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					                                         NYC UPA
                                      July 11, 2011
                              6:00 p.m. EDT to 8:46 p.m. EDT

                                     Bloomberg L.P.
                                  731 Lexington Avenue
                                      New York, NY




                                      ROUGH DRAFT




(This text is being provided in a rough draft format. Communication Access Realtime
Translation [CART] is provided in order to facilitate communication accessibility and may
not be a totally verbatim record of the proceedings.)




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                                              NYC UPA
                                             July 11, 2011

     >> GLORIA: All right. We have open seats over here. It's kind of like sitting in the front of the
 class. All right. Give you guys one more minute to get settled. Thank you. Welcome to the final
 event of the season for the New York City Usability Professionals Association. Before we take our
 summer break. Yay! Hello. Welcome.

      ( applause )

     >> GLORIA: All right. I feel better now. Thank you. I really want to say a huge, huge thank
 you to Bloomberg for hosting this event. This is really some setup they've provided. And in
 particular the people to thank are Shawn Edwards, the chief technology officer for Bloomberg,
 Elaine Kwong, we have Ed over here in the room. Stephanie Louis-Charles, and the entire staff.
 My name is Gloria Petron, the President of NYC UPA, and our organization, I think a lot of you
 probably just ended up joining in order to attend this event tonight. How many people do we have
 tonight? Welcome. I really want to welcome you. Let me tell you a little bit about the organization
 you just joined. It's not a cult. Really. In a strange sense, maybe it is, but it kind of goes like this.
 Picture a pyramid. At the base, the foundation of that pyramid is really people who want to learn
 more about how to make products and services more user friendly. And that's the core. Of what
 we're all about. At the mid-level, you have people who have been practicing in the industry for a
 while, and towards the top, you get people who are doing the hiring, who are managing the
 departments. And director levels of entire user experience teams for companies that -- they're big
 and small.

        We have people here from, you know, all different backgrounds, and different domains. So
we definitely have people from financial services, but also from publishing, health care,
entertainment, journalism, non-profit, education, you name it. And we have people who are full-time
employees, consultants, freelancers, so it's a pretty encompassing group. So let's see... What else?
I think I would like to bring Mr. Edwards up here to say a few words about Bloomberg. So a big
hand for him.

        >> I just want to say welcome to Bloomberg. I hope you guys are having a good time with
the refreshments. We are delighted and thrilled to host another UPA event. And we had Jared
speak before here, and it was a fantastic talk, so I'm sure tonight is gonna be wonderful. Actually, I
spoke to Jared for the first time back in -- I think it was 2008. I was speaking to him earlier about
this today. And I was talking about -- what should we do about building a formal UX team? I was
talking about the consulting firms and building teams. And he gave me a very straightforward
answer. I company like Bloomberg? Are you kidding me? You have to build your own team. Three
years later, we have an excellent team. We do work with consultants. So if you're available and
you're really good at what you do, you're passionate, please talk to one of the Bloomberg people




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afterwards. I might put my resume in. Can I win? Maybe. And lastly, after the talk, I think, there's
gonna be a mixer, or... I don't know what you guys call it. But some drinks. So I won't take too
much of your time. Thank you.

    >> GLORIA: Thank you, Shawn. This is always... I always forget this thing is here. It's like...
 Oops! It's like step class.

      >> I've tripped over it before.

      >> GLORIA: Have you? All right. So a couple of housekeeping items before we get started --
 here's how the agenda -- how this is gonna go down. I've always wanted to say that. From 6 to 7,
 refreshments, and that part's over. 7 to 7:15 announcements, that's me right now, 7:15 to 8 to
 30:00, Jared's presentation. And then we have 15 minutes of Q and A. Those of you who have to
 make trains, you might want to start tweeting and texting people appropriately. This presentation
 is 15 minutes longer than our usual presentation. And from 8:30 to 9:30, in case you didn't get any
 of the munchies out there before, Bloomberg is gonna do another hour of food and drink and the
 food that time is gonna be a little bit heavier. Not quite so light. We didn't want to load you up so
 you would pass out in front of Jared. I think it was a good strategy. Cell phones, please make
 sure your cell phones are off. If you're gonna take pictures, try to make sure that the flash is off.
 Twitter hash tag for the event is #nycupa and #jmspool. And just to make sure that everybody is
 aware of it, we are recording. Bloomberg is actually recording the event, and once Bloomberg and
 Jared go through their own internal vetting and Google process, we'll see about getting that
 distributed. So hopefully everybody mind minds their manners. Bathrooms are around the corner
 to the right and back and back some more, deep in the bowels right here. And there are also
 bathrooms on the 6th floor if you don't want to go there that way. That takes care of the
 housekeeping stuff. Pipeline update -- where is Freddy? There you are. Wilfredo Pena, who runs
 the events over at Pace, where our event in September is gonna be. We had a guy from Airbus
 who was going to speak for us. He couldn't make it. He switched jobs, his schedule changed, the
 thing fell apart, but we have this great space at Pace. That rhymes. And the event we're gonna do
 instead is more of a resume oriented event instead. It's gonna be a two part event, and it has to do
 with where you think you stand in the UX industry and where the industry sees you. There's a lot
 of heart ache in our industry, with people not knowing exactly how senior or junior they are. Very,
 very painful. So what we are going to do is -- the panelists, for a panel discussion made up of
 hiring members -- not necessarily recruiters, but hiring managers, representing some of the
 major... This is like the five mob families of New York. You know... We'll have people representing
 various major aspects of the markets.

      In New York City. And I want to moderate this panel and ask them each about specific




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questions having to do with hiring in the UX industry. What they're looking for, et cetera. The
second half of that event will be speed dating for resumes, where you'll get to meet -- bring your
resume. You'll get to meet with different hiring managers all around the room. You get 30 seconds.
This person is gonna look at your resume, tell you pretty much what they think, no recriminations,
whistle blows, and you move on. By the end of that, you should have a good idea of where your
resume stands. So that is September 20th. Mark that on your calendars and we'll see you then. So
that's enough with the announcements. Where is our guest of honor? Where is our man of the
hour? All right. So Mr. Jared Spool. Can't believe it's been over a year since we've been here in
this room -- last time, when you were doing a talk on treasures from the Amazon. The room was not
as full then as it is tonight. Really happy to have him here tonight to talk about something that
everybody is just going crazy for, and that is the mobile industry. Very timely conversation, and I
think we'll all enjoy it. So give it up for Jared Spool!

      ( applause )

     >> JARED SPOOL: Hello!

      >> Hello! Yay!

     >> JARED SPOOL: Um... I am very happy to be here. Thank you to the UPA folks. Thank
 you to Shawn and the great folks at Bloomberg. Don't they do a nice job? They're wonderful.
 So... Today what I thought I'd talk about is in essence, this pattern that we've noticed. Years ago,
 probably about 10, 15 years ago, we got our first project to assess the usability of a mobile
 website. And we had no clue what we were doing then. Because we never actually paid attention
 to anything mobile. And we did... We were able to determine one thing throughout this, which was
 the experience just completely sucked.

      ( laughter )

       >> JARED SPOOL: And at the time, I thought... You know, no one's gonna wanna use a
 website on a phone. It just seems like a wacky idea. But things changed. And it's interesting to
 me that all of that happened ten years ago. That that was there. And that the underlying
 components of the technology, while they've progressed in the way that technology progresses, it's
 still basically the same thing. But now there's all this excitement about mobile. And that got us
 thinking... Why now? What is it about right now that happened? And we started to sort of
 backtrack and we spent the last couple of years looking at what is happening in the user
 experience space to cause people to suddenly pay attention to things that they haven't been
 paying attention to. Why is it all of a sudden that this is the case?




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         Right now, for example, if you're a hiring company, it's really hard to find a good designer.
And it's not because somehow the designers have gotten fewer. There are actually more designers
today than there were 10 or 15 years ago. But it's much harder to hire one, because there are far
more jobs than there are designers. And that trend we see is only increasing. And the reason there
are so many more jobs than there are designers is because of the fact that companies are finally
saying... We need to have a designer on board. Why is that happening now? For... I've been in this
business since 1976. And I spent the first 15 years of my life in the industry... First 15 years of my
life I didn't spend doing anything. But the first 15 years in the industry, I spent... Convincing people
that they had to pay attention to usability and design and user experience. Though we never used
any of those terms in those days. But that's what I spent my time doing. Why are we all of a
sudden not having to do that anymore? Very rarely -- in fact, the advice I'm giving designers right
now is... If you find yourself in a situation where you have to explain why this is important, leave.

       ( laughter )

      >> JARED SPOOL: There's better jobs out there. We don't have to do that anymore. So...
 But why is it now? What's changed? So that's what I thought I would talk about today. And with
 the help of the wonderful Jason Robb, who -- I said I need one chart. He said no, we're doing the
 whole thing. So he illustrated my whole talk. We're gonna do that. So that's what we're gonna
 talk about. And we're gonna of course start by talking about, first, that you can get the slides. I
 forgot about this. You can get the slides for this presentation if you send an email. You can do it
 now or later. I don't care. To presentations at uie.com. And yes, I made it so that presentation
 singular also works. And you put in the subject line NYC UPA and we'll send you out the slides to
 the presentation. But that's not what I wanna tell you about. What I wanna tell you about is this.
 This is a bottle of Coke. And it's important here today not because I'm that interested in
 Coca-Cola, but because I'm interested in the cap of Coca-Cola. That little red cap. For those of
 you who drink as much Coca-Cola as I do, you might know that when there's a red cap on the
 bottle it means that underneath the cap there's a 12 letter code. And that 12 letter or digit code -- if
 you go to MyCokeRewards.com right here... I have a better thing than my little laser. They gave
 me this Bloomberg thing. Here you go.

        You can then... Fill out the form. Put in their little code. And it awards you points. And with
these points, you can get prizes. And gifts. And more importantly, more Coca-Cola. Now, the thing
is -- when I first look at this site, this is the way it looked on the desktop. And this is the way it
looked on a phone.

       ( laughter )




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     >> JARED SPOOL: And what it says here is... In the Coca-Cola colors, sorry, you don't have
 Flash. And then it tells you to get it for your iPhone. Now, maybe if you drink enough Coca-Cola,
 you can actually download the Flash player. But I was never able to do that on my iPhone,
 because apparently I was holding it wrong. Now, Coca-Cola isn't the only one I should pick on
 here. It turns out that if you go to the FOX weather website, weather.FOX.com, they tell you right
 here in this little window, on your iPhone, alternate HTML content should be placed here. I hope
 you brought some!

      (laughter)

      >> JARED SPOOL: So this content requires the Adobe Flash player. Get Flash. Off we go to
 the Coke website, where apparently we can do that. I was walking through Washington, D.C., last
 fall. And came upon this sign on a billboard. And it intrigued me. There are several things that
 intrigued me. The first thing is it intrigued me that Washington, D.C., has people running for an
 office called shadow representative. I often wondered how DC runs itself. Turns out they do it
 nefariously. In the shadows, of course. In some level, it makes sense. There is a position and
 people run for it publicly... The irony here was just awesome.

      But what intrigued me even more was this QR code that was in the bottom corner. And so of
course, to find out more about Mike Panetta, shadow representative, which sounds like a comic
book character! I clicked on it. And I got a website on my phone that looked like this. Which is
Mike Panet, Shadow Represe. So someone was thinking that we better have a QR code in case
people have phones, to bring them to a site that doesn't work on a phone.

       Interesting choice. In Lapeer county -- I was in Lapeer County, Michigan, which, for those of
you who know Michigan, it's right here. It's called the Michigan handshake. You meet people from
Michigan, you say where you're from, and they go here or here. It's interesting to watch. It's sort of
like when New Yorkers get together. Every other place in the world, when two people get together
and meet for the first time and they say -- they often talk about either weather or sports. But New
Yorkers talk about how did you get here? I took the 1. And crossed over to the L and then brought
up the... Right? That's how New Yorkers think. So in Lapeer, I was in a bank. And in the lobby of
the bank was this sign. The whole sign. And in -- on this sign, it attracted my attention, because
they had this beautifully rendered website on a 1988 Nokia phone. So of course I wanted to see
what it looked like on my iPhone, and it looks like this. It's got a space for the Flash. And then a
complete website that you can't actually use from a phone.

      And... So... Whoops. Something just went. Where did we go? Ah-ha. A reminder came up




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and told me I'm supposed to be speaking right now. Thank you! D 'oh. I had forgotten. Note to
self. Don't remind yourself about notes to self. We were doing an event at the Marriott Renaissance
in Boston. And here I'm running an event on great user experiences, and to get to the internet on
your phone, you had to bring up this website, which of course is almost impossible to read and even
more impossible is... To see this -- the one button you're posed to press, which is the little red thing
in the corner. Which is obvious I'm sure to everybody. And you then had to go and not choose this
option or that option but in fact fill in the little code in that bottom option. And that was the way you
were supposed to use it.

       And so we have all the sort of different examples of websites that really don't do mobile very
well. Here we are. More than 10 years after I did that initial study, where we said okay, the mobile
web sucks. And we still have a lot of sort of sucky experiences on the web. And the question is:
Why do we still have all these sucky experiences on the web? And it turns out that the reason can
be explained...

         By a law of science. Right? And that law of science... It's actually a law of science fiction.
It's called Sturgeon's Law. And Sturgeon's Law was coined by a science fiction author Theodore
Sturgeon. This wasn't something he put in his book. This was something that was coined during a
Q and A session at a Sci-Fi conference. During this session, a mainstream reporter raised his hand
and asked Dr. Sturgeon -- how come 90% of all science fiction writing is crap?

       And Dr. Sturgeon thought about it for a moment and came up with an answer. Which is 90%
of everything is crap. This is Sturgeon's Law. And it turns out to be quite true. Websites, mobile
websites, are not immune to Sturgeon's Law. In fact, websites in general are not immune. Anything
on the web or the internet is not immune to this. I got this email from United.com. Brand-new email
format. Someone worked really hard on this. It was much better than the old text-based thing. And
it came and if you notice to up on the upper right hand corner, there's a big option here. It says my
account. I was intrigued. I decided to click on it to see what my account was. I clicked on it and got
this. No, you did not make a mistake.

       That was a surprise. Because I'd been a United customer for years, and actually thought I
had many times. We've redesigned our website. Unfortunately, the URL you requested is no longer
valid. I requested it by clicking on an email they sent me 15 minutes before. In that 15 minutes, it
had gone invalid. It's awesome!

        Now, to be fair, this is a company that takes their users into account. For instance, when
they design their airline schedule boards at the airport, they take into account both landscape and
portrait.




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      (laughter)

      >> Some people were napping.

      >> JARED SPOOL: What was the use case for this? Oh! Okay. So I want to go back to the
 Flash thing, because this isn't fair. The bit after this, they changed the mobile site to look like this.
 So now we have this experience. And how likely is it that when you open up a bottle of coke, you
 are closer to your phone than your desktop computer? Right? It's probably pretty likely that the
 phone is the closest device, most of the time. So the use case of actually going to the website and
 entering this works. Right? The problem is... You need to enter it right here. But that assumes
 that you've either logged in or signed up. And of course, to log in, you have to go here. And to
 sign up, you have to read this. Right? So this is not a very easy to use part of the experience. But
 this is Coca-Cola. They're not a high-tech company. They don't know about these things. It's not
 like they thought about mobile phones before. Not like... Let's say... Verizon Mobile. Or... AT&T.
 Which advertises their iPhone 4 on a page that you can't read on an iPhone 4. But that's okay.
 You can't read it from Apple's site either. So this is not some sort of intentional conspiracy. But
 just thoughtlessness.

       And the reason Sturgeon's Law happens is because people don't think. They just don't
consider what's going on. Imagine you're in a cab, you're going to the airport to fly on an Air
Canada flight. And you realized you didn't check in before you left. You'd like to check in from the
phone. So you go and you actually go to the Air Canada site and now you have to click on this little
thing down at the bottom which has you then scroll through every possible country in the world.
When you pick one of those, it brings you to a site that doesn't actually work on a phone.

        And I can show you hundreds of these. I can also show you ones that have done it okay.
Boston.com. This one shocked me, because for years, Boston.com has been an example we've
used of really bad design in almost every situation. But here they have actually done a fabulous job
of making their content available on a phone in fonts that work. You know, New York Times. Same
thing. So there are a few sites that actually do this. I would estimate maybe about... 10%. So that
means that Sturgeon's Law is completely in effect here. So what's interesting about this is, as
designers, we get to choose. Right? We get to choose which side of Sturgeon's Law we want to fit
on. Do we want to be in the 90% group or the 10% group? Now, it's a game of probability. We only
have a 1 in 10 chance of being in the 10% group. But we can actually push and get there. And
that's what is needed in order to make this work.

      And so it turns out that Sturgeon's Law is a really important design concept. Because we get




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to choose where we fall in that space. So... Looking at all these sites, and realizing that Sturgeon's
Law is really sort of a big piece of this. But it wasn't the only thing. There was something else that
was sort of coming in, and also giving us some perspective on this. And that's something that we
call market maturity. Let me explain what market maturity is. This is a Wang 2200 word processor.
It was created in 1979. Just out of curiosity, how many people here weren't even born in 1979? Oh,
damn. You know, it's one thing to speak in front of audiences that you're older than. It's another
thing to have worked on projects that are older than the audiences.

      (laughter)

       >> JARED SPOOL: The Wang 2200 word processor, for those of you who weren't born yet,
 was a device that stood about this high, this wide, that deep. It had... Four processors! It was a
 quad core! Four processors. Okay? All Z80s. And it cost $14,000. And the only thing you could
 do on it was word process. $14,000. Word process. And it was completely unusable. So
 unusable, that if you wanted to do anything on the machine, you had to fly to Lowell,
 Massachusetts, and go to the Wang towers in Lowell, Massachusetts, where you would take a one
 week class, the beginner's class. And you would learn how to load a file save a file, how to print a
 file, and how to change the ribbon on the printer. That was week one, taught through drill and
 practice. Week two was the advanced class, in which we get into bold and italics. Italics was hard
 because you had to change the daisy wheel on the printer, which meant taking off the ribbon. Just
 saying!

      This wasn't usable, and everybody was okay with that. Because anyone who learned how to
use one of these instantly got a 20% pay raise. Because they could create documents better than
the people who didn't know how to use them. And they were much more valuable to the
organizations that had just paid $14,000. For this.

       So it was great. But eventually, people produced cheaper versions of it, like Word Perfect.
And Word Perfect was this product where it was more usable, to a point. But what it really was --
was it was feature rich. There were so many features in this product that eventually they started to
make all sorts of aids for people. They had these little cardboard things that you would put on your
keyboard. And cardboard things that you put around your monitor. And cardboard things that you
would put around your bathroom mirror.

      (laughter)

    >> JARED SPOOL: And each of these things... Explained all the functionality in the product,
 because no one could remember all the features that the product had. And you would have to take




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 courses to learn how to use all the features in the product. At its peak, it had 1700 features. And
 that year, a little upstart company called Microsoft came out with a product called Microsoft Word.
 It came originally with the DOS version, eventually with the Windows version. When it was
 released, it only had 70 features. So substantially less than Word Perfect. Word Perfect thought --
 well, these guys only have 70 features. They'll never catch up to us. But they did, because the
 features that they chose were the features people actually needed.

       See, at some point you run out of features to put into something like a word processor that
anyone cares about. That's why we now have a paper clip. Right? It turns out that eventually you
just don't care about that stuff anymore. So now we have a less feature product, but it has the right
features. This pattern is something we identify. It starts with technology.

       We focus on just getting the technology to work. It doesn't matter how usable it is. It just has
to work. Then we start adding lots of features. Feature, feature, feature, feature, feature, feature.
We keep adding that. Over time. And then eventually, we have so many features, nobody cares
anymore. We have to reduce the set of features. And we get to experience. And it isn't just in word
processors that we see this. For example, well... At some point... You get back to features,
eventually. But... Take the mobile phone. Starting with technology. Right? This thing weighed
three pounds. Didn't have very many features. Those came later. In what we now refer to as
feature phones. These things got texting and then video. All sorts of capabilities. And then out
comes a phone that doesn't have texting and video... Or pictures it and video. And yet it has a
better experience. Right? So we see that pattern over and over again. And it's not just hardware,
where we see this. This is the old AltaVista search engine. Look of all of its features it in all of its
glory. Compare that to the first page of Google at the time, which had no features on it. It was all
about the experience. Google today has even less features on their homepage.

        This is the site map from AccuWeather.com. These are all the features that AccuWeather
thinks you need in order to tell the weather. Right? It's incredible how anybody finds anything on
this site. There's so many things here. And it's nuts! Now, this got so rich that people get frustrated
by this. There's opportunity. There's a little startup called... UmbrellaToday. You just type into the
box something like New York, and it says yes. Right? This is about experience. This is the Air
Canada website. Again, a very rich website. And what do they do? They keep adding features.
Feature after feature after feature. This is the site map for it. It just keeps on going over and over.
Right? What are all these features? And when we look at this on a mobile screen, right... It's crazy.
Interestingly enough, if you know the magic URL, you go... Instead of Air Canada.com, you go to
m.Air Canada.com, you get a reduced functionality mobile site. If you've heard Lou (inaudible)
talking about mobile first, he says... Design for the less functional set. Pick those key functions out.
The things people need. And then figure that out from there and build from that. Right?




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        So, again, what we have here is features versus experience. This is, if you're in San
Francisco, and you wanna take the train, and you Google on your little phone... BART schedule, this
is the page you'll end up with. Which, again, has this unreadable schedule. But if you knew the
secret URL, you would actually get to a very reasonable interface, that has a clearer way to get to
the schedule. A very nice little application. Now, of course, the secret URL thing doesn't really work
well, because people don't know the secret. So that doesn't work. But folks have been figuring this
out. You don't have to go very far. You can look just at Amazon, who doesn't have the exact same
experience on their desktop on the phone, but it's pretty damn close. You get a very familiar-looking
page that has very similar features and functionality for the things you tend to want. But when you
start to get into it, it actually works a little differently. You put in the author that you're looking for,
and you get your search results. The page you get is vaguely familiar, but not the same. Showing
you what the various things are, you can even see what the reviews are for the book. And that's a
very key feature that they brought through the phone. But it doesn't have everything you can do on
Amazon, on the phone.

       You can't download mp3s. There are all sorts of things you can't do. But it works. There's a
nice interface, and they've sat down and thought through what should be on the phone. So they
thought about what that experience should be. Best Buy, another site. Done a really nice job. Site
looks vaguely familiar too what they have online, but not the same. If you, for instance, go and look
for TVs, you can actually put in information like your ZIP code, so they can figure out what's in the
stores near you, and then what type of TV you're looking for. You can even specify down to
specifics like what the price range you want is, and what kind of technology you want to get. And
then all of a sudden it recommends a TV. A very nice simple phone app which actually, if this
worked this way on their regular website, they would probably sell more TVs there.

        So this idea of migrating from first -- just getting the technology to work -- to thinking in terms
of the features, to then thinking in terms of the experience, that's the natural progression. And all of
a sudden, lots of things that we're working on have gotten to that experience state. Because we've
run out of features. If you're still in a business where there are lots of features to add, it's almost
impossible to get that business to think in terms of experience. And if you're in a business for which
the technology is brand-new and nobody else has it, and people are gonna do whatever, they're
doing fly to wherever just to learn how to use your product, it's impossible to talk about the
experience. But for those businesses that now are in that place where they have so many features
that most of them aren't being used, that's where this experience then kicks in.

       So it turns out that understanding that model -- turns out to be really important for designers.
Don't understand that model, you won't be able to explain why you get resistance sometimes and




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acceptance others for ideas on how to do good experience design. So we have Sturgeon's Law.
We have market maturity. It turns out there's another thing that's sort of pushing us here, that's
getting there. And we don't have a very good name for it, so we just refer to it as activity versus
experience. And the best way I have of explaining this is to actually talk about Six Flags. This is Six
Flags Magic Mountain. This is the map of Six Flags Magic Mountain, actually. Magic Mountain is in
San Diego or somewhere around there.

        It's this fabulous little Six Flags park. People really enjoy it. It's designed in a very certain
way. And this map reflects exactly how it's designed. Because the intention is that you come into
the park, and you're actually supposed to go around the park in a certain direction. The whole park
is designed to have you go in a certain direction, and you're supposed to hit every ride in the park,
and that's your day. Right? So you're supposed to go in and stand in a line for 20 or 30 minutes for
a ride, and actually get to go on the ride, and then get off the ride and throw up for a few moments,
and then go and get on the next ride. And the whole process is to just keep repeating this over and
over and over again. And the map is designed just that way.

         It's designed so you can see every single ride. Right? Every ride is called out on this thing.
They wanna make sure you don't miss a thing. Because that's how they think of their park. In terms
of all the rides. Now, compare this to the magic kingdom at Walt Disney world. There are no rides
called out on the map. They have rides, but they're not called out here. Sure, if you know what
Magic Mountain -- if you know what space mountain looks like, or you know what the various other
rides are, you will have no trouble identifying them from the map. But if you don't know, it's not on
the map. Right? You can't tell what it is. They have the rides. They have great rides. But they
don't call them out. Because that's not what Disney is about. Disney is about your day.

       They are about starting your day in a new, unique way. If you have small children, for
example, you take them to the park. Your day starts with what's known as the character breakfast.
The character breakfast is this chance for your small child to get up close and personal with a
creepy guy in an animal suit. While they eat breakfast. In that way that only Disney can do, which
means that it will be the most expensive breakfast you will ever have. And... It's fun. It's great. The
kids love it. And that's where your day starts. And then you wander out of the breakfast and the
whole day is designed so you have one adventure after the other. And everything about the park is
designed for these adventures.

        Every little detail. For example... I worked on Epcot years ago, before it opened. We did an
installation there. And we watched them put in the sound system for Epcot. And it involved these
speakers that are dressed as flowers and rocks that live in the gardens, that you don't notice are
speakers, unless you know to look for them. But the whole sound system... Each part of Epcot has




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its own theme music. As you walk from one place to the next, the theme music blends nicely so you
get that theme from that part of the park. But at various points in the day, there's a parade that
weaves its way through the park, and the system is designed through sensors in the road to detect
where the floats are for the parade, and as the floats begin to become close to where you're
standing, the speakers around you slowly fade down the theme music, and start to fade up the
parade music. And as the floats go by, each float's music and speaking, whatever's on the
microphones, whatever the artists are doing, is coming through the speaker system that you're
standing by, but it's carefully created as 3D sound, so it sounds like it's coming right out of the floats,
but it's actually coming out of the speakers behind you. And as the parade moves off into the
distance, the sound of the parade moves off into the distance and the ambient music from the theme
park returns. This has all been carefully orchestrated and designed and it's incredible how
complicated this simple system is. But that's how they think. You do stuff like that all day long in the
park, and you end up, at the end of the day, with the fire works display, which is this synchronized
fireworks display that goes on for four or five hours.

       (laughter)

       Finally it ends and you take your completely exhausted child and put them on your shoulder
and you go back not to your hotel room, because they don't have hotels at Disney. They have
resorts. You go back to your resort, and you open the door of your room in the resort, and someone
has carefully taken all your towels and crafted them into little origami animals. While you were
gone. And if the kid left their toys in the room, the toys are all sitting around the animals now, as if
they had been playing before you opened the door, and they just collapsed on the bed, like they do
in the movie. And this... Is how Disney thinks. Right? This is the way they think. Now, we can take
this apart. Right? We can look at what Six Flags is doing, and we can say... Okay. Six Flags is
about activities.

       Disney is about experience. Right? It's about the gaps that happen between the activities.
Sure, there are rides. At the theme park. But Disney is so much more than the rides. They have
thought through the whole experience. Whereas Six Flags just wants to get you from ride to ride to
ride and then sends you home. Hopefully with a pass to come back another day. At a discount.
That isn't so much of a discount. So that's the process. Now, how does this translate into what we
do? Most of us don't work for Disney. Well... I don't know if you know this, but there are some cities
where, when it's raining out, if you try and get a cab, it can be really difficult to do. Maybe you've
been there.

      And so there's a company that has decided to do the experience thing here. Instead of just
having you out there trying to flag a cab and just get in the cab and deal with that, they have an




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iPhone app, and on the app, you basically... Once you sign up on the website for the service, you
give them your credit card, which they store, and when you need a cab, you pick up the app and
press -- I want a cab. And what happens is it takes your location from the phone. And it sends it out
to drivers who have another app, a driver version of the app. And it says to the drivers hey, I've got
a customer for you. You can even put in where you're trying to go, so the cabs can decide -- and
one of the cab drivers can say I'll take it. And you get to see who has said I'll take it. If you decide
to go with that person, all of a sudden that cab is now coming to get you.

        And you can actually watch on the map as it gets closer and closer. It gives you little... Icons
for this. And if, for example, it's raining really hard and you want to go into the coffee shop across
the street, you can actually call the driver. There's a call the driver button that lets you call the driver
and say I'm just popping into the place across the street. Or the driver can call you and say I'm
pulling up now. Where are you standing? And you can have that communication with the driver. At
that moment. And all of that just works. And even the end ritual of taking out your wallet and paying
the driver and all that stuff... It's completely different. Instead what happens is the driver says okay,
I'm done. Presses a button. The fare is calculated. You get a message on your screen that says
it's $15. Pay it. It pays it right off your credit card. And there's a place for you to rate the driver and
the driver gets to rate you too.

       It's fair! Okay? And you're done. The receipt is sent to your email. The whole transaction is
taken care of. It's the slickest thing around. It's taking the activities of dealing with a cab and
making it into an entire experience. And that's what they've done. This is Groupon. Right?
Groupon...... The insidious little coupon thing. It's cost me thousands.

       (laughter)

      >> JARED SPOOL: I have more nail stuff. Never knew I needed this stuff. But now I'm
 getting my nails done like every other week.

       (laughter)

     >> JARED SPOOL: It's a good price!

       (laughter)

     >> JARED SPOOL: So the way Groupon works is that you buy this thing. At half off. And
 then you -- assuming you get, which everybody always gets -- you then get to get the little piece of
 paper. But if you forget your little piece of paper, you can just show your phone to the guy or gal,




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 and they can scan it in, and boom -- it's done. Right? Again, making the experience slick. And I
 think we're gonna see a lot of this. There's all sorts of things we can do now. QR codes, for
 example. I was walking through Melbourne, Australia, and there on the side of the construction
 site was this. It said live here. Okay? And I took a picture of it, and sure enough, it turns out to be
 an apartment complex. That has a great little website, you can now interact with the realtor, and
 has a very nice little form to fill out that is easy to use. Someone thought about this. And it works!
 And I think that QR codes and what will eventually be near field stuff is gonna make this happen a
 lot more. We see these things everywhere. In the Denver airport, you can get crossword puzzles
 while you wait from somebody. And... I was invited to Kevin Cheng and Coley Wopperer’s
 wedding. Kevin is the product manager at Twitter. They were getting married on 101010, which
 they decided was a binary day, and everybody came dressed in black and white, and this dude
 came with this giant QR code on his head, and sure enough, it scanned. It said congratulations k
 and c. May your love be forever true and never false.

      (laughter)

     >> JARED SPOOL: It was the geekiest wedding I've ever seen.

      ( applause )

      >> JARED SPOOL: So... This idea of understanding the -- whether we're working on discrete
 activities or complete experience is really important. And this isn't something that anybody's ever
 talked about until recently. The idea that there's a difference between the activities that we're
 designing for and the total experience. And understanding that the experience is about filling in
 those gaps. Again, as designers, we get to choose what we are going to do. It takes more effort
 to do that type of experience design, but it is what separates Disney from Six Flags. So there's a
 payback if you do it right. So that turns out to be absolutely key. So now we have Sturgeon's Law,
 maturity model. And activity versus experience. Turns out there's one more thing. That is sort of
 forcing all this to come to fruition right now.

         And it's something that's known as the Kano model. And the Kano model was put together
by a behavioral economist named Kano. Not a very imaginative guy, but it worked. And he put
together this idea that there are... You can look at things in terms of two dimensions. Right? The
first is user satisfaction. And he measured user satisfaction, going from an extreme of frustration to
an extreme of delight. And then on the other side, you have investment. The investment scale.
And that goes from virtually no investment in the design to a ton of investment in the design.

      And he realized very quickly that there was this thing that was called the performance payoff




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model. That the more investment you make, the more satisfaction goes up. And you can see this.
You know? This whole idea of adding features makes people happier, and we keep investing in
them. It makes people happy. So that's one model. But that turns out not to be the only line on this
chart. There's another one which has to do with basic expectations. There's an idea that there are
certain things that we just have to do because customers expect them, but at best, they only get us
to a neutral satisfaction. They don't get us to delight. If we don't do them, they frustrate, but if we
do do them... Eh, nobody cares. Right?

        So that's the second curve. And then the third one he discovered he calls excitement
generators. And excitement generators are things that sometimes don't take much investment at all,
but turn out to delight a lot. Sometimes just clever copy or just doing something really sort of
simple? Will make the customer delighted. And voila, you've got yourself something exciting. For
example, there's a phone app called Shazam. Very simple app. Hear some music. Stick your
phone up next to the music. Turn on the app. It listens for a few moments, thinks about it, and then
tells you what you're listening to. It's really quite incredible. And it works most of the time.

       In noisy clubs, it's a little hard to work, so you have to get it near the speaker, and usually the
best speakers are in the bathroom, so you go in the bathroom and that there are all sorts of people
holding up their phones. The other day I was in a bathroom in a club holding up my phone and
some guy comes out of a stall in a waiter uniform, and without even looking at me, he says... Dude,
the bartender has the playlist. So it turns out that this is a delightful little app. Right? And most of it
is very simple. It doesn't take much. But it really does work. And so this is one of these things, this
excitement generators.

       I was flying into Dulles airport, and the plane landed, and I did what I often do, which is I
tweeted that I'd landed at IAD, and the moment I tweeted that, I got a tweet back from a company
called LimoRes, which said have a great time! Need a ride from IAD? Book online and save $5. I
collected it out. It wasn't the most readable page. But it was good enough. The thing that I liked
the best was that I could actually press the button and call them. And talk to them and find out if in
fact they were gonna be a better deal than what I had already planned to get into the city. And that
turned out to be really delightful. It wasn't really an expensive operation to put this together. There
was no major technology behind this. It's a really sort of simple app. But it works. And it got them
what they needed. It was just a very cool little thing.

       If you use Google Apps, Google Docs in particular, one of the really cool things is the ability
to share documents with other people. It turns out for many people this is really the key feature.
The idea that you can create a word processor or spreadsheet doc, and you can just share it with
other people, and at any point in time, they can actually open it up, and now they've just added




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features where you can actually leave them text messages while you're editing the document and
they can comment on things and you can see their edits and they can see your edits. It's really very
slick, and it really works for remote collaborative editing in a way that you don't get any other way.
It's really a neat feature. But just the ability to quickly share a document with somebody, instead of
having to email it to them is a really key feature. And once you use Google Docs for a while, you
get really used to this feature. So they came up with a phone version of Google Docs, and the
phone version lets you look at all your documents, which is great. You can look at them on the
phone or the iPad, and it works really, really well, except they left out one feature. Sharing. So you
can't share it with somebody else. You can look at it, but you can't email it to anybody, you can't
share it with anybody. There's no way to do it. That one feature is a basic expectation.

        For many Google Docs users. The fact that it is missing frustrates the hell out of those users.
But when they implement it, nobody will care. Right? It won't make the... No one will have a party.
Finally! They've implemented sharing. I'm gonna go party. Not gonna happen. Right? They put it
in. It's like a basic expectation. And we see this all the time. That there are basic expectations in
the design. That happen. If I create a calculator, and I decide that I'm going to redesign the multiply
function on that calculator, nobody will care. Right? If I screw it up, everybody two uses that
calculator will care. But if I make it twice as fast, or twice as precise, nobody will care. There's only
a... You tap out at neutral satisfaction. Which, by the way, the word satisfaction is an interesting
word, right? We send out satisfaction surveys. We say are you satisfied? Which by the way, is a
neutral term.

         You don't want people who are satisfied. You want people who are delighted. When people
say they're satisfied, they're being neutral. Oh, it's silly that we do these satisfaction surveys. We
should be doing delight surveys. Okay. But even so, just being satisfied -- not good enough, right?
It's not the same thing. And we have to make sure that we go beyond satisfaction. Let's go back to
Coke Rewards. Here at Coke Rewards, if I decide that I want to sign up, right, I actually have to
press this tiny little thing up here. And then I have to fill out a form. And first thing is I'm gonna be
told -- it's as easy as 1, 2, 3. I'm asked for my birth date, my country of origin, because only people
in the US are silly enough to do this. And I have to put in my name and my postal address and my
phone number, and where I live. And then I have to put in my email address twice. And a password
twice. And then... After I've done all that, I have to go here. And tell them whether I want to sign up
for their email notices. That they're going to send out, which, by the way, are different than their
mobile notices that they're going to send out.

       And then I have to prove that I'm a human. What nonhuman would actually go through all
this work?




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       (laughter)

       Right? The thing is -- is that this will frustrate people. But if they made it like Groupon, where
all you have to do is put in your name, email, and two passwords, and then check off the box that
says you read the thing you didn't actually read... That no one will care. Right? That I've made it
that simple. This is obviously a much better experience, but nobody gets all excited that this is such
a simple experience. They just get frustrated that the other one is a frustrating experience. And
there's a lot of these sort of basic expectations that get us into trouble. And this is the thing that we
see really screwing up a lot of teams. Everybody focuses on the excitement generators. But hardly
anybody is looking and saying what are the basic expectations. And this is really important when
you're moving from one technology base to another technology base, and you've got a core of users
who are really in love with your product and use this thing. Are you hitting all the basic
expectations?

        That's the really key thing. And here's the deal. Those excitement generators we put in...
Over time, they become basic expectations. They become the things we expect. So we have to be
cognizant of the fact that those things that we love, that we really get -- at some point, everybody's
gonna have them, and they're basic. So what are we gonna do next? And that's what Kano's model
teaches us. Is this idea that we have to understand all three of those charts and pay attention to all
the basic expectations as much if not more than we pay attention to the excitement generators. So
we've got this storm that comes into play. And for my work, what it's been teaching us is all about
this idea of what it means to create great experiences. So we've been looking for the last few years
at the teams that are required to do this. And what they have to have. And what we've realized is
they need a real in-depth set of skills. So we've started to analyze... What are these skills that
people need?

       Well, first we have to be able to create these complex interactions. Whether mobile or online
or on software or in devices. Interaction design is definitely a key element. So experience design
teams need to have a key interaction design skill component. But just as important as interaction
are the words that we put on the screen. So it turns out copywriting is just as important a skill set.
And many teams don't have any copywriting capability. And even the ones that do, they're not in
proportion to the demand on the team. So having that set of skills is absolutely critical. We also
need to be able to organize the content in a way that makes sense. So you have to have
information architecture skills. And we have to be able to manage the designs that we're using. So
the idea of sort of understanding how we're going to work through iterations, and keep the designs
moving forward. So we have to have skills for actually managing our process and understanding
what's going on there.




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        We need to have a solid understanding as to how we're gonna collect information from our
users. So that we can make the right decisions in the design process. So we need good user
research practices. And we need to be able to organize all of this data that is living in our systems.
And present them to people in a way that makes sense. So we need to have really good
information design skills, which are different from visual design skills, which go beyond just the
aesthetics, and are all about communicating and prioritizing that information. So that the stuff that's
really important is obvious to the user the moment they look at the display, and the stuff that's not
important just sort of sits there and whispers to the user at the right moment. And that's what good
visual design is all about.

       And then we also need a capability of saying... No. Right? Steve Jobs at a recent interview
said that innovation is not about saying yes to a whole bunch of ideas. Innovation is about saying
no to 10,000 ideas. Right? It's keeping things simple. Someone has to be in the job of saying no,
we don't want that feature. It's not the most important thing. It's cluttering up the experience. So
we need have an editing and curation capability in our projects that actually decides what goes in
and what goes out.

        And so these are what we call the basic experience design skills. These are what teams
have to have. But as we did our research and we started to study teams of all different types, and
looked at what they needed to have to succeed, we found that they needed, for instance, the ability
to go out and actually do intense work in the field. Collecting information that they didn't know to
look for and bring that back. They needed to have an in-depth knowledge of the domain that they
were designing for. If they're in the financial space, understanding financials. If they're in the
medical space, understanding medicine. Having that understanding of the domain turned out to be
really important, to do a very good job on the design. They also needed to know how the business
made money, so how it was gonna support itself, how the product or the design fed into that support
network. So that was absolutely key.

         They needed to deal with the fact that there's all this information that comes into the
organization. And how you track all the information that comes in. Then they also needed to deal
with the idea that there's -- you have to communicate your value. Whenever we put a feature on the
screen, whenever we talk about something new, we have to tell our users why it's valuable to be
there. So we have to understand how to communicate value to folks. We of course have to know
about the platforms we're actually building for, and what they're capable of doing, and what they're
not capable of doing. And certainly that's a key piece of it. We have to understand how to
communicate within ourselves as to... How we're gonna get back the return on the investment that's
that it's gonna take to build this stuff. Good experience design doesn't come cheap. It takes an
effort to do it. So how are we gonna get an understanding as to what's gonna come back for us,




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when we do that?

         It also has to do with the fact that social is now the sort of future that we're in. We're no
longer designing for a person talking to a computer. We're designing for people sharing and
communicating and learning from others, and so there's this whole social component that was there,
that we never had to deal with before, and it's a whole different design problem. We have to be able
to deal with the fact that we have to communicate our designs to the people who are gonna
implement them, and we have to have methods and techniques for actually talking to them, and to
do that, well, we have to actually understand their investment process and how we feed information
into them at the right moment so they can make smart decisions on the development side. So now
we have all these skills that have to be there. These skills in orange are what we call the enterprise
skills, and they are key for any organization that's bigger than two people to be able to do any sort of
serious design work.

        But it turns out it doesn't even stop there. There are what we call soft skills, like being able to
express the designs we want, the people we're designing for, through stories. Right? All personas
are -- are storytelling. And understanding how to tell stories effectively is really key. We have to
have a way of actually gleaning value from those sessions that we call critique. Most teams don't do
critique well. They do criticism exceptionally well. But criticism is not critique. Critique is actually
really hard to do. And we have to have solid critique skills. We also have to be able to render our
ideas in a way that others can understand. And in this day and age, that means picking up a pen
and sketching something out. Whether it's a user scenario or a design. We have to be able to do
that.,.

       We have to be able to get up in front of our peers and often other folks and actually present
the results that we have in a cogent, clear way, so we have to have presentation skills, and often,
because we have to get information from those people we're presenting to, we have to facilitate
meetings and have really important conversations about what is it that we're trying to build and
where we're trying to go and who we're building this for and facilitate this in a way that gets all the
information out without frustrating everybody in the room. So those are the soft skills, and it turns
out that this complete set here is the beginning of the skills we need, because once you dive into
any particular team, you get all sorts of team-unique things. We've been studying these skills for
about four years, and in the time period that we studied these, the size of the teams were going
down. We are now at a point where team size is smaller than it's ever been before. Yet the skills
are much larger than we've ever needed before. Which implies that we need to not think in terms of
roles. But in terms of skills. We don't need information architects. We don't need interaction
designers. We need people who understand information architecture and people who understand
interaction design.




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       And when we have teams with skills, we are much more prepared than when we try and pack
the proper percentages and ratios of roles into a team. Because that can't work.

       Now, as we've been doing our research, we have discovered that there are some ways to
measure success of a project. And we now have... We went out and we interviewed dozens of
companies. Half of them were companies that were really good at producing fabulous experiences.
The Disneys and the Netflixes and the Apples and Zipcars of the world. Companies that have very
delighted customers most of the time. And we visited their competitors and studied folks who try
and compete against them. We studied Virgin America and we studied United. We studied Netflix
and we studied Blockbuster.... What were the companies trying to do the right thing that didn't
succeed? How were they different from the companies that succeeded? What was going on?

        We took about 2,000 things we found in our studies, 2,000 variables, and put them into
statistical processes and came up with three variables. That we can use now. We can ask these
questions and actually predict whether a company will fall into a group of companies that are
successful like the Netflixes and Disneys or the companies that struggle, like the Uniteds and
Blockbusters. So it turns out that the things we use to predict these -- we call these the three
questions -- the first one has to do with vision. And the vision question is this: Can everyone on the
team describe the experience of using your design five years from now?

        Now, it's a very carefully worded question. We're not talking about describing the design five
years from now, because what everybody will say is... Five years from now, everything is gonna be
different. Right? But the things people are doing with your stuff won't be that different. It'll be
basically the same as it is today. Except without all the frustration. That's what the vision is. Take
today's experience, remove the frustration, and you have your vision. The deal here is that most
teams and most organizations, if I go and I walk up to everybody, and say what's your experience of
using your design gonna be like five years out? I get... Oh, I'm still thinking about next week. I can't
get an answer out of people. And when I can, everybody in the room has something slightly
different. Right? I've done this experiment -- I don't have time to do it now, but it's a great
experiment. If you want to try it, it's a fabulous experiment. I would ask you on a piece of paper to
write down in bullet form the story of Hansel and Gretel. Tell me from start to finish what is the basic
plot line. I bet almost all of you would know exactly what that story was, in bullet form, and when
you compared with your neighbor, the bullets would be almost identical. If I ask the team do the
same thing for your experience of user design will be like five years ago... They can't do it. It should
be like Hansel and Gretel. The reason we can do it is we've heard it so many times. We know it.
Even though we haven't talked about it -- none of you have compared notes with each other. But
you have the same thing. It works. Everybody on the team should know what that vision is and be




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able to talk to each other. That's key. The vision important. If you think of the vision as this stake in
the sand on the horizon. It's got a big flag hanging from it. And the beauty of this big flag is that
everybody can see the flag. Doesn't matter where they are in the organization. As long as they can
see the flag, they can start taking baby steps toward it. May take them a long time to get there, but
they can all see it. Every baby step, go closer to the flag, closer to the flag. That's the rule. Go to
the flag. Okay?

       That's all you need. Everybody takes baby steps. Now, here's the beauty. It's in the sand. I
can pick it up. I can move it. When I move it, the rule is the same. Go to the flag.

       (laughter).

     >> JARED SPOOL: As long as everybody can now see the new position, they just start
 walking in the same direction. So you have to communicate that the flag moved. That's it. You
 can move it a hundred times. Nobody cares. So that's what the vision is all about. That's the first
 question. Second question has to do with what we call feedback. In the last six weeks, have you
 spent more than two hours watching someone use either your design or a competitor's design?
 Two hours, every six weeks? Everyone on the team needs to be able to answer yes. If it's just the
 usability people, that doesn't count. It's got to be everyone on the team. And when I say everyone
 on the team, I don't just mean the primary designers, which are the folks who are up to their
 elbows in pixels and wire frames. I also mean the secondary designer, who influence the design
 and aren't part of the design team. Who decide you have to have an EULA, that pops up and
 everyone has to read it and because people have to read it, we're not gonna let them check off the
 box until they scroll to the bottom of the screen. They are a designer too. They just don't know
 they're a designer. They don't understand how their design has an effect on the users that they're
 dealing with. So in they spent two hours watching how the users use the design and see how
 frustrated they are, they've they start saying... Jeez, there's got to be a better way of doing that.
 So you have to get involved all the if people influencing the design. Two hours, every six weeks.
 The third question... And when I say how do you do -- personally, I like field studies as a good
 starting point. We don't do enough of them. It's an immersive thing. You take a team that's never
 been in the field before and show them their customers actually using their designs. It's like taking
 them to a tent where someone just throws holy water on them and gives them a religious
 experience. Because they come back going... Oh, wow. And then they have 7,000 things they
 want to fix right away. It's really awesome. It's great. But usability tests, five second tests, which
 are... A test that takes ten minutes.

       (laughter).




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      >> JARED SPOOL: Testing in a trade show. You know. Even just sitting in on support calls.
 You wouldn't want this to be the only way they're getting exposure, but sitting in, listening to
 support calls. Taking notes on what support is talking about and asking the question could we
 have fixed this problem before the user called? Is a great way to do it. If you're doing self design,
 that's a great way to do it. There's all these techniques for doing all this stuff. The last question
 has to do with culture. And it's a weird question. We've played with a lot of different variants of it,
 but this was the one that best predicted those successful companies. It says in the last six weeks,
 have you rewarded a team member for creating a major design failure? Now, you normally don't
 reward people for failure. But it turns out that that's a critical way to create a risk averse
 organization.

      Once you stop rewarding people for failure, you only reward them for success, your
organization becomes risk averse. One of the things we've learned is that risk averse companies
produce crap. So if we don't want to be risk averse, is it me or does this thing keep flickering? Oh,
good. I thought it was just me. I'm thinking... Okay. The seizure's coming.

      (laughter)

     >> JARED SPOOL: Only a matter of time. Could be the Rapture!

      (laughter)

      >> JARED SPOOL: Fwish! I don't know. Could be a glitch in the Matrix. Right? That means
 the agents found you. Actually, that's probably the likely answer. So... Oh yeah. Major design
 failure. The company that does this in the most sort of brilliant way is Intuit, where Scott Cook, the
 founder of Intuit, had this giant life saver thing he got from a boat, and he hands it to everybody.
 They have parties like the food out there. Amazing drinks and music and stuff. And during the
 party at some point, everybody quiets down and he awards the life saver thing to someone who
 created this incredible failure in the organization, it was a real screw up for them. And for five
 minutes, there's this sort of little joking repartee that goes on, and for the next 20 minutes, Scott
 Cook walks through all the amazing things that they learned because they went through this
 exercise and how important it will be going forward because they did this. And that creates a
 sense of risk taking that needs to be a mitigated sense of risk taking. You don't just put things out
 there and just say... Okay, whatever. What the hell. Let's see what goes. But instead, you
 actually succeed.

       So that's the third question. So... We have our perfect storm here of things that basically
explain to us now why all of a sudden user experience, mobile, design, all of these things are




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suddenly important. Because all of these things have come together. And the thing is that none of
these things are new. We've known about these things for a long time. It's just taken us a while to
get to this point. But now we know how we got here and now we know what we can do about it, and
there's all sorts of things that have happened that have gotten us here. You want to make sure you
understand how each of these things work. You understand why Sturgeon's Law gives you a
choice. You can be in the 10% good or the 90% crap. You can look at the evolution in the market,
and say... Okay, are we moving from features to experience? And start to shift your design activities
to do that.

        You can focus on this idea of activities. And are you designing for specific activities, or are
you now filling in the gaps between those activities, to create experiences? And take Kano's law,
and understand when you're meeting basic expectations and when you're creating excitement
generators. And then use the three questions to talk about: Are you building a great feedback
process? Are you creating a vision of what your experience is gonna look like? And are you
creating a culture that knows how to deal with risk? In an appropriate way. And that's what I came
to talk to you about. Now, I don't have any art for it, because we haven't launched it yet, but in the
next couple of weeks, we're going to launch the UI16 user interface conference website. The
conference is gonna be November 7th through 9th in Boston. If you go to UIconf.com -- and I'll put
this in the email, where you'll get the PDF of the slides -- you can actually sign up to get on the list.

        At that conference, all the things we talked about here, in terms of skills, everything from
running kickoff meetings and facilitating sketching to understanding the delivery platform,
Lou (inaudible) is gonna do a delivery workshop on designing for mobile, and there's a workshop on
kickoff meetings, talking about design scenarios, doing field research -- many of the things I touched
on today are covered in depth in full day workshops at that conference in Boston, and you can find
out about it. The reason I'm telling you about this is the way we're launching it is a little bit different.
We've had such demand that we're only making a certain number of tickets available at the first
price. And everybody who signs up on the site before we launch will get early notification of that.
Once those tickets are gone, the price is gonna go up. So if you're thinking about this, you want to
get on that list. Again, that's uiconf.com, where you can sign up, or to get a copy of the slides today,
send an email to presentations at uie.com with NYC UPA as the subject line. I will gladly send that
out to you and tell you about that. That's what I came to talk to you about. Thank you very much for
encouraging my behavior.

       ( applause )

     >> GLORIA: Could I give you this microphone for that part of the room, and John, you've got a
 microphone for over here. So if you have a question, I would encourage you to ask John to give




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 you the microphone over here, and then we'll get one over on this side of the room.

     >> JARED SPOOL: So do we have questions, or did I leave you speechless? Ronnie here
 has one. Let me start here.

       >> that was an excellent presentation, as always. I always like to get something different in
what you take, and I think one of the things you said tonight really struck me. And it's about
designing for mobile. So when you think about, you know, all these websites and basically
designing mobile -- a lot of times what we have, in terms of accessibility, the argument about
designing accessible sites is if you make them accessible, when you're five-way compliant, it's good
for everybody. And I think one of the big takeaways for me was, in talking to my clients, talking
more from -- start from mobile. Start from that simplicity, and figure out, how to extend that out to a
larger web presence.

      >> JARED SPOOL: It's really interesting. I was talking to Derek Featherstone about this.
 Accessibility is one of these really interesting problems for us. My skill list didn't mention it
 anywhere. And we have... We do these virtual seminars. How many people participated in one of
 our virtual seminars? A bunch of you. Okay. These are online webinars that we have...
 Conference quality speakers at. It works very well. And we've had some on accessibility. And
 people don't sign up for them. Yet in any virtual seminar, in every topic, at some point someone
 will say how do you make this accessible? It's the one question that comes up every time, and yet
 nobody comes to it. I've come to the conclusion that you can't separate accessibility out. It has to
 be part of every design conversation.

       Because it's not a special thing. It's a smart thing. And it's about understanding who your
audience is and what it's about, and making sure you're just doing it right from the get-go. There are
things that, because we are neither blind nor deaf nor physically challenged, that we can't design for
ourselves. And make that work. So that means we have to do the research and understand what
the design for those other people who are not us has to be. But that's -- the research there isn't any
different than the research we would do for people who, for instance, if we were not doctors, but we
were designing for doctors. Or... If we didn't speak Spanish, and we were designing for people who
spoke Spanish. It's the same research. So the tools are the same. The techniques are the same.
And there's nothing that's special there, except for the fact that we can't forget that we have to do
this. Which means that we have to make sure that our design processes are as inclusive as we can
get them, and make sure that we are accounting for that, just like we account for everything else.
That's not a skill issue as much as a process management issue. We have to tackle that as a
process management issue. Not constantly think of it as a skill issue. It gets us into trouble. I can
give this person the mic.




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       >> Hi, Jared. I really appreciated the Kano model and how you talked about delightful
experiences over time becoming just givens. Is it just me, or is the velocity at which that is taking
place rapidly increasing? People just take for granted that I'll be able to socially share this, and that
I should be able to open up these documents and share them with everybody?

      PROFESSOR: Is it faster? I would say Kano would tell you no. In the car industry, it probably
 moved 20 years ago as it's moving in the technology industry today. What's faster is we notice it
 because we have more users than we ever did before. The top meme on Techmeme today was
 how someone's product predicting that Google Plus -- which, if you haven't used it, is Google's
 attempt of figuring out how to steal all the time that Facebook has already stolen from you. And so
 they're predicting now that Google Plus will have a million users by the end of the year. They'll be
 the fastest... No, 100 million users, a billion users, something like that. They already have
 4.5 million users, and they've only been out two weeks, for this invite only thing, for which... No one
 can find out you send out invites. You had to use your circles to ask how the hell do I send out an
 invite? And so...

        There's I think we know just because there is a velocity that comes from volume, but I think
that in general, you know, if we were to track things on relative scales, the things that went from
delighters to basic expectations in the TV world, or in the car world, or in the airline world, there was
a day when you could just get on an airplane, and it was considered the sort of luxury thing, so...
They would actually serve you a meal. That's no longer a basic expectation. But it was once. It
started as something special, and it... Then it went away.

       In some attempt for the terrorists to win. I think he has one.

        >> I just want to say, Jared, thanks for the talk tonight. Really appreciate it. One of the big
takeaways was this concept around skills versus roles. I work at a pretty large ad agency, so we're
getting a bunch of things sort of thrown at us at once. One of the things I didn't see, unless I missed
it -- was just sort of this conversation on pattern usage. There's pattern usage at the UI level, but
one of the things I'm looking at too is sort of at higher level, at the experience level. From a strategic
standpoint. Like, are there such things as experience strategies, patterns, or experience patterns,
as well as UI patterns? The UI patterns are all pretty clear. But I'm curious about your take on that.
Why you didn't see... Maybe a room for it in the talk.

     >> JARED SPOOL: So when you say at a higher level, you mean... Like, talking about
 patterns, if we're designing some sort of full service experience?




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       >> Yeah. Where mobile is an integral part. So there's that, and also at the UI level, I'm just
curious...

      >> JARED SPOOL: Yeah, I think design patterns are... Really powerful tools in general. And
 have lots of applications, because what they do is they sort of codify a language around design.
 So in putting together -- some of the most valuable elements of a design pattern is not having this
 pattern library from which you can just grab things and use them, although that is valuable. But the
 fact that you sat down and thought about how many patterns should be, and which ones should be
 there, and which ones are you leaving out. And how do you deal with, at the moment that
 someone needs something to be implemented, do they use a pattern that's in the library, or do
 they innovate?

        And if we create pattern libraries where using something in the library is actually cheaper in
effort and time than innovating something new, because not only do I have to design it and test it,
but then I have to write it up and put it in the library. So it takes more effort. I make the path of least
resistance good design. Because I'm grabbing things out of the library. That's the good design path
of least resistance. So pattern libraries are great. And right now, we're still trying to get our heads
around how do we design them just for things that involve pixels and mice. But how do we move
beyond that? When we get into other devices, service design, content strategy -- another great
example of where patterns have to come in, in terms of governance. What would the patterns of
governance be? How do you decide when content is eliminated from the site, when it stays on the
site. There's all sorts of elements there. So you have all these different aspects of patterns that
really are critical.

        And I think we'll see them more and more. What patterns inevitably are is a way for us to
grow expertise amongst our team, because by creating that shared vocabulary of what these
elements are, and creating a way for us to have good versus bad encapsulated in the library, we
have -- anti-patterns become an important thing there. You can put all the bad things in another part
of the library. And say whatever you do, don't do that. Sort of like the kids at school. Don't be like
them.

       So the whole idea is... To have those things there. The actual library itself, I think, is the least
valuable part. So that's why I pay no real attention to these people who are putting out commercial
grade pattern libraries. They're not solving the interesting problem. The interesting problem is
getting the team to decide what patterns they need and how they talk about those things. Once
you've done that, the library becomes secondary to what's going on. Yes, absolutely it's gonna grow
beyond pixels and mouse interactions into all the things we touch, because we need to have that
conversation. We need to establish that vocabulary. We need to be able to deal with that.




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     >> GLORIA: I think we're out of time. I think we have time for one more.

     >> JARED SPOOL: One more.

     >> GLORIA: Looks like Ron.

     >> JARED SPOOL: You've got the mic?

      >> One question is around getting your team to interact with the product and your
competitors' products on a regular basis. Do you think it's realistic to have clients and product
owners really doing that every six weeks? It sounds like a good idea, but it's quite hard.

      >> JARED SPOOL: It doesn't seem to be hard for the companies that are really good at
 getting experience design done well. It's only hard for the companies that like to struggle.

       (laughter)

       >> JARED SPOOL: So... It's a cultural element. Right? At some point, you have to culturally
 decide... Yes, that's what we're going do. In lieu of whatever it is they're currently doing, which
 probably means sitting in meetings arguing with each other about the things that they're not
 learning when they're in those sessions. So you can decide which way your company wants to go.
 Is it realistic? It seems to be realistic for Netflix, who does it. They don't do it every six weeks.
 They do it every week. And their product owners and stakeholders are actually sitting in usability
 sessions weekly, paying attention to what's going on. And they have all sorts of tricks for doing
 that. Little cultural tricks.

        So let me give you one. For example, they combine usability tests with AB tests. So they do
a lot of action. They're not AB tests. They're multivariate tests. So they're ABCDE tests. So at any
given time on the site...

       ( sirens outside )

       I love New York. You have such a rich soundscape. I live up in the middle of nowhere. We
get frogs. The other day I heard someone's car alarm and I was thinking about the fact that the car
alarm signal doesn't mean oh my God, someone is stealing a car. It means... Where the hell is the
guy with the keys? What was I talking about? Multivariate testing. So...




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      >> ABCDE.

      >> JARED SPOOL: Sorry. I'm a manic digressive. ABCDE. They've got five variants. Any
 time you're on the site, they have 40 different things they're testing. What they do is they'll take ten
 of those things. And they'll create a contest in the company. And here's how the contest works.
 You circle -- before it goes out into multivariate testing, you circle the variant of each of the 10
 things that you think the customers will love or use the most. Right? They tell you what the tests
 is, they tell you how it works, you can play with it, and you get to pick. If you pick all 10 correct,
 they will give you a thousand dollar Amazon gift certificate. If you pick 9 correct, you get a $500
 gift certificate. 8 correct, $100. 7 correct, $50. 6 correct, $10 gift certificate. Every time they give
 away at most 10 $10 gift certificates. They've never given away a thousand dollar gift certificate,
 even from the people who designed it, even from the human factors team or the UX team. Nobody
 can get all ten right. What that does is send this message that none of us know what the right
 design is. And when you send that message out regularly, it changes the way you do work. So
 you have to create a culture that says this is how we're going to do it. That culture has to come
 from the top, but it also has to have the support at the bottom, where you're actually producing the
 stuff and testing it and getting the information in. And that's the only way that you can be
 successful from all of this stuff. If you guys have had half as much fun tonight as I have, that
 means I have had twice as much fun as you! Thank you!

      ( applause )

       >> GLORIA: Thank you, Jared! That's how you want to end the season, yeah? Thanks,
 everybody, for sticking with it. I know we went a little bit long, but I think it was worth it. We don't
 get to hear a guy like Jared talk every day. So a couple of closing announcements. I'm probably
 gonna go home and bang my head on the keyboard. I won't look at our website any time soon. I
 have some copywriting work, and I'll probably send out a survey tomorrow. Thanks a lot, Jared!
 Lots of work. Let's see here. I also know I must be doing something right, because I'm actually
 doing CSS tweaks to the links on the Bloomberg job posting so there's enough space between the
 listings so you can hit it with your finger and get one job and not two. I'm very proud of myself.
 Bloomberg has a present for you. Everyone here has a gift bag, and you've got one of those cool
 little pointer things like you saw using. Great fun for messing with your dog on the floor and
 what-not, but also, there's another piece of paper in these bags. And it looks like this.

       Win a free Apple iPad 2. It's a 64 gigabyte with Wi-Fi and 3G. Apply for a job here, and if
you send your resume to either of the two email addresses that are listed here, which is to Elaine or
to Sumayya, you are entered into this drawing. Send your resume and your portfolio. You have
three chances to win the iPod. Excuse me, iPad. So I think that's a pretty sweet deal. Very




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pleased to make that announcement. How many people are hiring here today? I should hope so,
especially after that whole talk. That slide he had with all the skills, I just wanted crawl under my
bed with a bottle of Jack Daniels. Yeah. But it's interesting to see how you gravitate towards certain
skills that are on there. That was informative.

        So if you are hiring, talk to Elaine. Elaine, stand up. Where you are? There's Elaine.
There's Shawn. Where is Sumayya? Over in that back corner. These are the Bloomberg folks.
Talk to them first. And then for everyone else who is hiring... The food and drink is being set up
right now as we speak. But if you're hiring, I'm gonna ask that those who are hiring please gather
right over there where Sumayya is, because it's closest to the food and drink. You don't have to go
that far. Be on the inside of this doorway. Grab your food and drink, come back and gravitate in
that area. That will be the designated hirer's corner if you're looking for a job. So just give people a
place to sort of go. This event is totally run by volunteers. None of us get paid to do this.
Everybody has donated their time. If you're a volunteer with NYC UPA, please raise your hand.
Yes! Thank you guys!

       ( applause )

     >> GLORIA: These people donated a lot of time, and we're all in this ship together. Thank
 you to the volunteers. I want to thank again everyone here from Bloomberg, thank you guys for
 being here, and Jared -- there you are. When I first contacted you, there's no way -- Jared's gotten
 too popular. He's too big now. He won't talk to us.

     >> JARED SPOOL: I am too big, but...

    >> GLORIA: Not only did he say yes, but -- would you mind talking to Elaine's time also? He
 was totally open to that. Jared, you've been amazing through this process. You're a gentleman
 and a scholar. Thank you! We'll see you in September. Thanks, guys!

     >> Hi. Were you involved before another time with the same event? A couple of months
ago? Doing this? I think I've seen it before. Anyway...




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