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					The Cold War:
 East v. West, 1947-1980

         Ch. 31
      Pg. 732-760
     Post-WWII: the West
• Forced to adjust
  – Food v. transportation
  – Refugees v. new boundaries
  – Decolonization v. nationalism

     Europe & Its Colonies
• West’s weakness allowed peaceful
  – Exceptions: Algeria, Kenya, Vietnam
            The Cold War

• Cold War built as USSR occupied
  Eastern Bloc
  – Installed communist regimes
  – Origin of Iron Curtain

• U.S. responded with Marshall Plan
  loans to W. Europe
  – Germany as focal point: Berlin airlift

• Cold War spread by rival defensive
  alliance: NATO v. Warsaw Pact
 Resurgence of W. Europe
Spread of Liberal Democracy
• Democracy became consensus
  political system
  – Opposition worked within democracy
  – New republics emerged

           Welfare State
• W. Eur government commonly worked
  to cushion citizens against hardships
          New Challenges
• Protests challenge democracy
  – 1960s: segregation, Vietnam War, materialism
  – 1970s: feminism, green movement
• Thatcher & Reagan trim welfare state after

         Diplomatic Context
• European identity over nationalism
  – Marshall Plan’s integration
  – Germany’s interdependence
  ↳Origins of European Union
     Economic Expansion

• Western society became affluent
  – Post-rebuilding economic growth &
  – Shift to service sector
    • labor shortage spurred colonial
    • Mass consumerism
         Cold War Allies
      (U.S. & white dominions)

       Former Dominions
• Canada
  – Tension over integration w/ U.S.
  – Welfare state

• Australia & New Zealand
  – Tension over integration w/ U.S.
  – Shift economy from Britain to Pacific Rim
             U.S. Century

• Took over mantle of superpower
• Communist threat yielded policy of
  containment & defense spending
  – Examples:
     • Korea
     • Vietnam
     • Latin America
Western Culture & Society
         Social Structure
• Increased prosperity & education
  blurred social lines & improved social
• Class distinction remained
  – Middle-class w/ clearly more consumer
    & leisure power than working-class
  – Crime, race riots, anti-immigrant
    violence remained
      Women’s Revolution

• Women saw dramatic improvements
  in economic opportunities & rights
  – education, service economy,
    attractiveness of 2nd income
  – voting, divorce, sexual rights improve
• But women were far from equal
• Technology & new roles changed
  family relationships
         Western Culture

• U.S. led scientific development
  – DNA, Space travel & satellites
  – Modern art
  – Social science turned to data collection

         Popular Culture
• Superficial & pleasure-seeking
  – Internationalization of American blue
    jeans & tv; European music & fashion
     Post-WWII: the East

Soviet Union as Superpower
• As evidenced by:
  – Expansion
  – Heavy industry & military development
  – Strategic alliances & support of
    communist regimes
 Soviet Empire in E. Europe

• Although technically independent,
  weakness of E.Europe & Soviet army
  allowed USSR to become dominant
  force in region
  – Limited church & opposition
  – Common economic plan w/
    collectivization, industrialization, central
↳Warsaw Pact
 Evolution of Domestic Policies

• Suspicion of U.S. & strong gov
  resulted in:
  – Industrial growth
  – Cultural & economic isolation
  – Extension of social services
          Soviet Culture

• Explicitly fostered industrialization,
  loyalty of citizens, scientific thought
  – Valued science & education
  – Mass ceremonies
  – Classical ballet & literature
  – Secularism
• Yet severely limited cultural freedom
  & expression
       Economy & Society

• Urban & industrial w/ heavy state
  – Lacked individual motivation & peasant
• Industrialization led to social
  similarities with West
  – Unique traits:
     • Long lines for consumer goods
     • Emphasis on authority
     • Greater female participation

• Khrushchev eventually replaced
  – Generally loosened policies
     • Central planning & communist
       control remained
     • Economy & science remained
     • Diplomatically pushed for “peaceful
       coexistence” (usually)
• Without Stalin’s harshness, worker
  motivation dropped
     Global Connections

• Cold War dominated world history

• Both societies spread science,
  secularism, weapons, & female

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