A detailed analysis of aquaculture production
and wild capture fisheries is published every
2 years by FAO.
World fish trade: export value

 - in   1000 US$ (FAO) -

   100,000,000

    90,000,000
                         Developing countries
    80,000,000           or areas
                         Developed countries
    70,000,000           or areas
    60,000,000

    50,000,000
                                                                       developing
    40,000,000

    30,000,000

    20,000,000                                                        developed
    10,000,000

               0
               1976    1979      1982   1985   1988   1991   1994   1997   2000   2003   2006
However, infectious diseases are causing major
aquaculture production losses in many countries,
even having a significant negative impact on
some national economies
In some countries, the rapid increase in aquaculture
output has been based on species diversification which
has led to an increase in the demand for introduction and
transfers of live non-indigenous aquatic animals, some of
which have introduced new diseases with them.
For example, outbreaks of infectious salmon anaemia
(ISA) in Chile since 2007 have had a devastating
impact on the salmon farming industry, causing a
massive reduction in production and in export
volumes.

Economic losses of many $100 millions.

High numbers of farms closed and large numbers of
job losses.

Will take years to recover.

A national disaster.

Imported (from ??)
The main aim of OIE is to ensure the sanitary safety of
international trade in live animals and their products.


This includes providing standards and guidelines on the
health measures to be used by the Aquatic Animal
Health Services of importing and exporting countries to
prevent the transfer of agents pathogenic for aquatic
animals, while avoiding unjustified trade barriers.
Aquatic animals
The OIE standards applicable to international trade in
aquatic animals and their products are laid out in the
OIE Aquatic Animal Health Code and in the OIE
Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals.
 The OIE standards and guidance in the
Aquatic Code and Aquatic Manual aim to
         reduce disease risks
Developing the OIE standards for aquatic animals
                is the role of the
 Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission
Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission
(elected May 2009 for 3 years)

President:
• Dr Barry Hill (UK)
Vice-President:
• Dr Ricardo Enriquez Sais
  (Chile)
General Secretary:
• Dr Franck Berthe (EFSA)
Members:
• Dr Olga Haenen (Netherlands)
• Dr Huang Jie (China)
• Dr Victor Manuel Vidal (Mexico)
  The Commission is regularly assisted by:




Don Lightner   Eli Katunguka-Rwakishaya   Rohana Subasinghe
    USA                 Uganda                FAO, Rome
With advances in scientific knowledge, the Aquatic
Health Standards Commission prepares draft texts for
new chapters, or revises existing chapters of the
Aquatic Code and the Aquatic Manual with the input
of internationally renowned independent experts, OIE
ad hoc groups, and expertise at the many OIE
Reference Laboratories for aquatic animal diseases.

These drafts are further refined with input from
national experts of OIE Members before being
finalised and presented to the National Delegates at
the OIE General Session in May each year for
adoption.
OIE Aquatic Animal Health Code
       (‘Aquatic Code’)
Also available on-line at the OIE website
Some of the information available
in the Aquatic Code
           Zoning &              Guidelines for         Quality of Aquatic
      compartmentalisation        risk analysis       Animal health Services

      Criteria for
                                                              Conditions for
   disease freedom
                                                                 trade

   Surveillance for
       disease
                                                               Model export
                                                                certificates
  Disease reporting
     obligations

                                                               Transport of
  OIE listed diseases
                                                               farmed fish



     Procedures for       Responsible and         Stunning and killing
     aquatic animal        prudent use of          of farmed fish for
     waste disposal     antimicrobial agents      human consumption
Contents of the Aquatic Code
General Provisions (Horizontal issues)
       •   User’s guide
       •   Glossary
       •   Section 1 : Animal disease diagnosis, surveillance and notification
       •   Section 2 : Risk analysis
       •   Section 3 : Quality of Aquatic Animal Health Services
       •   Section 4 : General recommendations : disease prevention and
           control
            –   Zoning/compartmentalisation
            –   Recommendations on disinfection
            –   Contingency planning
            –   Fallowing in aquaculture
            –   Handling, disposal and treatment of aquatic animal waste
Contents of the Aquatic Code
General Provisions (contd)
   •   Section 5 : Trade measures, import/export procedures and health certification
         –   General obligations
         –   Certification procedures
         –   Criteria to assess safety of aquatic animal commodities
         –   Border posts and quarantine stations
         –   Model veterinary certificates…
   •   Section 6 : Veterinary Public Health
         –   Control of aquatic animal health hazards in aquatic animal feed
         –   Antimicrobials: prudent use/monitoring/ controlling resistance (under development)
   •   Section 7 : Welfare of Farmed Fish
         –   Transport
         –   Stunning and killing for human consumption
         –   Killing for disease control purposes (under development)
Contents of the Aquatic Code

   Disease specific chapters
   (OIE listed diseases - of importance to international trade)

       •   Section 8 : Diseases of Amphibians
       •   Section 9 : Diseases of Crustaceans
       •   Section 10 : Diseases of Fish
       •   Section 11 : Diseases of Molluscs
     Aquatic Code Chapter 1.2.
Criteria for Listing Aquatic Animal Diseases
Aquatic Code Chapter 1.2
Article 1.2.1.
  Criteria for listing an aquatic animal disease

Article 1.2.2.
  Criteria for listing an emerging aquatic
  animal disease
Criteria for listing an aquatic animal disease

 A disease proposed for listing should meet all
 the relevant parameters set for each of the
 criteria;

 Parameters that support a listing include:
 A. Consequences
 B. Spread and
 C. Diagnosis

 Such proposals should be accompanied by a case
 definition for the disease.
For the purposes of the Aquatic Code

 An emerging disease means a newly recognised
 infection resulting from the evolution or change of an
 existing pathogenic agent, a known infection spreading
 to a new geographical area or population, or a
 previously unrecognised pathogenic agent or disease
 diagnosed for the first time and which has a significant
 impact on aquatic animal populations or public health.
                Chapter 1.3.
 OIE list of aquatic animal diseases
The list is reviewed annually by the AAHSC and
recommendations for deletions and additions are
proposed to OIE Members for adoption

Notification and reporting requirements apply to all
listed diseases and any new emerging diseases.
26 aquatic animals diseases listed by OIE (2011)

          2 diseases of amphibians
          8 diseases of crustaceans
          9 diseases of fish
          7 disease of molluscs
OIE list of aquatic animal diseases

A key purpose of listing a disease in the Aquatic
Code is to ensure transparency of the aquatic
animal health status world-wide, by obliging Member
Countries to report its occurrence to OIE.

The OIE collates and disseminates the information
received in reports on the status of those listed
diseases in Member Countries (WAHIS and WAHID).
Obligation to notify and report
  disease detection to OIE
“Disease” notification

In this context, it is important to understand that the circumstances
for regular as well as immediate notification of aquatic animal
diseases do not require the presence of clinical disease or
mortality.


The Aquatic Code clarifies in Article 1.1.2.4:
    “This means that the presence of an infectious agent, even in
    the absence of clinical disease, should be reported.”
OIE guidance on import requirements
                     Section 5.
Trade measures, importation/exportation
   procedures and health certification
  General obligations related to certification
  Certification procedures
  Criteria to assess the safety of aquatic animal commodities
  Control of aquatic animal health risks associated with transport
  of aquatic animals
  Aquatic animal health measures applicable before and at
  departure
  Aquatic animal health measures applicable during transit from
  the place of departure in the exporting country to the place of
  arrival in the importing country
                      Section 5.
Trade measures, importation/exportation
   procedures and health certification
  Frontier posts in the importing country
  Aquatic animal health measures applicable on arrival
  Measures concerning international transport of aquatic animal
  pathogens and pathological material
  Model health certificates for international trade in live aquatic
  animals and products of aquatic animal origin
               Chapter 5.3
Criteria to assess the safety of aquatic
  animal commodities and products
 2 sets of criteria:
   Criteria to assess the safety of aquatic animal
    commodities irrespective of country disease status
   Criteria to assess the safety of aquatic animal
    products destined for human consumption
    irrespective of country disease status




                                                      39
            Sections 8-11
      Specific disease chapters
Each specific disease chapter includes recommendations to
prevent the disease in question being introduced into the
importing country
  definition of the pathogen / disease
  list of susceptible species
  what are ‘safe’ commodities (irrespective of disease status)
  how to determine the free status of a country, zone or
   compartment
  recommendations for importations of aquatic animal
   commodities from a country, zone or compartment declared
   free
  recommendations for importations of aquatic animal
   commodities from a country, zone or compartment not declared
   free.
  Manual of Diagnostic Tests for
Aquatic Animals (‘Aquatic Manual’)
‘Aquatic Manual’

 Sixth edition of the Manual of
 Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic
 Animals (2009)
6th edition, 2009
                    • Published in September 2009

                    • Major updates for all diseases

                    • Chapters only for listed diseases

                    • Amended format for future editions

                    • Next printed edition will be in 2012

                    • In the meantime, amendments can
                      be made to the web version
2011 edition of the Aquatic Manual is available
         on-line at the OIE website
Purpose of Aquatic Manual
  Provide internationally agreed standardised approach
  to the diagnosis of OIE-listed diseases (Aquatic Code)

  Facilitate international trade in aquatic animals and
  their products by:
  - ensuring harmonisation of diagnostic testing
  - avoiding differences in interpretation of results
  - ensuring quality of diagnostic tests

  Improve aquatic animal health worldwide;
Purpose of Aquatic Manual
  Describes diagnostic laboratory methods which are
  suitable for the detection of disease as part of a
  national aquatic animal health surveillance/control
  programme, or as part of a programme to underpin
  claims of freedom from a specific disease;

  To assist with the development of surveillance
  methodologies for OIE-listed diseases;
Purpose of Aquatic Manual

  Surveillance programmes aim to determine, from
  the results provided by standardised laboratory
  methods performed with samples collected
  according to defined rules, the health status for a
  country, zone or compartment for a specified
  disease.
Contents of the Aquatic Manual
 Part 1 General Provisions
 Section 1.1 Introductory Chapters

 Quality management in veterinary testing laboratories

 Principles and methods of validation of diagnostic
    assays for infectious diseases

 Methods for disinfection of aquaculture establishments
Contents of the Aquatic Manual
 Part 2 Recommendations Applicable to Specific
 Diseases

 Diseases of Amphibians (adopted May 2011)
 Diseases of Crustaceans
 Diseases of Fish
 Diseases of Molluscs
General information
  Each Section starts with general information on diseases of
  amphibians (in preparation), crustaceans, fish, molluscs
  A. Sampling
  B. Material and biological products required for the isolation
  and identification of pathogens
                  CHAPTER X.X.X.
                    DISEASE X
1. Scope
“For the purpose of this chapter, DISEASE NAME is considered to be
INFECTION WITH [PATHOGEN NAME].”

2. Disease information
  2.1. Agent factors
  2.2. Host factors
  2.3. Disease pattern
  2.4. Control and prevention
3. Sampling
 3.1. Selection of individual specimens
 3.2. Preservation of samples for submission
 3.3. Pooling of samples
 3.4. Best organs or tissues
 3.5. Samples/tissues that are not suitable (i.e. not
      possible to detect)
4. Diagnostic methods
  4.1. Field diagnostic methods
  4.2. Clinical methods
  4.3. Agent detection and identification methods

5. Rating of tests against purpose of use

6. Test(s) recommended for targeted surveillance
   to declare freedom from Disease X.
     Describes test methods, for use in targeted
     surveillance to declare freedom from disease as
     outlined in the Aquatic Code.
OIE guidelines on disease surveillance
Chapter 1.4. of the Aquatic Code
- provides standards for aquatic animal health
  surveillance

Guide for Aquatic Animal Health
Surveillance (2009)
- provides detailed guidance on
  surveillance principles and practice.
Thank you for your attention

				
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