Volume 18 Issue 09 September 2012
Whose Farm is it Anyway?
If you think you know this farm, call our office with your guess. Those with correct answers will be eligible
for a $25 gift certificate at TJ’s BBQ (to learn more about their restaurant, call 874-4034 or visit www.tjs-
bbq.com or on Facebook at Tjs Barbeque)! Need another hint? Visit our website at http://
counties.cce.cornell.edu/lewis for another angle. See page 19 for contest details and last month’s winner.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Program Announcements Dairy and Livestock
Homesteading Fair 2012 .....................................................3-5 Hot Cows? There’s an App for That................................... 11
Hay & Pasture Crop Insurance Deadline EXTENDED .......5 A New Climate for Farming ............................................... 11
2012 NNY Dairy Institute Hoof Health Workshops ............6 Hay Storage Considerations, Don’t Waste it! ..................... 12
Free Whole-Plant Moisture Testing Opportunities ..............6 Lameness in Dairy Herds.................................................... 13
Corn Silage Harvest is Imminent ........................................ 14
Estimating Grain Yields in Corn.......................................... 7 Farm Business Management
Western Bean Cutworm Update .......................................... 7 Pricing Corn Silage .............................................................. 16
If you Harvest it, Make Sure it Reaches the Cow’s Mouth . 8
Local Food 2012 Grand Prize Winner- ―Who’s Farm is it Anyway?‖ ... 19
Harvest Tour Weekend ........................................................ 9 Drought-Related Forage Shortfalls Chart ............................ 19
Classifieds ........................................................................... 18
County Office Building
Outer Stowe Street, PO Box 72
Lowville, NY 13367
315-376-5270 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The listing of any organization in this publication is strictly for
informational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement by
Cornell Cooperative Extension of any of the products or services that
BOARD OF DIRECTORS may be offered by the organization.
Michael Tabolt - Legislative Representative The material is sent for your information as part of the program for
commercial agriculture by Cooperative Extension.
Directors at Large For further program details, contact or visit our office, which is open
Amy Beyer from 8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday. Please feel free
Sheila Buckingham to contact us at any time. Our telephone number is 315-376-5270.
Fred Munk Sincerely,
Michele Ledoux - email: email@example.com
Agriculture Program Committee
Joe Lawrence - email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Consumer and Family Education Extension Educator
Program Committee Representatives Field Crops
4-H Program Committee Representatives
Melissa Tripp Peggy Murray - email: email@example.com
AGRICULTURAL PROGRAM Farm Business Management
Kelli Gaughan, DVM
Kris Panowicz - email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Karl Rauscher Advertising
Please contact the Cornell Cooperative Extension of
Lewis County office if you have any special needs or
are unable to pay.
Helping You Put Knowledge to Work
Cornell Cooperative Extension of Lewis County provides equal employment and program opportunities.
New Homesteading Fair in Lowville September 8-9
Offers Opportunity to Learn Back-to-the-Land Skills
Cornell Cooperative Extension (CCE) of Lewis
County in conjunction with Mother Earth News is
responding to the increasing numbers of people
inquiring about raising backyard poultry, beef, and
other livestock, food preservation, energy
alternatives for homes and farms, and back-to-the-
land management skills with a new educational
event. A Homesteading Fair will be presented at the
Maple Ridge Center in Lowville, NY, September 8
and 9, 2012.
This two-day event will offer more than 90
educational workshops, held rain or shine, under
large tents, in a large, approved, kitchen and former
barns, and on the expansive lawn at the Maple Ridge
Center. Livestock shearing and wool spinning are
among the many planned demonstrations.
The Homesteading Fair hours are Saturday 8am-
5pm and Sunday 8am-4pm; the first workshops
begin at 10am each day and breakfast will be
available at the American Maple Museum booth
8am-11am each day.
projects are included in the admission price. Each
workshop is 45 minutes long. Workshops will
incorporate raising backyard poultry, gardening,
food preservation, solar and renewable energy
options, developing forestland and maple woodlots,
small farm machinery, and raising livestock such as
beef cattle, sheep, goats and hogs.
Parking at the Homesteading Fair is free. The public
can purchase a one-day-only or weekend pass to
attend their choice of workshops. Admission is
$10.00 per person, or $15.00 for a full weekend pass. Admission for children 17 and under is free. Homesteading Fair
tickets can be pre-purchased by calling CCE Jefferson County at 315-788-8450; see www.counties.cce.cornell.edu/lewis/
for locations to purchase tickets.
―Information on homesteading skills is something people are asking for. This new event is a great opportunity for
individuals and families to learn and to purchase the equipment and supplies they need to get started. This venue is
perfect for families interested in the opportunity to learn more about a sustainable lifestyle at an all-day educational event
held in conjunction with, Mother Earth’s International Homesteading Education Month,‖ says CCE Lewis County
Executive Director Michele Ledoux.
Course instructors include Jean O’Toole of the New York State Beef Industry Council; Cornell Cooperative Extension
Northern New York Regional Local Foods Specialist Bernadette Logozar, Field Crops Educators Mike Hunter and
Joseph Lawrence, and Livestock Specialist Betsy Hodge, and Nutrition Educator Cathy Moore; beef producer Steve
Ledoux of Adirondack Beef Company; and Dr. Deanna Fuller, D.V.M. of Countryside Veterinary Clinic.
continued on next page…
continued from previous page…
The Pratt-Northam Foundation has
provided funding support to spark this
event. Cornell Cooperative Extensions
of Jefferson, St. Lawrence, and
Franklin Counties, the New York State
Beef Industry Council, Lewis County
Farm Bureau, American Maple
Museum, Countryside Veterinary
Clinic, Lewis County Maple Producers
Association, Lowville Tractor Supply
Company and others are providing
Homesteading product vendors and
food concessions will be on site. For
more information or tickets, contact
Cornell Cooperative Extension of
Lewis County at 315-376-5270. For
lodging information, visit
www.adirondack-tughill.com. Like us
on Facebook at https://
The Homesteading Fair Solar and
Renewable Energy workshops include:
Small wind energy options, solar for
your farm, recycling on your farm, and
other energy workshops.
The Homesteading Fair Gardening
Food preservation, vegetables,
harvesting and storing herbs, canning
and freezing vegetables, bread baking,
The Homesteading Fair Livestock
Nutrition, forages, health, fleece and
fiber, spinning and weaving, electric
fencing 101, meat cuts, pasture management, and raising and managing sheep, beef, goats and hogs.
The Homesteading Fair Small Farm Machinery workshops include:
Small tractors under 100 horsepower, soil heath, spreaders, rototillers, beekeeping, brush hogs, small square balers,
round balers, hoop houses, building a cold frame and kitchen gardens, composting, information on planting small
acreage field crops, and more.
The Homesteading Fair Raising Poultry workshops include:
The first steps to a backyard flock, EZ build chicken coops, poultry breeds roundup, turkeys, ducks, nutrition, predator
protection, pastured poultry, egg production, electric fencing 101, health, equipment: feeders, nest boxes, and more.
concluded on next page…
continued from previous page…
The Homesteading Fair Maple and Forestry workshops include:
Making maple confections, woodland and sugarbush management, maple syrup production for the beginner, creating
healthier woods for wildlife, and more.
Hay & Pasture Crop Insurance for New York
Enrollment deadline for Pasture & Hay Crop insurance has been EXTENDED to November 15, 2012.
The Pasture, Rangeland, Forage (PRF) Rainfall Index program provides approximately $89 to $287 of protection per
acre for hay/hay crop silage and approximately $12 to $60 of protection per acre for pasture. Historical precipitation data
is used to determine ―normal‖ rainfall.
Available in all New York
counties for 2013.
This insurance covers a single
peril – lack of precipitation.
No historical production records
Producers choose acreage and
months to cover.
If an indemnity payment is
owed, payment is mailed
The program is also available to
producers of apiculture.
*PRF insurance can only be
purchased from certified Crop
Insurance Agents. To find a crop
insurance agent, producers can visit
the USDA RMA website for a list of
registered agents at
www.rma.usda.gov/ or call the New
York State Department of
Agriculture and Markets for a list of
agents working in New York State at
2012 NNY Dairy Institute Hoof Health Workshops
Locations: Jefferson/Lewis Counties (Tuesdays)
Dates: October 16, 23, 30, and November 6
Time: 10:30 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.
Four weekly sessions. Register for one or for all. Each session stands alone.
$35 per session; $100 for all four sessions (FSA Borrower Credits pending)
Each of the four sessions will have a classroom session in the morning and on-farm, hands-on activities in the afternoon.
The objectives of this hoof health program are:
proper hoof maintenance trimming by a trained individual;
know what is making your cows lame;
find lame cows early and treat them quickly and appropriately;
provide a housing environment that ensures cows are comfortable, clean, and dry to prevent lameness;
minimize metabolic stresses, especially transition cow problems; a leading cause of lameness;
plan and implement your own lameness program; and
increase awareness of lameness as an economic and animal welfare issue.
Professionals in the hoof health industry will provide instruction including:
Dr. Jan Shearer-DVM, Dairy Ext. Veterinarian, Iowa State; Zinpro Corporation; John Anderson, Lake Effect
Hoof Trimming; local veterinarians and hoof trimmers; and
Dr. Mike Baker, Cornell University, Melanie Hemenway, DVM-NYS Cattle Health Assurance Program
(NYSCHAP); Beth Meyers, American Dairy Association and Dairy Council (ADADC);plus more to be
Classroom sessions include:
hoof maintenance (hoof anatomy, locomotion scoring, and hoof maintenance);
hoof diseases & treatment (what’s the economic cost, what are the different diseases, how are they caused, how
to treat and handle the lame cow, etc.);
NYSCHAP (New York State Cattle Health Assurance Program) hoof health module and Dairy Beef Quality
prevention & importance of animal behavior (cow comfort, transition cows, body condition scoring, cattle
handling, foot bath management); and
ag advocacy & media training.
On-farm sessions include: For more information contact:
proper hoof trimming and maintenance; Ron Kuck, CCE of Jefferson County at (315) 788-8450, or
proper handling of lame cows and treatment; email@example.com
body condition scoring, locomotion scoring; or CCE of Lewis County at 315-376-5270.
NYSCHAP walk through audit of a farm; and
visit to a sale barn to observe cull cows.
Free Whole-Plant Moisture Testing at CCE of Lewis and Jefferson Counties
Harvesting corn silage at the correct dry matter is very important. Once again, CCE will offer whole-plant moisture test-
ing for corn. Collect a representative sample of three to five cornstalks from a few different areas of the field (don't just
collect from the edge of the field as those will be drier). Cut cornstalks at the same height you would chop them at.
Target DM is 32% to 35%.
Jefferson County (315) 788-8450
Contact Ron Kuck, Art Baderman or Mike Hunter to make arrangements to chop corn stalk samples.
We will process the samples and dry them on a Koster Tester.
Call CCE of Jefferson County in advance at to ensure you can get same-day results. Available for us by nutritionists and
Lewis County (315)376-5270
Bring the sample to the Extension office on Outer Stowe St. in Lowville.
Call CCE of Lewis County in advance to ensure you can get same-day results.
We will process the samples and dry them on a Koster Tester.
Estimating Grain Yields in Corn
By: Peter Thomison, Ohio C.O.R.N Newsletter 2009-27
THE YIELD COMPONENT METHOD was developed Estimating Corn Silage Yield
by the Agricultural Engineering Department at the By Greg Blonde, Agriculture Agent, UW-Extension,
University of Illinois. The principle advantage to this Waupaca County
method is that it can be used as early as the milk stage of
kernel development, a stage many Ohio corn fields have Based on Grain Yield…
probably achieved. The yield component method involves For stressed corn (<100 bushel per acre), about one ton of
use of a numerical constant for kernel weight which is silage per acre (30% DM) can be obtained from each 5
figured into an equation in order to calculate grain yield. bushels of grain per acre.
This numerical constant is sometimes referred to as a
"fudge factor" since it is based on a predetermined _______ (Yield, bushels per acre) / 5 = _______ (Yield,
average kernel weight. Since weight per kernel will vary tons/acre, 30% DM)
depending on hybrid and environment, the yield
component method should be used only to estimate For corn yielding > 100 bushels per acre, about one ton of
relative grain yields, i.e. "ballpark" grain yields. silage per acre (30% DM) can be expected for each 7 to 8
bushels of grain per acre.
Each method will often produce yield estimates that
are within 20 bu/ac of actual yield. Such estimates _______ (Yield, bushels per acre) / 7.5 = _______
can be helpful for general planning purposes. (Yield, tons/acre, 30% DM)
When below normal rainfall occurs during grain fill
(resulting in low kernel weights), the yield component
method will OVERESTIMATE yields. In a year with
Western Bean Cutworm Update
good grain fill conditions (resulting in high kernel By: Mike Hunter, Cornell Cooperative Extension of Jefferson County
weights) the method will underestimate grain yields.
Western Bean Cutworm (WBC) is a new pest of field and
Directions sweet corn and dry beans in the Eastern United States.
1. Count the number of harvestable ears in a length of The WBC larva feed on the ears of field and sweet corn
row equivalent to 1/1000th acre. For 30 inch rows, and the pods and seeds of dry beans. It has been a pest in
this would be 17 ft. 5 in. Western Nebraska since the 1940’s. This pest has been
2. On every fifth ear, count the number of kernel rows migrating east from its historic range of the western Corn
per ear and determine the average. Belt since about 2000.
3. On each of these ears count the number of kernels per
row and determine the average. (Do not count kernels Low numbers of WBC were first detected in New York
on either the butt or tip of the ear that are less than State in 2009. Since 2010 both Jefferson and Lewis
half the size of normal size kernels.) Counties have participated in the statewide Western Bean
4. Yield (bushels per acre) equals (ear #) x (avg. row #) Cutworm monitoring program. This year the WBC moth
x (avg. kernel #) divided by 90. flight peaked in late July. As of August 9, 2012, the WBC
moth trap counts totals were: Lewis County—Martinsburg
______ (ear #) x ______ (avg. row #) x _____ (avg. 279; Jefferson County—Ellisburg—189, Sackets Harbor
kernel #) / 90 = ______ (bushels / acre) 328, and Plessis—39, St. Lawrence County—Madrid—
284; and Franklin County—132. It is interesting to note
Repeat the procedure for at least four additional sites that Jefferson, Lewis, and St. Lawrence Counties are
across the field. among the highest WBC trap counts in the state and we
believe that the moths that have been caught have migrated
Example: You are evaluating a field with 30 inch rows. across Lake Ontario from Southwestern Ontario.
You counted 24 ears (per 17'5"= row section). Sampling
every fifth ear resulted in an average row number of 16 Currently, the populations of WBC have remained low
and an average number of kernels per row of 30. The enough that management or control methods are not
estimated yield for that site in the field would be (24 x 16 necessary; however, we will continue to monitor for this
x 30) divided by 90, which equals 128 bu/acre. concluded on next page…
continued from previous page… structures as there are with bunk silos/drive over piles.
Storing in bunks or piles can be done very successfully,
pest throughout NYS, including NNY. but there is a great deal more management involved.
The big question is, ―What can we do if the WBC Quick Silage Harvest Checklist:
populations continue to grow to the point where a control Harvest at the correct Dry Matter (see Corn Silage
measure is deemed necessary?‖ Insecticide options are Harvest is Imminent article on page 14.)
not a viable option in field corn. Planting Herculex, CCE offers dry matter testing to help you gauge
Smartstax, or other Bt corn with the Cry1F gene and when the crop is ready.
Viptera transgenic hybrids will control WBC. The
Attribute sweet corn hybrids, which are the only Bt sweet
Silage Density in Bunks – pack, pack, and pack some
corn hybrids available, will not control WBC.
Achieving a high density is critical to reducing
If you have any additional questions contact Mike Hunter,
CCE of Jefferson County, at (315)788-8450 or Joe
The cost of extra packing weight is minimal
Lawrence, CCE of Lewis County, at (315)376-5270.
compared to the benefits.
Aim High—the often used 15 lbs. DM/cu.ft. is a
For Sale: minimum density required for good fermentation,
farms routinely achieve greater than 15 lbs./cu.ft.
Hay, firewood, maple syrup and compost fertilizer. and everyone should be striving for more.
Services: Pack more tons of DM into the same bunk
No till planting, sub-soiling and aeration plowing to
improve water management on hay fields.
Experienced in building up soil quality quickly.
Call Agrotecy, Dean Yancey, at 376-4713.
If you Harvest it, Make Sure it Reaches the Cow’s Mouth
By: Joe Lawrence, Cornell Cooperative Extension of Lewis County
Corn silage harvest is fast approaching. When you Cover your bunk. Plastic is good, two layer oxygen
consider the storage phase for silage, chopping, the corn limiting plastic is better.
and feeding it out become the easy parts. Storing this These two layer plastic covers
forage properly to reduce losses and maintain quality is are more expensive, but many
the real challenge and opportunity. This is true every reports have the return on
year, but particularly with tight forage inventories on investment at 6-8:1 crediting
many farms, you want to make sure that every bit of the amount of forage that is
forage harvested makes it to the cow’s mouth. This saved. Farms using this plastic
certainly applies to haylage harvest as well. rarely have to throw away any
silage from the top of the bunk
A lot of things have to happen correctly to successfully when rolling back plastic.
store feed. There is often a slide shown in presentations
that boils it down to this:
Poor Forage + Good Management = Poor Quality Feed Consider Inoculants
Inoculant will not make a bad
Good Forage + Poor Management = Poor Quality Feed
Good Forage + Good Management = Good Quality Feed forage good but it will help a
good forage be better.
When storing feed in Ag Bags or upright silos, harvesting
at the proper growth stage (dry matter for corn) is very
Be safe this and every harvest
important. The storage process still takes management,
but there are not as many challenges with these storage
Harvest Tour Weekend
Submitted by: Amanda Root, Cornell Cooperative Extension of Jefferson Co.
After a successful open door weekend this summer,
planning is underway for Jefferson County's second Farm
Tour Weekend, September 29 and 30. The public will be
invited to celebrate the harvest at participating farms and
other agricultural related businesses in the county.
Participation is open to dairy, livestock, fruit and vegetable
farms, wineries, butcher shops,
farm supply businesses, and other
agricultural related businesses.
This is an opportunity for
agricultural businesses to show the
public what their enterprise is all
about. Each participating farm or
business can choose to be open to
the public on Saturday from 10
a.m. to 4 p.m., Sunday from 12
p.m. to 4 p.m., or both days. Each
farm or business also can
determine what it will offer the
people who visit. Examples
include a facility tour, product
demonstrations, games or activities
for families and children, product
The event is supported by the
Jefferson County Agricultural
Development Corporation, the
1000 Islands International Tourism
Council, Cornell Cooperative
Extension of Jefferson County, and
the Jefferson County Chapter of
Go to www.agvisit.com or
contact Jay Matteson, Jefferson
County Agricultural Coordinator,
at 315-782-1806 for more
Dairy & Livestock
Hot cows? There’s an app for that. A New Climate for Farming
By: Angela Bowman, Staff Writer, Dairy Herd Network Source: CALS News-The magazine or the College of Agriculture and Life
Sciences at Cornell University.
Monitoring heat stress just stepped into the 21st century
with a new app designed specifically for livestock A recent analysis of weather over the past 30 years by the
producers. Dairy farmers and ranchers have one thing on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
their minds: their cows. Heat-stressed cattle impact a showed that average annual temperatures have increased
producer’s bottom line, reducing mass in beef cattle and in every state in the continental United States, and climate
causing a 10 to 20 percent drop in milk production for models predict the trend will continue.
Farming contributes nearly $5 billion annually to the
A new smartphone app created by researchers at the state’s economy and occupies about 23 percent of the
University of Missouri will soon be available to help. The state’s land. Many of New York’s iconic and
app can detect the threat of heat stress in individual economically important farm products—including dairy
animals before it starts. The app combines environmental products, apples, and maple syrup—will require some
information with data from the animals to give producers a strategic adaptations to maintain current levels of
unique look at how the heat is affecting their animals. production.
―It will automatically pull in the air temperature and Average temperatures—expected to increase 4 to 9°F
humidity so that the producers can look at this later and well before the end of the century—will drive many of
figure out which animals are really stressed in the heat and these changes. While uncomfortable for humans, these
which ones aren’t," says Don Spiers, the project’s lead temperatures are downright detrimental to milk yields.
―Cows produce maximum milk between 30 and 75°F,‖
Spiers notes that it takes roughly three days for heat stress says Larry Chase, professor of animal science. ―With heat
to affect an animal’s feed intake, which then corresponds stress, cows spend more time standing and walking and
to lower body mass and a drop in milk production. The less time resting. A decrease of one hour of resting time is
goal, according to Spiers, is to find early warning signs associated with a 2-3 pound decrease in milk-production
using techniques already known through animal research, per cow. Ultimately, climate change is predicted to cause
such as counting flank movements (respiration) for 15 a 5-15 percent decline in milk production.‖
seconds and multiply by 4. Normal respiration rate is 60
BPM. Cows are stressed when their respiration rate rises The solution: retrofitting barns with ventilation fans and
above 75BPM sprinkler systems to keep cows calm, cool, and collected.
But how do producers rate it? For Missouri dairy farmer
Chris Heins, the app has been an asset in monitoring the
Higginsville, Mo., dairy’s 600 cows. Heins spends a lot of
his time making sure each animal in his herd is
comfortable, which in triple-digit heat means keeping
Though Heins knows his cows backwards and forwards,
he is supports technology that could give him even more
insight into this livelihood.
――That would be a great, just monitoring device. To see
how different areas of the barns are, address problem
situations. Like if you had, say a certain corner of a barn
that wasn’t cooling adequately, you could install an extra
fan,‖ Heins said.
The app will be available in the iPhone App Store this
fall. Sorry Android users – so far the release is set for the
Hay Storage Considerations, Don’t Waste it!
By: Nancy Glazier, NWNY Dairy, Livestock and Field Crops Team
Now may be a good time to think about hay storage. With
lost hay this season from armyworms and dry conditions,
and high purchased feed prices, more of the bale will
need to be utilized. Large bales are a convenient form of
hay for one-person operations. These bales can be moved,
stored and fed relatively easily with the right equipment. Research was conducted by University of Tennessee
Hay loss can occur when baling, moving and feeding and animal scientists comparing different methods of
some is unavoidable. The biggest loss – both dry matter storing large round bales of grass hay. The hay was cut
and digestibility – occurs with outdoor storage. Dry matter and baled in June in Tennessee. The bales were weighed
loss can reach 50% depending on the beginning quality, at the time of harvest and storage. Then they were
storage conditions and length of storage. It is not always weighed again the following January at the time of winter
realistic or practical to build a barn to store hay. Here feeding. The following table lists the type of storage
are some tips to minimize waste from outdoor storage. and the resulting percentage hay loss.
Tightly wrapped bales tend to shed water better. The outer Losses of Hay Stored using Six Methods of Storage
layer forms a thatch to reduce water infiltration. What Note the difference between storage in the barn and on
helps with shedding precipitation is placing the bales lined tires and covered. Some small changes can make
up tightly together end to end. Pick a site that has good a big difference! Plastic tarps can be relatively
ventilation, away from hedgerows and wooded areas. This inexpensive when the saving from reducing loss is
gives bales a better chance to dry out from air movement. calculated.
And think about row spacing of at least 3 feet for good air
Type of Storage Percentage (%) Hay Loss
flow and sunlight penetration. It’s also a good idea to keep
vegetation mowed between rows. On ground, no cover 37%
On tires, no cover 29%
Ideally, bales should be stored off the ground. Hay
On ground, covered 29%
stored directly on the ground may lose up to 12 inches on
the bottom of the bales due to wicking action. Find some On tires, covered 8%
waste material such as old fence posts, pallets or tires and Net wrap on ground 19%
place the bales on top. Gravel or stone may work too.
In barn 6%
How to Advertise in CCE’s Ag Classifieds
Farmers: Advertising in CCE’s Ag Classifieds is FREE for farmers. To place an advertisement, fill out the ―For
Farmers only‖ form in this publication or email to Megan Miller at firstname.lastname@example.org by the second Monday of the
month before you want your ad to appear. Publication is the first week of every month.
Fine Print: To qualify for free advertising, you must meet all of the following criteria:
You must own, rent, or be employed on a farm.
Your farm must be actively engaged in the production of agricultural commodities, such as milk, meat, eggs, produce,
animal by-products, or feed, etc.
Your goods must relate to farming.
Anyone wishing to purchase a Services ad in the Ag Classifieds section or a larger display ad in the newsletter, please
call Kris Panowicz at (315) 376-5270 for more information. (All income generated from the sale of ads goes to
publication and mailing costs.)
CCE of Jefferson and Lewis Counties reserve the right to reject any advertisement deemed unsuitable for our
CCE of Jefferson and Lewis Counties do not endorse any advertised product or business—we are providing an
informational service only.
Lameness in Dairy Herds 2012 Northern NY Dairy Institute Hoof Health
By: Ron Kuck, Cornell Cooperative Extension of Jefferson County
Promoting a reduction in the levels of lameness is an
Lameness is a large problem in many of today’s dairy important priority for the dairy industry. A large amount
herds. Although it may be obvious enough to be of awareness is already available that could, and should, be
recognized by the producer as a problem, lameness may implemented at the farm level.
also be a serious, but unrecognized, ―subclinical‖
problem. Many times, herd owners and herd managers are However, even though the understanding on how to reduce
so accustomed to seeing cows with abnormal gaits that lameness has been presented, many farmers did not
they do not fully appreciate the level of lameness that implement it when provided in the traditional style of
really exists in their herds. Most experts agree the factsheets and one-day workshops. With that point in
incidence of lameness in the dairy industry lies between mind, to address lameness properly and all of its factors, a
25 and 30 percent, which is unacceptably high. It also is hoof health program that is structured similarly to other
largely underestimated on farms. herd production programs, such as udder health or
reproduction, is needed. The Northern NY Dairy Institute
The impact of lameness on a dairy’s bottom line can be is presenting a four-week hoof health series that will run
very significant. Despite the fact that the cost of treating October 16, 23, 30, and November 6 (see program flyer on
lame cows may, at times, appear to be the biggest cost of page 6).
lameness, it is often a minor expense in the overall scheme
of things. Lameness is associated with a decrease in milk We recognize that controlling lameness in dairy cattle is a
production, impaired reproductive performance, and can major challenge and has implications financially and
increase the probability of a cow being culled. Estimates animal well-being. These series of workshops are intended
are that a case of lameness is associated with $300-$400 to help farms plan and implement their own lameness
per case in costs and lost revenue or $90 per head spread program.
across your herd. Lameness is also an animal welfare
issue that must be addressed by the industry. More information contact;
Ron Kuck at CCE of Jefferson County at
(Ernest Hovingh, DVM, Ph.D., Extension Veterinarian, email@example.com or 315-778-8450,
Veterinary & Biomedical Sciences Extension; Penn State or CCE of Lewis County at315-376-5270.
Chuck Guard, DVM, Ambulatory & Production Medicine
Clinic, Cornell University)
The Importance of Lameness to
the Well-being of Dairy Cows
Lameness is a crucial welfare issue
in modern dairy production. The
observation of lameness has been
identified as the most
indicator of welfare in dairy cattle
(Whay et al., 2003). The casual
observer with no animal science
training can pick out a lame animal
and link that with the poor
treatment of animals. Lameness is
fast becoming the biggest
challenge for dairy farmers to
overcome as society becomes more
concerned with the source of their
food and welfare of farm animals.
Corn Silage Harvest is Imminent
By: Ron Kuck, Cornell Cooperative Extension of Jefferson County
One of the most common mistakes farmers make each fall
is harvesting corn for silage before it’s at the ideal stage
for yield and quality.
Ensiling corn at the proper dry matter content provides
high-quality preservation resulting in good animal
performance and lower feed costs. Harvesting corn too
wet (low dry matter content) results in souring and
seepage of the silage and reduction in animal intake.
Harvesting too dry (high dry matter content) promotes
mold development because the silage cannot be
adequately packed to exclude oxygen. Harvesting too dry
also results in lower energy concentrations and reduced
protein digestibility. Tip #3: Heat drying is the only accurate way to determine
the dry matter of whole plant corn forage.
Corn development has been progressing at a rapid pace
with the recent warm temperatures. So it is time to check 4. Harvest Moisture Guidelines.
the whole plant moisture content now. Drought can also 32 to 35% corn silage = more milk per ton and per acre.
affect the whole plant moisture content. When drought *Chopping corn silage at 28 to 35% DM‖ should not be
slows plant growth and delays maturity, the moisture the goal for corn silage.
content will be higher than suggested by the appearance
of the crop. When a drought occurs at the end of the The corn plant changes greatly as it progresses from 30%
season, moisture levels may be lower than normal. to 35% DM-and almost all the change is due to more grain.
Consequently, measuring the moisture content of drought
-stressed corn before ensiling is recommended. *Important with corn at $2.50/bu; critical with corn at
1. Kernel stage not a reliable guide for timing silage
harvest. Dented doesn’t mean done.
Tip #4: Aim for 32 to 34 percent DM for most harvest and
Tip #1: Don’t rely on stage of kernel dent to make final storage situations.
decisions on harvest. It’s a sign that harvest time is
getting close, but it’s impossible to determine whole How to Sample Fields:
Cut 4-6 stalks, at the height you will chop at, avoiding
plant dry matter based on kernel dent.
outside rows and non- representative areas, chop and
2. When to Begin Field Sampling Kernel milk line. carefully take a one-quart sample.
We know that kernel milk stage is not reliable for
Dry using Koster Tester. Then subtract 2% points: If
determining the actual harvest date, but it is a useful
indicator of when to sample fields to measure plant dry the reading is 32% DM, actual field DM is closer to
matter. Under most conditions start checking dry matters 30%.
Why? Nobody is completely sure…but you can
when the milk line is about one-quarter of the way down
the kernel. count on it!
Tip #2: Use milk line as a general guide or as an ―early Predicting the Harvest Date.
warning system,‖ but it should not be the final Once whole-plant percent dry matter is determined, an
determinant. average dry down rate of 0.5% unit per day can be
used to estimate the number of days until the optimal
3. Determining Silage Moisture. harvest moisture.
The only reliable method of determining the optimal time
to harvest corn silage is to sample the crop and directly In general, corn silage that is slightly too dry is worse
measure the percent of dry matter of whole plants. This than corn silage that is slightly too wet. Therefore,
information combined with average whole plant dry- starting harvest a little early is usually better than
down rates can be used to roughly predict the proper time waiting too long.
to harvest corn silage.
concluded on next page…
continued from previous page…
Chopping corn at the right maturity…a key to success.
Unprocessed corn at 32-35% DM will make more
milk than processed corn at 25% DM.
32-35% DM corn chopped at 6‖ will make more milk
than corn chopped at 25% DM corn chopped at any
A run-of-the-mill corn hybrid chopped at 30-35% will
make more milk than most high-digestibility hybrids
chopped at 25% DM.
Immature corn silage leaves yield potential in the
field, produces more silage effluent, less milk per ton
and per acre. It also makes a real mess when
processed or bagged.
Technical information sourced from:
Everett D. Thomas, Oakpoint Agronomics;
Mark Sulc, Peter Thomison, and Bill Weiss, The Ohio
State University; Larry Chase; Cornell University
Farm Business Management
Pricing Corn Silage Price estimates combined with understanding of relevant
supply and demand factors from an individual farm
By: John Hanchar, NWNY Dairy, Livestock and Field Crops Team business owner’s perspective can aid decision making
regarding corn silage price. Given current (May, June
Thanks to Christian Yunker, CY Farms, LLC/Batavia 2012) alfalfa hay and corn grain prices, price analysis
Turf, for providing valuable comments on this work. suggests an estimated corn silage price of about $41 per
This article addresses pricing standing corn offering a
method to value the corn based on the price of corn grain Determining Corn Silage Price
and alfalfa hay. It was written earlier in the summer and
since that time prices have continued to increase as A farm business owner can examine how much he/she
demand for forages continues to increase.-Joe Lawrence would be willing to supply to a market at a given price.
Cost of production analysis combined with consideration
Summary of other factors helps to define the supply relationship. As
Christian Yunker, CY Farms, notes, other factors include:
Price analysis suggests that the price of corn silage opportunity costs associated with the ability to grow a
depends on corn silage quantities, the price of alfalfa hay, variety crops as is possible in many western NY areas;
the price received by farmers for milk, and the price of market volatility and uncertainty; and the effects of long
corn grain. term relationships between sellers and buyers of corn
silage. A seller can develop a target based upon the above,
Estimated corn silage price is sensitive to alfalfa hay price but actual market conditions provide no guarantee that a
and corn grain price. buyer will purchase quantities desired at a price that
achieves the producer’s cost target.
concluded on next page…
continued from previous page… Source: Ordinary least squares regression results, where
estimated corn silage price is a function of alfalfa hay
price and corn price, other factors (corn silage quantity
Some farm business owners might approach the problem
and milk price) fixed at average levels for the period 1991
of determining corn silage price from a value in
through 2010 -- estimated corn silage price ($/ton) =
production, or input demand perspective. The amounts of
10.621 + (0.079 x price of alfalfa hay ($/ton)) + (2.448 x
corn grain and corn stover in a ton of corn silage, relevant
price of corn ($/bushel)).
prices, and corn silage’s place in the milk production
process are key variables. A buyer can develop a price
target based upon the above, but actual market conditions
alfalfa hay price is $175 per ton (USDA/NASS.
provide no guarantee that a producer will sell the quantity
Agricultural Prices. Washington, DC: National
desired at a price that matches the buyer’s willingness to
Agricultural Statistics Service. May 31, 2012.), and
the price of corn is $6.18 per bushel (Western NY
Energy. ―Corn Bids.‖ June 12, 2012.).
Although factors in price determination, the two
approaches described above, by themselves, in isolation
Rounding the prices up to the nearest table values, $180
don’t completely determine market price and quantity.
per ton, and $6.50 per bushel, respectively, and using the
Supply and demand relationships work simultaneously in
results from Table 1, yields an estimated corn silage price
markets to determine price and quantity. Empirical price
of $41 per ton given mid June 2012 market conditions.
analysis brings supply and demand relationships together
Corn silage price estimates combined with understanding
to determine price.
of relevant supply and demand factors from the individual
farm business owner’s perspective can aid decision
Corn Silage Price Analysis
making regarding corn silage price.
Empirical price analysis suggests that corn silage price is a
For more information, please contact John Hanchar.
function of corn silage quantities, alfalfa hay price, the
price received by farmers for milk sold, and corn grain
price. Ordinary least squares regression provided an
estimate of corn silage price as a linear function of the
above variables. The current analysis is somewhat rough,
elementary, but the analysis may be helpful to farm
business owners looking to price corn silage.
The New York State Agricultural Statistics Service is the
source of market year average price and quantity data for
the variables listed above for the period 1991 through 2010
Corn Silage Price Estimates
Table 1. Estimated Corn Silage Price ($/ton) by Alfalfa
Hay Price ($/ton) by Corn Price ($/bushel), NY.
Alfalfa Hay Price ($/ton)
Corn Price ($/bushel) 120 140 160 180 200
--- $/ton ---
4 30 31 33 35 36
4.50 31 33 34 36 37
5 32 34 36 37 39
5.50 34 35 37 38 40
6 35 36 38 40 41
6.50 36 38 39 41 42
7 37 39 40 42 44
7.50 38 40 42 43 45
8 40 41 43 44 46
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CCE, 203 North Hamilton Street, Watertown, NY, 13601. Or, you may email your ad to Megan Miller at firstname.lastname@example.org. Please
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3) 2 silage conveyers. 4) 2 grain bins.
Farm Machinery, Call Joe @ 777-7631.
Cattle/Livestock Equipment, and Supplies 03.2013
ALPACAS FOR SALE: Home FOR SALE: Metal roofing, painted or FOR SALE: IH No. 46 Square Baler
Again Farm, offering show, breeding, galvanized. New and used. Trim and with 2 Cylinder Wisconsin motor
or pet quality animals; located in screws available. Call 649-5226 or mounted front. Great Shape, kept
Theresa, NY. Call Gail or Daryl 486-1339. 11.2012 covered, comes with parts. Call John
Marsh 628-5302. 017/12.12 493-3637 or 408-1731. 11.2012
FOR SALE: Utility Box with door on
FEMALE DONKEY FOR SALE: pick up; box in nice shape. Call Ray Crops/Seed/Hay
Born July 2010. Very friendly, raised 658-2504. 10.2012 FOR SALE
with goats. $500. Call 658-0202.
09.2012 FOR SALE: 1) Automatic Roller Mill FOR SALE: 190 +/- acres standing
Model #1200 on wheels. 2) Gale 1275 corn in Copenhagen, cash upfront,
FOR SALE: Certified Organic chopper with 3-row corn head and must take all. You are responsible for
doelings and bucklings born in April processor. 3) 6‖ x 32’ Auger on cutting/chopping & removal. Call
2012. Father is Kiko/Boer cross; wheels & electric motor. 4) JD 216 Mike @ 486-5725. 09.2012
mothers are various milk and milk/ Chopper Wagon with roof & JD
Boer crosses. All parents on premises. Tandom Gear. Call Gary 767-3830. Land for Lease
Call Cross Island Farms 482-3663. 11.2012
FOR SALE: 1) Keenan FP100 TMR FOR LEASE: 70 acres tillable for
BOARDING: Seeking to board mixer on wheels. 2) NH 3100 side rent in Cape Vincent, Avail 2013. Call
heifers for other Dairies. Three Mile slinger manure Mike 654-2585 09.2012
Bay area. Call Brandon 778-9534. spreader. 3) NH
10.2012 791 Tandem
For Hire Tank on running
gear. Call Gary
Custom Harvesting– Six-row corn 11.2012
with K.O. and hay head. Serving
Carthage and Lowville areas. FOR SALE: 1)
Excellent rates. Call Curvin 466-1661. 2,000 gal. Sunset
09.2012 Bulk Tank. 2) 3
2012 Grand Prize Winner of “Whose Farm is it
Whose Farm Is It Anyway?
Congratulations to Jackie Kaban of Lowville for winning
The cover of the Ag Digest features a different Lewis County
farm each month. The contest works like this:
this year’s grand prize, correctly identifying the farms on
1. The challenge – look closely and let us know if you think the cover of the Ag Digest from September 2011 to
you know either of the following: August 2012, twelve out of twelve months.
- Farm name
- Farm owner name Jackie received a gift certificate for a free oil change from
- Detailed description of its location Nortz & Virkler, Incorporated. She says that she knows
NOTE: If you need another hint, visit our website at all of the farms from being raised and living in Lewis
http://counties.cce.cornell.edu/lewis and click on County all of her life, belonging to Cooperative Extension
―Agriculture‖ where you will see the same farm from a and having family assist her at times with the contest.
different (often more common) angle.
2. Call CCE of Lewis County at 376-5270 with your guess
no later than September 5 .
3. All correct entries received by the deadline will be entered
into a drawing. The winner will receive a prize,
sponsored by our advertisers.
4. The answer and the winner will be announced in the next
5. You can only win a prize once each calendar year;
however, the person with the most correct answers in a
year will receive the Grand Prize.
Last Month’s Winner!
Last Month’s winner was Dan Beyer of Lowville who
correctly guessed it was the farm of Wanda and Darrell
Bellinger on State Route 177 in Lowville. Dan receives a $30
Stewarts gift card compliments of Martha Ciulla at TLC Real
Lewis County Ag Digest
PO Box 72, Outer Stowe Street
Lowville, NY 13367
U.S. POSTAGE PAID
PERMIT NO. 8
D Monday, September 3, 2012
DATE PROGRAM CONTACT
May 19-October 27
Lowville Farmers’ Market, Lewis County Fairgrounds,
8:00 a.m.-2:00 p.m. Doug Hanno at 376-6380.
Bostwick St., Lowville
June 12-October 9
Lyons Falls Farmers’ Market, Riverside Park, Lyons For additional information, contact Gary or
12:00 p.m.-6:00 p.m.
Falls (brought to you by Lyons Falls Alive) Rosita Mavis at 348-5167.
September 8 & 9
Homesteading Fair, Maple Ridge Center, Lowville .Michele Ledoux at 376-5270.
(gates open at 8:00
See pages 3-5 for more information.
a.m. both days)
September 15 8th Annual Cream Cheese Festival For additional information, visit http://
11:00 a.m.-6:00 p.m. Downtown Lowville creamcheesefestival.com.