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LBNL-Tracking the Sun-DATA.xlsx

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LBNL-Tracking the Sun-DATA.xlsx Powered By Docstoc
					Data behind select figures in:
Barbose, Galen, Naïm Darghouth, and Ryan Wiser. 2012. Tracking the Sun V: The Installe
LBNL-5919E. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA.

All capacity-related numbers are DC-STC, and dollar values are real 2011$.

Percentages may not add to 100% due to rounding.
the Sun V: The Installed Price of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998 to 2011.


eal 2011$.
Figure 1. Data Sample Compared to Total U.S. Grid-Connected PV Capacity
Units: MW

                                     U.S. Annual Capacity      U.S. Cumulative
                Installation Year
                                           Additions              Capacity
                     1998                     1.9                    11.3
                     1999                     2.8                    14.2
                     2000                     3.9                    18.1
                     2001                    11.3                    29.4
                     2002                    22.7                    52.1
                     2003                    45.4                    97.5
                     2004                    57.7                   155.2
                     2005                    79.2                   234.4
                     2006                   104.6                   339.0
                     2007                   169.1                   508.1
                     2008                   309.0                   817.1
                     2009                   434.7                  1,251.8
                     2010                   883.2                  2,135.0
                     2011                  1,845.0                 3,980.0

             Data source for U.S. grid-connected PV capacity additions: Sherwood (2012)

             Sherwood, L. 2012. U.S. Solar Market Trends 2011. Latham, NY: Interstate Renewable Energy Council, Inc.
              Data Sample Annual         Data Sample
              Capacity Additions      Cumulative Capacity
                       0.2                    0.2
                       0.8                    1.1
                       0.9                    2.0
                       5.8                    7.7
                      18.3                   26.0
                      31.3                   57.3
                      52.7                  110.0
                      63.8                  173.8
                      91.2                  265.0
                     154.9                  419.8
                     261.5                  681.3
                     343.4                 1,024.7
                     722.6                 1,747.2
                    1,275.2                3,022.4

ns: Sherwood (2012)

NY: Interstate Renewable Energy Council, Inc.
Figure 2. Behind-the-Meter PV Sample Distribution among States

    Total Behind-the-Meter PV Capacity in Data Sample


         State           MW         % of Sample
          CA           1,200.2        54.0%
          NJ            401.1         18.0%
          AZ            156.6          7.0%
          PA            111.3          5.0%
         MA              69.1          3.1%
          NC             45.3          2.0%
          NY             42.3          1.9%
      Other States      198.5          8.9%

    2011 Behind-the-Meter PV Capacity Additions in Data Sample


         State           MW         % of Sample
          CA             327.8        39.6%
          NJ             208.2        25.2%
          AZ              86.5        10.5%
          PA              55.8         6.7%
          NC              34.3         4.1%
         MA               27.9         3.4%
          NV              22.4         2.7%
      Other States        64.5         7.8%
Figure 3. Behind-the-Meter PV Sample Distribution by System Size
Residential & Commercial PV
Units: Percent of data sample

            Size Range    No. of
                                   Capacity
                (kW)     Systems
                  ≤2       6.7%      0.7%
                  2-5     43.6%     10.3%
                 5-10     36.1%     17.0%
                10-30      9.3%      9.2%
               30-100      2.4%      8.6%
              100-250      0.9%     10.1%
              250-500      0.5%     11.9%
             500-1000      0.3%     13.2%
               >1000       0.2%     19.1%
Figure 4. Residential & Commercial PV Sample Distribution by System Size over Time
Residential & Commercial PV
Units: Percent of data sample

            Capacity (MW)      ≤5 kW         5-10 kW       10-100 kW     100-500 kW
                1998           34.1%          8.1%          57.8%           0.0%
                1999           41.6%         11.0%          33.2%          14.2%
                2000           45.3%         17.2%          25.0%          12.5%
                2001           51.6%         18.7%          10.5%          19.2%
                2002           25.8%         17.5%          17.8%          29.6%
                2003           20.5%         18.0%          22.3%          22.2%
                2004           22.3%         23.4%          27.1%          15.8%
                2005           15.0%         18.7%          23.5%          29.6%
                2006           17.1%         20.6%          20.3%          22.8%
                2007           17.8%         21.5%          19.3%          20.9%
                2008           10.6%         12.0%          13.7%          31.0%
                2009           14.2%         21.2%          18.1%          19.2%
                2010           10.4%         20.8%          21.3%          19.9%
                2011            6.5%         13.3%          15.3%          21.1%
>500 kW
  0.0%
  0.0%
  0.0%
  0.0%
  9.3%
 17.0%
 11.4%
 13.2%
 19.4%
 20.5%
 32.7%
 27.2%
 27.6%
 43.8%
Figure 5. Utility-Scale PV Sample Capacity Distribution among States


         State       % of Sample
          CA           25.4%
          NJ           11.9%
         NM            11.0%
          NV           10.6%
          CO            9.4%
          AZ            7.3%
          FL            7.3%
          TX            6.4%
      Other States     10.8%
Figure 6. Utility-Sector PV: Data Sample Distribution by PV System Size
Units: Percent of data sample

          kW Size    No. of
                            Total MW
           Range    Systems
             2-5     44.6%   13.3%
            5-10     21.6%   14.5%
           10-20     16.2%   23.7%
            >20      17.6%   48.5%
Figure 7. Installed Price of Residential & Commercial PV over Time
Residential & Commercial PV
Units: 2011$/W


      Installation    ≤ 10 kW       10-100 kW      > 100 kW
         Year      (Median Value) (Median Value) (Median Value)

         1998            11.8                *                *
         1999            11.7                *                *
         2000            11.0                *                *
         2001            10.6              10.3               *
         2002            10.6              10.3              9.2
         2003             9.6               9.2              8.0
         2004             9.0               8.6              8.0
         2005             8.6               8.3              7.8
         2006             8.7               8.1              7.7
         2007             8.8               8.4              7.4
         2008             8.4               8.1              7.5
         2009             8.1               7.8              7.5
         2010             6.9               6.5              5.6
         2011             6.1               5.6              4.9

     Notes: See Table 1 and Table B-2 in Report for residential and commercial PV sample sizes by installation yea
     Median installed prices are shown only if 15 or more observations are available for the individual size range.
mple sizes by installation year.
ndividual size range.
Figure 8. Installed Prices for the CSI Program in 2011 and the First Half of 2012
Units: 2011$/W


    Installation Year ≤ 10 kW (Median Value)   10-100 kW (Median Value)   >100 kW (Median Value)
         2011                   6.4                       5.8                       5.0
       2012 (H1)                5.9                       5.4                       5.1
Figure 9. Installed Price, Module Price Index, and Implied Non-Module Costs over Time for Residential & Co
Residential & Commercial PV
Units: 2011$/W

                          Total Installed Price
    Installation Year
                               (Median)
          1998                    11.8
          1999                    11.7
          2000                    11.0
          2001                    10.6
          2002                    10.6
          2003                     9.6
          2004                     9.0
          2005                     8.6
          2006                     8.7
          2007                     8.8
          2008                     8.4
          2009                     8.1
          2010                     6.9
          2011                     6.1

   Notes: The Global Module Price Index is Navigant Consulting’s module
   price index for large-quantity buyers. Refer to Mints (2012) for data.

   Mints, P. 2012. Photovoltaic Manufacturer Shipments, Capacity & Competitive Analysis
      2011/2012. Palo Alto, CA: Navigant Consulting Photovoltaic Service Program. Report # NPS-Supply7.
n-Module Costs over Time for Residential & Commercial PV Systems ≤10 kW




’s module


Competitive Analysis
Service Program. Report # NPS-Supply7.
Figure 10. Installed Price Distribution for Residential & Commercial PV (≤10 kW Systems)


       Installed Year (with Sample Size)    2-3     3-4       4-5       5-6      6-7
              1998-2003 (n=7,013)          0.0%    0.1%      0.1%      1.8%     1.7%
             2004-2008 (n=41,688)          0.0%    0.1%      0.5%      1.8%     5.2%
                2009 (n=21,520)            0.1%    0.2%      0.8%      3.2%    13.2%
                2010 (n=29,801)            0.2%    0.7%      3.2%     19.1%    30.4%
                2011 (n=31,571)            0.3%    1.9%     13.4%     30.4%    27.3%
W Systems)

                                                                             Installed Price (2011$/WDC)
               7-8     8-9    9-10   10-11   11-12   12-13   13-14   14-15        15-16      16-17
              5.8%   13.7%   24.0%   17.7%   12.2%   9.1%    5.4%    3.2%         1.8%       1.1%
             19.4%   36.0%   23.2%    7.4%    2.7%   1.2%    0.8%    0.6%         0.4%       0.2%
             29.6%   28.0%   13.7%    4.8%    2.0%   1.2%    1.2%    1.0%         0.4%       0.3%
             22.9%   10.8%    4.8%    2.2%    1.5%   1.5%    1.2%    0.7%         0.4%       0.2%
             13.2%    5.8%    3.3%    1.9%    1.2%   1.0%    0.1%    0.1%         0.0%       0.1%
e (2011$/WDC)
                17-18   18-19   19-20   20-21   21-22   22-23   23-24   24-25   25-26   26-27
                0.5%    0.5%    0.3%    0.4%    0.2%    0.1%    0.0%    0.1%    0.1%    0.0%
                0.2%    0.1%    0.1%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
                0.1%    0.1%    0.0%    0.1%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
                0.1%    0.1%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
                0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
27-28   28-29   29-30
0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
Figure 11. Installed Price Distribution for Residential & Commercial PV (10-100 kW Systems)


       Installed Year (with Sample Size)    2-3     3-4       4-5       5-6      6-7
               1998-2003 (n=546)           0.0%    0.0%      1.5%      2.0%     1.8%
              2004-2008 (n=4,677)          0.2%    0.3%      1.0%      1.9%     7.7%
                 2009 (n=2,473)            0.2%    0.4%      1.5%      6.1%    17.3%
                 2010 (n=4,786)            0.3%    1.1%      6.0%     24.3%    33.1%
                 2011 (n=5,326)            0.4%    3.2%     23.1%     36.9%    21.8%
0 kW Systems)

                                                                           Installed Price (2011$/WDC)
             7-8     8-9    9-10   10-11   11-12   12-13   13-14   14-15        15-16      16-17
            6.0%   19.2%   28.4%   20.3%   9.3%    6.2%    0.9%    0.7%         0.2%       0.5%
           28.5%   36.6%   16.1%    3.5%   1.5%    0.9%    0.5%    0.2%         0.3%       0.3%
           32.8%   25.5%    8.3%    4.0%   1.7%    0.6%    0.7%    0.2%         0.3%       0.1%
           19.4%    8.5%    3.8%    1.3%   0.6%    0.4%    0.5%    0.2%         0.1%       0.1%
            7.3%    3.7%    1.2%    1.3%   0.4%    0.2%    0.2%    0.1%         0.1%       0.1%
e (2011$/WDC)
                17-18   18-19   19-20   20-21   21-22   22-23   23-24   24-25   25-26   26-27
                1.1%    1.3%    0.4%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
                0.1%    0.1%    0.0%    0.1%    0.1%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
                0.0%    0.1%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
                0.1%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
                0.0%    0.1%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
27-28   28-29   29-30
0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
Figure 12. Installed Price Distribution for Residential & Commercial PV (>100 kW Systems)


       Installed Year (with Sample Size)    2-3     3-4       4-5      5-6      6-7
                1998-2003 (n=74)           0.0%    0.0%      8.1%     4.1%     13.5%
               2004-2008 (n=816)           0.4%    0.2%      1.1%     5.5%     23.5%
                  2009 (n=330)             0.0%    1.5%      3.6%     8.8%     22.1%
                  2010 (n=586)             0.9%    2.7%     19.8%    37.0%     18.9%
                 2011 (n=1,088)            0.6%   12.7%     41.5%    23.9%     13.1%
kW Systems)

                                                                              Installed Price (2011$/WDC)
                7-8     8-9    9-10   10-11   11-12   12-13   13-14   14-15        15-16      16-17
              16.2%   23.0%   17.6%   10.8%   4.1%    1.4%    0.0%    1.4%         0.0%       0.0%
              34.3%   20.2%    8.9%    2.1%   1.3%    0.5%    0.9%    0.4%         0.2%       0.1%
              31.2%   16.7%    5.8%    5.2%   1.8%    0.9%    0.6%    0.0%         0.6%       0.3%
               9.6%    4.8%    3.4%    1.0%   0.3%    0.2%    0.9%    0.0%         0.2%       0.0%
               4.0%    1.9%    0.6%    0.6%   0.3%    0.3%    0.1%    0.3%         0.1%       0.0%
e (2011$/WDC)
                17-18   18-19   19-20   20-21   21-22   22-23   23-24   24-25   25-26   26-27
                0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
                0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
                0.0%    0.6%    0.0%    0.0%    0.3%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
                0.2%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.2%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
                0.0%    0.0%    0.1%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
27-28   28-29   29-30
0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
0.1%    0.1%    0.0%
0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
0.0%    0.0%    0.0%
Figure 13. Installed Prices Reported for Host Customer Owned vs. Third Party Owned PV Systems
Residential & Commercial PV installed in 2011
Units: 2011$/W

                                                            ≤10 kW
                                    Host Owned            TPO-Retained           TPO-Excluded
         Median Value                  $6.2                  $6.0                    $8.0
         20th percentile               $5.2                  $5.1                    $8.0
         80th percentile               $7.6                  $6.9                    $8.0

   Notes: TPO-Excluded refers to third party owned systems for which reported installed prices were deemed likely
   those systems are excluded from all other figures in this report. No percentile bands are shown for TPO-Excluded system
   median values are identical within each size range.
Owned PV Systems




                                       10-100 kW                                        >100 kW
                Host Owned            TPO-Retained          TPO-Excluded   Host Owned
                   $5.6                   $5.8                  $8.0          $4.9
                   $4.8                   $5.0                  $8.0          $4.2
                   $6.6                   $7.4                  $8.0          $6.1

talled prices were deemed likely to represent an appraised value;
e shown for TPO-Excluded systems, as the percentile values and
  >100 kW
TPO-Retained   TPO-Excluded
    $4.8           $7.0
    $4.3           $7.0
    $5.9           $7.0
14. Installed Price of Residential & Commercial PV According to System Size (All Sizes)
Residential & Commercial PV installed in 2011
Units: 2011$/W


                               Median      20th Percentile 80th Percentile
       System Size Range
                           Installed Price Installed Price Installed Price

             ≤2 kW              7.7             5.8             10.0
             2-5 kW             6.4             5.4              7.9
            5-10 kW             5.8             5.0              6.9
            10-30 kW            5.7             4.9              6.7
           30-100 kW            5.4             4.6              6.7
          100-250 kW            5.1             4.3              6.1
          250-500 kW            4.9             4.2              6.2
         500-1000 kW            4.8             4.0              6.1
           >1000 kW             4.5             3.9              5.5
Figure 15. Installed Price of Residential & Commercial PV According to System Size (≤10 kW)
Residential & Commercial PV installed in 2011
Units: 2011$/W


                               Median      20th Percentile 80th Percentile
       System Size Range
                           Installed Price Installed Price Installed Price

            ≤1 kW               7.2             5.7             11.4
            1-2 kW              7.7             5.9             10.0
            2-3 kW              6.6             5.5              9.2
            3-4 kW              6.4             5.5              7.8
            4-5 kW              6.2             5.2              7.4
            5-6 kW              5.9             5.0              7.1
            6-7 kW              5.8             5.0              6.8
            7-8 kW              5.8             5.0              6.8
            8-9 kW              5.7             4.9              6.8
           9-10 kW              5.7             5.0              6.7
Figure 16. Installed Price of Residential & Commercial PV Systems by State (≤10 kW Systems)
Systems installed in 2011
Units: 2011$/W

        State      Median Installed Price   20th Percentile Installed Price
         TX                $4.9                         $4.2
         AZ                $5.2                         $4.6
         NV                $5.4                         $4.4
         NH                $5.5                         $4.7
         FL                $5.9                         $5.2
         VT                $5.9                         $4.8
         NJ                $5.9                         $5.1
         UT                $5.9                         $4.2
         PA                $6.0                         $5.2
         OR                $6.0                         $5.4
        MA                 $6.1                         $5.1
        MD                 $6.1                         $5.3
        NM                 $6.1                         $5.2
         NY                $6.3                         $5.4
         CT                $6.3                         $5.5
         CA                $6.4                         $5.4
         NC                $6.6                         $5.5
         AR                $6.7                         $5.2
         IL                $6.8                         $5.6
         DC                $7.6                         $4.9

    Notes: Median installed prices are shown only if 15 or more observations were available for a given state.
Systems by State (≤10 kW Systems)




            80th Percentile Installed Price
                        $6.6
                        $6.9
                        $6.7
                        $6.7
                        $6.0
                        $7.4
                        $6.7
                        $7.9
                        $6.8
                        $7.3
                        $7.2
                        $6.8
                        $7.4
                        $7.5
                        $7.3
                        $7.8
                        $8.5
                        $8.1
                        $7.7
                       $10.6

e observations were available for a given state.
Figure 17. Installed Price of Residential & Commercial PV Systems by State (10-100 kW Systems)
Systems installed in 2011
Units: 2011$/W

        State      Median Installed Price   20th Percentile Installed Price
         FL                $5.0                         $4.1
         NV                $5.0                         $4.3
         AZ                $5.0                         $4.4
         NC                $5.1                         $4.6
        MD                 $5.4                         $4.9
         PA                $5.5                         $4.8
         NJ                $5.5                         $4.9
        NM                 $5.7                         $4.9
         OR                $5.7                         $5.1
         VT                $5.8                         $5.1
         CA                $5.9                         $5.1
        MA                 $5.9                         $5.0
         CT                $6.1                         $5.4
         OH                $6.3                         $5.9
         NY                $6.6                         $5.5
         TX                $7.2                         $5.0

    Notes: Median installed prices are shown only if 15 or more observations were available for a given state.
Systems by State (10-100 kW Systems)




            80th Percentile Installed Price
                        $5.7
                        $6.0
                        $6.2
                        $6.1
                        $6.0
                        $6.2
                        $6.4
                        $6.8
                        $6.9
                        $7.0
                        $6.9
                        $7.0
                        $7.0
                        $7.0
                        $7.8
                       $10.1

e observations were available for a given state.
Figure 18. Installed Price of Residential & Commercial PV Systems by State (>100 kW Systems)
Systems installed in 2011
Units: 2011$/W

        State      Median Installed Price   20th Percentile Installed Price
         PA                $4.5                         $4.0
         NV                $4.7                         $4.3
         NJ                $4.8                         $4.1
         CA                $4.9                         $4.1
         NC                $5.0                         $4.2
        MA                 $5.0                         $4.3
         AZ                $6.2                         $4.8

    Notes: Median installed prices are shown only if 15 or more observations were available for a given state.
Systems by State (>100 kW Systems)




            80th Percentile Installed Price
                        $5.0
                        $6.1
                        $5.8
                        $6.1
                        $6.0
                        $5.7
                        $8.0

e observations were available for a given state.
Figure 19. Comparison of the Installed Price for Small Residential PV Systems in 2011 across Major National
Units: 2011$/W


                      Installed Price of
                      Small Residential       Cumulative Grid-
                        PV System in        Connected PV Capacity
    Country           2011 (2011$/W)         through 2011 (GW)
    Germany                   3.4                      24.8
    Italy                     4.5                      12.8
    Japan                     6.5                       4.9
    U.S.                      6.0                       3.8
    France                    5.4                       2.8
    Australia                 4.0                       1.3

    Notes: U.S. data represent the median price of 2-5 kW residential systems installed in 2011, and unlike
    other figures presented in this report, exclude sales tax. All other installed price data represent the
    reported “turnkey price of typical PV applications” for the particular size range shown (Castello et al.
    2012, Durand 2012, Watt et al. 2012, Wissing 2012, Yamada and Ikki 2012). Cumulative installed capacity
    data derive from REN21 (2012).

    Castello, S., A. De Lillo, S. Guastella, and F. Paletta. 2012. National Survey Report of PV Power Applications in Italy 20
    REN21. 2012. Renewables 2012 Global Status Report. Paris: REN21 Secretariat.
    Watt, M., R. Passey, and W. Johnston. 2012. PV in Australia. Paris, France: International Energy Agency.
    Wissing, L. 2012. National Survey Report of PV Power Applications in Germany 2011. Paris, France: International Ener
    Yamada, H. and O. Ikki. 2012. National Survey Report of PV Power Applications in Japan 2011. Paris, France: Internati
n 2011 across Major National Markets (Pre-Sales Tax/VAT)




PV Power Applications in Italy 2011. Paris, France: International Energy Agency.

nal Energy Agency.
 . Paris, France: International Energy Agency.
 pan 2011. Paris, France: International Energy Agency.
Figure 20. Installed Price of Residential & Commercial U.S. PV Systems Installed in 2011 and German System
Units: 2011$/W

                       US Systems Installed in 2011       German Systems Quoted in 2011
      <= 10 kW                    $5.8                                $3.4
      10-100 kW                   $5.4                                $3.1
      > 100 kW                    $4.7                                $2.6


    Notes: This figure relies upon price quotes for 5,729 individual German PV systems, obtained by EuPD through
    its quarterly survey of German installers and provided to LBNL (EuPD 2012).

    EuPD. 2012. Personal communication (price quotes collected by EuPD via quarterly surveys of German PV installers).
2011 and German Systems Quoted in 2011 (Pre-Sales Tax/VAT)




s of German PV installers).
Figure 21. Installed Price Variation across Host Customer Sectors
Residential & Commerical PV installed in 2011
Units: 2011$/W

                      Customer Sector       Median Installed Price   20th Percentile Installed Price
                  Res.                              $6.0                          $5.0
       5-10 kW    Com.                              $6.0                          $5.0
                  Tax-Exempt                        $6.4                          $5.2
                  Res.                              $5.8                          $4.9
      10-100 kW   Com.                              $6.0                          $4.8
                  Tax-Exempt                        $6.2                          $4.8
                  Com.                              $5.2                          $4.1
      >100 kW
                  Tax-Exempt                        $5.5                          $4.5
80th Percentile Installed Price
             $6.9
             $6.9
             $7.4
             $6.6
             $6.9
             $7.0
             $6.0
             $6.3
Figure 22. Installed Price of BIPV vs. Rack-Mounted PV Systems
Residential & Commercial PV Installed in 2011 (excluding ground-mounted and tracking systems)
Units: 2011$/W

                     Customer Sector         Median Installed Price    20th Percentile Installed Price
                  Rack-mounted                       $6.1                           $5.1
       5-10 kW
                  BIPV                               $6.1                           $5.2
                  Rack-mounted                       $5.6                           $4.8
      10-100 kW
                  BIPV                               $6.0                           $4.9
                  Rack-mounted                       $4.9                           $4.2
      >100 kW
                  BIPV                               $4.6                           $4.0
80th Percentile Installed Price
             $7.5
             $8.0
             $6.6
             $8.1
             $6.1
             $5.4
Figure 23. Installed Price of Residential Retrofit vs. New Construction
2-3 kW Systems Installed in 2011; CA CSI and NSHP Programs
Units: 2011$/W

                                                                 Median Installed
                                                                      Price
          Residential Retrofit      All Systems (Rack-Mounted)        $7.2
                                           All Systems                 $7.7
     Residential New Construction         Rack-Mounted                 $7.3
                                              BIPV                     $8.3
20th Percentile   80th Percentile
Installed Price   Installed Price
     $5.9              $10.4
     $7.1              $8.5
     $7.0              $7.7
     $7.3              $8.8
Figure 24. Installed Price of Crystalline vs. Thin-Film Residential & Commercial Systems
Installed in 2011 and Excluding BIPV and Tracking Systems
Units: 2011$/W


                                Crystalline or   Median Installed 20th Percentile   80th Percentile
               Size Range
                                 Thin-Film            Price       Installed Price   Installed Price

                              Crystalline             $6.1              $5.1             $7.5
                 ≤ 10 kW
                              Thin-Film               $5.9              $4.8             $6.8
                              Crystalline             $5.6              $4.8             $6.6
               10-100 kW
                              Thin-Film               $6.3              $5.2             $8.0
                              Crystalline             $4.9              $4.2             $6.1
                >100 kW
                              Thin-Film               $5.2              $3.8             $6.4




             Notes: The figure is derived from those systems for which module technology type could
             be readily determined from module manufacturer and model data provided by PV
             incentive program administrators.
Figure 25. Installed Price Variation with Module Efficiency
Residential & Commercial PV Installed in 2011 (excluding BIPV and tracking systems)
Units: 2011$/W


                                                   Median      20th Percentile   80th Percentile
                                 Efficiency
                                               Installed Price Installed Price   Installed Price

                              ≤12%                  $6.4            $5.8              $7.4
                              12-13%                $6.1            $5.3              $7.5
                              13-14%                $6.2            $5.3              $8.0
                              14-15%                $5.9            $5.0              $7.0
                  ≤10 kW
                              15-16%                $4.8            $4.2              $6.2
                              16-17%                $7.2            $6.3              $8.1
                              17-18%                $6.7            $6.0              $7.6
                              >18%                  $6.9            $6.0              $8.0
                              ≤12%                  $6.2            $4.7              $7.8
                              12-13%                $5.8            $4.7              $6.8
                              13-14%                $5.7            $5.0              $6.7
                              14-15%                $5.5            $4.8              $6.4
                10-100 kW
                              15-16%                $5.4            $4.8              $5.9
                              16-17%                $6.5            $5.9              $7.2
                              17-18%                $6.2            $5.6              $7.1
                              >18%                  $6.2            $5.6              $7.0



              Notes: The figure is derived from those systems for which rated module efficiency
              could be readily determined from module manufacturer and model data provided by
              PV incentive program administrators.
Figure 26. Installed Price According to Mounting Location and Use of Tracking Equipment
Residential & Commercial PV Installed in 2011 (excluding BIPV)

                Customer Sector      Median Installed Price    20th Percentile Installed Price
               Roof Fixed                    $5.9                           $5.0
      5-10 kW Ground Fixed                   $6.3                           $5.3
               Ground Tracking               $8.0                           $7.0
               Roof Fixed                    $5.5                           $4.8
     10-100 kW Ground Fixed                  $5.5                           $5.0
               Ground Tracking               $7.0                           $6.0
               Roof Fixed                    $4.7                           $4.1
      > 100 kW Ground Fixed                  $5.1                           $4.3
               Ground Tracking               $4.9                           $4.3


    Notes: The figure is derived from those systems for which data were available indicating whether or not the system is roo
    or ground-mounted and whether tracking equipment is used.
acking Equipment


              80th Percentile Installed Price
                           $6.9
                           $7.5
                           $8.6
                           $6.5
                           $6.1
                           $8.0
                           $5.7
                           $6.1
                           $5.3


ndicating whether or not the system is roof-
Figure 27. State/Utility Cash Incentives for Residential & Commercial PV
Residential & Commercial PV
Units: 2011$/W

                                        Pre-Tax Rebate or PBI
     Installation      ≤ 10 kW               10-100 kW              > 100 kW
        Year        (Median Value)         (Median Value)         (Median Value)
        1998              3.4                     *                     *
        1999              3.3                     *                     *
        2000              3.2                     *                     *
        2001              4.8                    4.8                    *
        2002              4.7                    4.7                   6.6
        2003              4.1                    4.3                   4.1
        2004              3.8                    3.8                   4.0
        2005              3.0                    3.4                   4.0
        2006              2.6                    2.7                   3.7
        2007              2.4                    2.5                   2.7
        2008              2.1                    2.2                   2.3
        2009              1.8                    1.9                   2.2
        2010              1.6                    1.6                   1.5
        2011              0.9                    1.0                   1.2



    Notes: The figure depicts the pre-tax value of rebates and PBI payments
    provided through state/utility PV incentive programs, excluding programs that
    provide incentives solely in the form of ongoing SREC payments over time. The
    high median incentive for >100 systems in 2002 reflects the large percentage of
    systems that received an incentive through LADWP’s PV incentive program,
    which provided especially lucrative incentives in that year. Results are excluded
    if fewer than 15 observations are available.
Figure 31. Installed Price of Small Utility-Scale PV vs. Large Commercial Rooftop PV
2-10 MW Systems Installed in 2011
Units: 2011$/W
                                                                              20th Percentile Installed
                                                   Median Installed Price
                                                                                       Price
     Ground-Mounted, Fixed-Tilt Utility Scale PV                       $3.9                          $3.4
     Roof-Mounted Commercial PV                                        $4.0                          $3.8
80th Percentile Installed
         Price
                       $4.5
                       $4.8

				
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