Multimedia is any combination of text,
photographs, graphic art, sound, animation, and
video elements delivered to you by computer or
other electronic or digitally manipulated means.
Multimedia may be broadly divided into linear and
Linear active content progresses without any
navigational control for the viewer such as a cinema
Non-linear content offers user interactivity to control
progress as used with a computer game or used in
self-paced computer based training.
Elements of Multimedia
• a processor, typically a PC or Workstation
• a variety of methods by which the user can
interact with the system, such as, keyboard,
mouse, joystick or touch screen
• a screen with high resolution that can display
high quality images, moving videos, graphics and
• a microphone
• Storage devices
Applications of Multimedia
• Education and Training:- CBT (Computer based training) courses
• Information and Sales:- point-of-sale systems and point-of-
information systems also known as Kiosks.
POI- used to inform the public about the facilities offered by the
organizations such as art galleries, museums, parks, hotels and
POS- used to support sales staff, encourage brand awareness, boost
sales and gives information about the product in malls and also
have card swipe facility
• Communications:- Video-conferencing, to provide better
communications between persons separated by space and time
who need to work together on common projects
• Medicine:- MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), CT scans
Problems with Multimedia
• Investment costs
• Technical barriers
• Social and psychological barriers
• Legal problems
Multimedia development functions
Input Development Output
Input subsystem functions
Source Capture Index Data Storage
Compress Multimedia Store
Output processing subsystems
Process Recorder Output
The Multimedia PC
"Multimedia PC (MPC)" is a trademark of the Multimedia PC
Marketing Council, and describes a PC that meets a certain
minimum specification for multimedia delivery.
MPC Level 1
• The first MPC minimum standard, set in 1991, was:
• 16 MHz 386SX CPU
• 2 MB RAM, 30 MB hard disk
• 16-color, 640×480 video display
• 1x (single speed) CD-ROM drive using no more than 40% of CPU to
read, with < 1 second seek time
• 8-bit sound, Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) playback
specification for encoding, storing, synchronizing, and transmitting
the musical performance and control data of electronic musical
• Windows 3.0 with Multimedia Extensions.
MPC Level 2
• In 1993, an MPC Level 2 minimum standard was announced:
• 25 MHz 486SX CPU
• 4 MB RAM
• 160 MB hard disk
• 16-bit color, 640×480 VGA video card
• 2x (double speed) CD-ROM drive using no more than 40% of CPU to
read at 1x, with < 400 ms seek time
• 16-bit sound, MIDI playback.
• Windows 3.0 with Multimedia Extensions, or Windows 3.1.
MPC Level 3
• In 1996, MPC Level 3 was announced:
• 75 MHz Pentium CPU
• 8 MB RAM
• 540 MB hard disk
• Video system that can show 352×240 at 30 frames per second, 16-
• MPEG-1 hardware or software video playback
• 4x CD-ROM drive using no more than 40% of CPU to read, with <
250 ms seek time
• Sound card outputting 44 kHz, 16-bit "CD quality" sound
• Windows 3.1 or Windows 95
• IBM:- introduced a first model to have multimedia features named
- a range of audio and video adapters for capture and playback
- a desktop conferencing package
- a suite of kiosks and a touchscreen
- transactional features (card reader)
- a speech server series that analyses the spoken words
• Apple:- introduced Macintosh (Mac)
- built-in speakers
- supports grey scale or colour images and animations
- supports voice recognition, sound generation
- CD-ROM Drive that supports Photo CD, is a system designed by
Kodak for digitizing and storing photos in CD
• UNIX workstations:- particularly suitable for applications that
combined advanced 2D and 3D graphics.
Sun:- was the first of the UNIX workstations, named as
- system runs Solaris, operating system based on UNIX.
- supports 16-bit audio I/O and a connection to the Integrated
Services Digital Network (ISDN), a system that carries voice, image
and data over two telephone lines.
- CD-ROM drive that supports CD-ROM XA that combines
compressed audio, visual and computer data and allowing all to be
- Video camera can be used.
Silicon Graphics:- introduced Indy workstation in 1993
- supports IRIX, operating system comes from Unix family
- supports ISDN
- having color digital camera and includes 3D stereo glasses.
• Microsoft Windows:- support for multimedia within Windows is
provided by a range of elements:
- Object Linking and Embedding (OLE), let the users insert
multimedia elements into software programs.
- Media Command Interface, allows Windows-compatible
applications to control multimedia devices such as CD-ROM drives,
audio and animation players.
- Audio Video Interleaved (AVI), a file format for digital video.
- Video, software based on AVI file format to capture and digitizing
• Multimedia Presentation Manager/2:- introduced by IBM to
- supports a variety of formats for image and audio files.
- data streaming and synchronization for the transfer of larger
amount of data from one device to another.
• Quick Time:- launched by Apple as a main competitor to Video for
- an open software architecture that integrates dynamic data such as
sound, video and animation.
- supports Windows XP, Windows vista, Windows 7, Mac OS X lion
- QuickTime consists of two major subsystems: the Movie Toolbox
and the Image Compression Manager. The Movie Toolbox consists
of a general API, application program interface, is a set of routines,
protocols, and tools for building software applications for handling
time-based data, while the Image Compression Manager provides
services for dealing with compressed raster data as produced by
video and photo codec.
• Solaris Live:- multimedia environment for Sun’s workstations
- an imaging library and APIs to support the capture, display,
compression, decompression, transformation of videos and images
- libraries for 2D and 3D graphics applications.
• Authorware Professional
- from Macromedia, is a cross-platform package one non-
programming designer can even do the entire job alone.
- allows the developer to edit presentations on either Macintosh or
- can display and erase graphics, move or animate objects, play AVI
and Quick Time digital movies as well as WAV sound files, and
access videodisk and videotape players.
• MacroMedia Director
- runs on Mac and Windows, created by Macromedia—now part of
- tool for creating professional multimedia presentations, animations,
interactive applications and movies
- supports an interactive scripting language called Lingo used for
regular desktop applications, interactive kiosks
- software designed by Apple and thus only runs on Macintosh, the
first successful hypermedia systems before the World Wide Web.
- User can stores information- a mixture of text, graphics and sound
- HyperCard also features HyperTalk, a programming language for
manipulating data and the user interface or Hypermedia
- software given by AimTech Corp, uses a visual programming
approach rather than scripting language to define the interaction
and the flow of control
- helps in creating different icons for presentation and interaction
- product by IBM, for PCs under DOS, designed to work with its
audio and video adapters
- used by teachers and courseware developers to create interactive
applications for training and education
• Storyboard Live!
- given by IBM, use to develop presentations, kiosks applications and
- consists of five modules, that are:-
Electronic Presentations, creates the storyline for the presentation.
Picture Maker, used to edit images and graphics.
Story Editor to include video from camera or other source.
Picture Taker to capture and import screen images.
Story Teller to play back the presentations.
• Multimedia Toolbook
- software designed by Asymetrix is a visual programming system,
compatible to run on Windows, used to provide animations and full
motion video editing
- supports a scripting language called OpenScript, enables you to
add program control to your application.
- ScriptX is a multimedia-oriented development environment
created in 1990 by Kaleida Labs, works across multiple hardware
platforms and operating systems.
- Unlike the authoring packages such as Macromedia Director,
ScriptX is not an authoring tool for creating multimedia titles,
although it does come with a built-in authoring tool.
- it is a general-purpose, object-oriented, multiplatform
development environment that includes a dynamic language and a
- ScriptX has three major components: the Kaleida Media Player, the
ScriptX Language Kit, and application development and authoring
- Developers can now create a single application for the Kaleida
Media Player instead of targeting specific operating systems like
Mac OS and Microsoft Windows.
- Standard Generalized Markup Language is an ISO-standard
technology for defining generalized markup languages for
- This standard covers the contents of a document and its logical
structure in terms of headers and paragraphs.
- HTML, XHTML, and XML are all examples of SGML-based languages.
- SGML is based on Document type Definitions (DTDs)
- itself does not specify any particular formatting; rather, it specifies
the rules for tagging elements.
- SGML is used widely to manage large documents that are subject to
frequent revisions and need to be printed in different formats.