Docstoc

IAEA Training Material on Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy

Document Sample
IAEA Training Material on Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy Powered By Docstoc
					 IAEA Training Material on Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy



Radiation Protection in
    Radiotherapy



                          Part 8

  Occupational Exposure
    Occupational Exposure
  (Fundamentals, IAEA Safety
     Series N0 120, 1996)




“All exposures of workers incurred in the
 course of their work” (some exceptions
            are listed in BSS)
Overview
   Radiotherapy is a multidisciplinary approach
    which involves a variety of staff from different
    backgrounds
   Radiation sources, capable of producing
    intense radiation fields, may be handled and
    moved in a radiotherapy department
   Employers are required to ensure safe
    working conditions for staff
   Dose limits and the need for optimization
    apply
Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   3
IAEA guidance

Several publications
exist - sometimes it is
also useful to check
the extensive literature
on occupational health
and safety, e.g. from
the International
Labour Organisation
(ILO)
Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   4
Responsibilities for Occupational
Exposure
BSS Appendix I.1. “Registrants and licensees
 and employers of workers who are engaged
 in activities involving normal exposures or
 potential exposure shall be responsible for:
     the protection of workers from
      occupational exposure; and
     compliance with any other relevant
      requirements of the Standards.”

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   5
Objectives of the lecture
    To know the variety of professionals involved
     in radiotherapy
    To be aware of different scenarios which
     could lead to staff exposure in radiotherapy
    To understand mechanisms to avoid or
     reduce staff exposure
    To be familiar with the legal requirements for
     employers and employees


Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   6
Contents of the lecture
1. Occupations involved in radiotherapy
2. Where can occupational exposure occur
3. Local rules and supervision
4. Protective measures, equipment and
   tools
5. Monitoring
6. Investigation and follow up

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   7
1. Occupations involved in
radiotherapy
    Radiation Oncologists
    Other Clinicians
    Radiation Therapy Technologists
    Treatment Planning Staff/Dosimetrists
    Radiation Physicists
    Engineers, Technicians, Maintenance staff
    Nursing Staff
    Allied Health (dietician, social worker,…)
    Domestic Staff (Cleaners, porters, …)
Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   8
Occupational exposure
    The professions involved in the radiotherapy
     process may vary in different departments
    The type and magnitude of occupational
     exposure depends on the profession
    In radiotherapy the risk is not as much the
     exposure as a normal and inevitable part of
     the profession (such as in nuclear medicine)
     but the potential exposure to very high doses
     as an accident.

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   9
Typical exposure levels of
staff in radiation oncology
 Australia: More than 99% of staff has
  occupational exposure < 1mSv
 Exemptions: physicists preparing
  brachytherapy sources and nursing staff
  in brachytherapy wards where manual
  afterloading is practiced.



Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   10
Typical exposure levels of
staff in radiation oncology
    Exemptions: physicists preparing
     brachytherapy sources and nursing staff
     in brachytherapy wards where manual
     afterloading is practiced.

   These incidences will become less
 frequent with the introduction of HDR
 brachytherapy and remote afterloading
              techniques
Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   11
Occupationally exposed professionals in
radiotherapy
    Radiation Oncologists
    Other Clinicians
    Radiation Therapy Technologists
    Treatment Planning Staff/Dosimetrists
    Radiation Physicists
    Engineers, Technicians, Maintenance staff
    Nursing Staff
    Allied Health (dietician, social worker,…)
    Domestic Staff (Cleaners, porters, …)

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   12
Occupationally exposed staff
 Staff who may be exposed to ionizing
  radiation as a direct result of their
  profession
 Typically educated about radiation
  safety
 Typically monitored for exposure
 Other dose constraints apply (compare
  BSS section 2.26)
Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   13
…but keep in mind
     BSS appendix I.5.: “Employers,
      registrants or licensees shall ensure
      that workers exposed to radiation from
      sources other than natural sources
      that are not directly related to their
      work or not required by their work
      receive the same level of protection as
      if they were members of the public.”

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   14
Other staff potentially exposed
due to radiotherapy
    Domestic staff, technical staff (e.g.
     electricians, plumbers), allied health,
     other clinicians, nurses


                   Require training and
                   potentially personal
                      monitoring !!!

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   15
Radiation Protection Officer
 Shall be appointed by the licensee for
  every radiotherapy department
 First point of call for all staff concerned
  about radiation safety
 Provides education and training
 Determines the need for monitoring
 Must have appropriate qualifications
 More detail in part 18 of the course


Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   16
Practical issues 1
 RPO must ensure all staff
  who can potentially be exposed are
  educated about the risks
 Some suggestions for education:
  Lectures, video tapes, site visits,
  practical demonstrations,...
 Should be part of new staff orientation
  and then offered at least annually

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   17
Practical issues 2
    BSS appendix I.34.: “For any worker who is
     regularly employed in a supervised area or
     who enters a controlled area only
     occasionally, individual monitoring shall not
     be required but the occupational exposure of
     the worker shall be assessed. This
     assessment shall be on the basis of the
     results of monitoring of the workplace or
     individual monitoring .”

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   18
Practical issues 2 (cont.)
    For staff who are not normally employed in a
     controlled area, but may be at risk
     occasionally, the method of monitoring
     depends on the magnitude of likely exposure
     (compare BSS I.33)
    e.g. electronic pocket
         dosimeter
                                          Make sure to
                                       record readings if
                                          no permanent
                                         record is given
Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy          Part 8: Occupational exposure   19
Dose Limits (Schedule II, BSS)
    Occupational exposure:
        20mSv/year averaged over 5 years
        50mSv in any single year
        lens equivalent dose 150mSv in a year
        extremities (hands and feet) equivalent
         dose 500mSv in a year




Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   20
Dose Limits (Schedule II, BSS)
    Occupational exposure:
        20mSv/year averaged over 5 years
        50mSv in any single year
        lens equivalent dose 150mSv in a year
        extremities (hands and feet) equivalent
         dose 500mSv in a year




Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   21
2. Where can occupational
exposure occur?
 As part of normal operation
 Machine malfunction - discussed in the
  relevant parts on equipment (5 and 6)
 Operator mistake - discussed in parts
  on QA
 Design problems (discussed in part 7 on
  facility design and shielding)

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   22
BSS Glossary: Normal
Exposure
    “An exposure which is expected to be
     received under normal operating
     conditions of an installation or a source,
     including possible minor mishaps that
     can be kept under control.”



Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   23
Exposure as normal part of operation
(BSS: “Normal Exposure”)
    Not common in radiotherapy (unlike nuclear
     medicine)
    Typical only in the context of use of
     radioactive substances
           60-Co teletherapy background in treatment room
           Brachytherapy source preparation
           Nursing of patients with implants




Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   24
Potential exposures
    BSS 1996 glossary: “Exposure that is
     not expected to be delivered with
     certainty but that may result from an
     accident at a source or owing to an
     event or sequence of events of a
     probabilistic nature, including equipment
     failures and operating errors.”


Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   25
Potential exposures
 Are in principle avoidable
 Need to be considered and the risk
  minimized
        Prevention
        Education
        Protective equipment
        Mitigating the effects




Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   26
In general, the management of
occupational exposures can be made
more effective by the classification of
areas (BSS I.21-25)

 Controlled areas
 Supervised areas


    … both are in addition to public areas.

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   27
Controlled Areas
    BSS      Appendix I.21. “Registrants and
     licensees shall designate as a controlled area
     any area in which specific protective
     measures or safety provisions are or could be
     required for:
           controlling normal exposures or preventing
            the spread of contamination during normal
            working conditions; and
           preventing or limiting the extent of potential
            exposures.”
Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   28
Controlled areas
    BSS appendix I.22.: “In determining the
     boundaries of any controlled area, registrants
     and licensees shall take account of the
     magnitudes of the expected normal
     exposures, the likelihood and magnitude of
     potential exposures, and the nature and
     extent of the required protection and safety
     procedures.”


Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   29
Controlled areas in
radiotherapy


 All treatment rooms
 Brachytherapy source preparation
  rooms
 Source storage areas



Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   30
Controlled areas
 Require access restrictions
 Require interlocks where appropriate
 Require signs
 Protective equipment
  and monitoring
 Require staff to
  follow written
  procedures

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   31
…in the words of the BSS
    I.23.                       “Registrants and licensees shall:
       (a) delineate controlled areas by physical means or, where this
          is not reasonably practicable, by some other suitable means;
       (b) where a source is brought into operation or energized only
          intermittently or is moved from place to place, delineate an
          appropriate controlled area by means that are appropriate
          under the prevailing circumstances and specify exposure
          times;
       (c) display a warning symbol, such as that recommended by
          the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) [12],
          and appropriate instructions at access points and other
          appropriate locations within controlled areas;



Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy         Part 8: Occupational exposure   32
BSS appendix I.23 (cont.)
(d) establish occupational protection and safety measures,
    including local rules and procedures that are appropriate for
    controlled areas;
(e) restrict access to controlled areas by means of administrative
    procedures, such as the use of work permits, and by physical
    barriers, which could include locks or interlocks; the degree of
    restriction being commensurate with the magnitude and
    likelihood of the expected exposures;
(f) provide, as appropriate, at entrances to controlled areas:
      (i) protective clothing and equipment;
      (ii) monitoring equipment; and
      (iii) suitable storage for personal clothing;


Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   33
BSS appendix I.23 (cont.)

(g) provide, as appropriate, at exits from controlled
   areas:
    (i) equipment for monitoring for contamination of skin
        and clothing;
        (ii)equipment for monitoring for contamination of any object or
            substance being removed from the area;
        (iii) washing or showering facilities; and
        (iv) suitable storage for contaminated protective clothing and
            equipment; and
(h) periodically review conditions to determine the
   possible need to revise the protection measures or
   safety provisions, or the boundaries of controlled
   areas.
Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure      34
                                        Supervised Areas
BSS Appendix I.24. “Registrants      and
 licensees shall designate as a
 supervised area any area not already
 designated as a controlled area but
 where occupational exposure conditions
 need to be kept under review even
 though specific protection measures and
 safety provisions are not normally
 needed.”
 Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy      Part 8: Occupational exposure   35
Supervised areas
in radiotherapy
 Operator consoles
 Areas where calculated
  exposure rates through
  shielding barriers are
  likely to result in
  exposures of 1mSv per
  year (IAEA TECDOC
  1040, 1998)
Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   36
3. Local Rules and Supervision

BSS Appendix I.26.     “Employers, registrants
 and licensees shall, in consultation with
 workers, through their representatives if
 appropriate:
     establish in writing such local rules
     and procedures as are necessary
     to ensure adequate levels of
     protection and safety for workers
     and other persons”

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   37
Establish
 relevant investigation level or authorized
  level (in radiotherapy this can typically
  be set low as ‘normal exposure’ is
  small)
 … and the procedure to be followed in
  the event that any such value is
  exceeded;


Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   38
Ensure
       that any work involving occupational
        exposure be adequately supervised
        and take all reasonable steps to
        ensure that the rules, procedures,
        protective measures and safety
        provisions be observed
       that a radiation protection officer is
        appointed (when required by the
        Regulatory Authority)
Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   39
4. Protective measures
    A safe environment for staff is provided by
      Good building design
      education
      signage
      shielding
                 of the equipment
                 room housing the equipment
           interlocks
                 if triggered will cause the equipment to go into
                  a safe mode

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   40
Basic protective measures
 Time,
 Distance,
 Shielding…




                                                  Compare notes to part 4
                                                      of the course


Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure        41
Time

             Dose proportional to Time




                Dose = Dose-rate x Time
Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   42
Time in practice
    Important when handling radioactive
     sources in brachytherapy
        ‘live’ implants
        handling/nursing patients with implants

 When holding patients during diagnostic
  procedures (e.g. simulator)
 …otherwise not of great relevance.


Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   43
Distance
Inverse square law :
                   Dose-rate  1/(distance)2
                                       dose-rate




                                                    distance
Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy               Part 8: Occupational exposure   44
Distance in practice

 Important when dealing with
  brachytherapy patients
 Important when handling active sources
  in brachytherapy (long tweezers!)
 … otherwise usually not something staff
  can influence.

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   45
Shielding
                                       Tenth Value Thickness

                   incident                                                  transmitted
                   radiation                                                 radiation




                   D Sv/h                                          D/10 Sv/h

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy         Part 8: Occupational exposure                 46
Shielding in practice
    Radiotherapy typically uses sources with
     highly penetrating radiation - need substantial
     shielding.
    Design of appropriate shielded treatment
     rooms is essential (compare part 7 of the
     course)
    Personal protective equipment (compare BSS
     Appendix I.28) such as lead aprons, lead
     gloves, thyroid shields are typically of not
     much use in radiotherapy...

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   47
Source preparation area




Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   48
In practice, education and training
are often the best protection
BSS Appendix I.27. “Employers, in co-operation
 with registrants and licensees, shall: provide
 to all workers adequate information on the
 health risks due to their occupational
 exposure,     whether normal exposure or
 potential exposure, adequate instruction and
 training on protection and safety,        and
 adequate information on the significance for
 protection and safety of their actions”

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   49
5. Monitoring
BSS Appendix I.32: “The employer of any
 worker, as well as self-employed individuals,
 and the registrants and licensees shall be
 responsible for arranging for the assessment
 of the Occupational exposure of workers, on
 the basis of individual monitoring where
 appropriate, and shall ensure that adequate
 arrangements be made with appropriate
 dosimetry services under an adequate quality
 assurance programme.”

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   50
…and

BSS Appendix I.33: “In cases where individual
 monitoring is inappropriate, inadequate or
 not feasible, the occupational exposure of
 the worker shall be assessed on the basis of
 the results of monitoring of the workplace
 and on information on the locations and
 durations of exposure of the worker.”



Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   51
Types of Monitoring
 Area monitoring
 Survey meters
                               Gammasonix AustralRad
 Personal dosimeters
 (Contamination monitoring - not part of
  the present course as only applicable
  for unsealed source therapy which is
  dealt with in the nuclear medicine
  training course)
Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   52
Applications for monitoring in
radiotherapy:

 Brachytherapy
 Installation
 Safety surveys
 Shielding verification
 Staff monitoring




Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   53
Monitoring of the Workplace

BSS Appendix I.37.: “Registrants        and
 licensees, in co-operation with employers if
 appropriate, shall establish, maintain and
 keep under review a programme for the
 monitoring of the workplace under the
 supervision, if so required by a Regulatory
 Authority, of a qualified expert and a
 radiation protection officer.”

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   54
Monitoring of the Workplace
  BSS Appendix I.39.: “The programmes for
   monitoring of the workplace shall specify:
               the quantities to be measured;
               where and when the measurements are to be
                made and at what frequency;
               the most appropriate measurement methods
                and procedures; and
               reference levels and the actions to be taken if
                they are exceeded. “

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   55
Example of an Area Monitor, with
Alarm

    Required in
     brachytherapy
    Also needed in
     external beam
     60-Co units
    Indicates if
     source is in
     safe, in transit or
     in patient
                                       Philips
Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy     Part 8: Occupational exposure   56
A note on monitoring:
 This is a quantitative process which
  yields verifiable results.
 Documentation is essential.




Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   57
Radiation Surveys

 New installations
 Modifications
 Annual verification of shielding integrity
 Safe for sources
 Around brachytherapy patients to
  advise staff of best approach for nursing

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   58
A Survey Meter
                                                                  Traceable
                                                                   calibration
                                                                   important
                                                                  Variation of
                                                                   response with
                                                                   energy may
                                                                   occur
                                                                  Linac pulsed
                                                                   radiation may
                                                                   lead to saturation

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure                59
 Useful considerations
• Check batteries

• Switch on before entering radiation area

• Move monitor slowly

• Change scale if necessary



Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   60
Notes on radiation surveys
around bunkers
    Linear accelerators used pulsed irradiation –
     the dead time of the detector must be
     considered.
    A neutron detector may
     be needed around linacs
     using photon energies
     above 10MV.


Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   61
Personal Dosimetry




Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   62
Personal dosimeters
 Large variety exists
 Should be worn at meaningful locations
  at the body (i.e. behind protective
  equipment, at trunk)
 Usually evaluated in radiotherapy
  monthly (film) or every three months
  (TLD)

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   63
Most commonly used passive
personal dosimeters
Film Badge                                      –     Delay before results
           Cheap                                     available
           Permanent record                    –     Energy correction
                                                      required

TLD
           Re-useable
                                                –     Delay before results
           Easily automated                          available
           More sensitive than
            film

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure         64
The Film Badge Holder




Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   65
Typical film dosimetry results
    Film holder has many
     different absorbers
     which affect different
     radiation differently
    Differential reading
     and appropriate
     calibration allows
     assessment of
     radiation quality and
     dose
Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   66
Example of a personal TLD monitor
Energy compensation
possible using
multiple absorbers




                                                                       …important to
                                                                       wear the holder
                                                                       the correct way


Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure                     67
Ring TLD monitor for staff
handling radioactive sources




Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   68
Active Personal Dosimeter:
Pocket Geiger monitors
          Results                                    Dose rate and/or
           immediately                                 dose (integrated)
           available                                  Alarm possible
                                                      Relatively expensive
                                                      Hardcopy of results
                                                       not usually available -
                                                       needs to be recorded




Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure             69
      Records must be kept
 BSS       Appendix I.44.: “Employers,
  registrants and licensees shall maintain
  exposure records for each worker for
  whom assessment of occupational
  exposure is required.”
 Records shall include:
      Nature of the work
      Time of employment/monitoring
      Dose received including unusual exposure

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   70
     Quick question:




 What is the difference between ‘active’ and
‘passive’ dosimeters for personal dosimetry?
6. Investigation and follow-up
   BSS appendix I.46. (section on records) “The
    exposure records shall include: ...
     (d) records of any doses, exposures or intakes due to
        emergency interventions or accidents, which shall be
        distinguished from doses, exposures or intakes during normal
        work and which shall include references to reports of any
        relevant investigations.”
   …however also all accidents involving staff
    exposure must be dealt with - as discussed in
    more detail in the context of Medical
    Exposure, part 13 of the course

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   72
Investigation and follow-up is
needed:
 When individual dose limits are
  exceeded
 When indicated by QA activities
 After equipment failure
 After any accidental exposure




Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   73
Investigation and follow-up is
needed:
 When individual dose limits are
  exceeded
 When indicated by QA activities
 After equipment failure
 After any accidental exposure


    Important to include near misses

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   74
Investigation
 As soon as possible after the event
 Written report required
        doses received
        causes of the event
        corrective actions taken
        instructions as to how to avoid incident in
         the future
    Report shall be submitted to Authority
Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   75
Investigations
 Important opportunity to learn
 Not the aim to lay blame
 Publication of events will also help
  others to avoid similar problems
 May be useful to include external expert
  in the investigation
 Documentation essential in case of
  litigation
Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   76
Follow-up
    Medical follow-up of exposed
     individuals may be required

 Check that preventative measures
  actually work
 Include preventative measures in
  employee education

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   77
Health
Surveillance

 BSS glossary: “Health surveillance:
  Medical supervision intended to ensure
  the initial and continuous fitness of
  workers for their intended task.”
 Responsibility of the registrant and
  licensee (BSS appendix I.4)

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   78
Health Surveillance
    BSS appendix I.41. “Employers, registrants and
     licensees shall make arrangements for appropriate
     health surveillance in accordance with the rules
     established by the Regulatory Authority.”
    and
    I.43. “Health surveillance programmes shall be:
       (a) based on the general principles of occupational health; and
       (b) designed to assess the initial and continuing fitness of
          workers for their intended tasks.




Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure     79
Health Surveillance in
radiotherapy

 Medical exams should be available to
  workers on request
 In radiotherapy typically not required
  from a radiation safety point of view
 Medical exams may be required after
  accidental exposure

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   80
A note on pregnant workers
    Compare: ICRP report 83
    Pregnant worker should notify employer (in
     practice this may be the supervisor or the
     radiation safety officer)
    Pregnancy does not automatically exclude
     workers from their work
    Alternative work may be found
    More frequent monitoring can be arranged


Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   81
A note on young workers
    Compare BSS, appendix I.19
    No person under 16 shall be subjected to
     occupational exposure
    Persons under the age of 18 are only allowed
     to work in controlled areas only for training
     purposes and then only under close
     supervision
    Schedule II of BSS prescribes different dose
     limits (6 mSv in a year for persons < 18)

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   82
A Note on Protection of Workers
Undertaking an Intervention
BSS Appendix V.27.: No worker undertaking an
intervention shall be exposed in excess of the
maximum single year dose limit for occupational
exposure specified in Schedule II, except:
     for the purpose of saving life or preventing
      serious injury;
     if undertaking actions intended to avert a large
      collective dose; or
     if undertaking actions to prevent the development
      of catastrophic conditions.


Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   83
Summary
   Radiotherapy is a multidisciplinary approach
    which involves a variety of staff from different
    background
   As high radiation doses are required for
    cancer therapy there is a potential risk of a
    high dose to staff
   Brachytherapy has the highest potential for
    occupational exposure, however, due to many
    technological developments, significant
    exposure of personnel in radiotherapy is
    unlikely.
Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure   84
Where to Get More Information
    BSS, appendix 1
    International Atomic Energy Agency. Occupational Radiation
     Protection. Safety Standards Series, Guide No. RS-G-1.1, IAEA,
     Vienna (1999).
    International Atomic Energy Agency. Assessment of Occupational
     Exposure due to External Sources of Radiation. Safety Standards
     Series, Safety Guide No. RS-G-1.3, IAEA, Vienna (1999).
    International Commission on Radiological Protection. Radiological
     Protection and Safety in Medicine, ICRP report 73. Oxford: Pergamon
     Press; 1996.
    International Commission on Radiological Protection. Radiological
     Protection and Safety and pregnancy, ICRP report 83. Oxford:
     Pergamon Press; 2000.
    Local, national or international literature and legislation on occupational
     health and safety

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy   Part 8: Occupational exposure               85
Any questions?
             Question:




Please develop a hand-out for a radiation safety
           lecture to general staff.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:0
posted:3/31/2013
language:English
pages:87
dominic.cecilia dominic.cecilia http://
About