Gymnastics by dominic.cecilia


									                                                  Aug 2012


          INTERMEDIATE 2
        Analysis and Development of Performance
                      Course Notes

                Skills and Techniques


Name:         ____________________________

Teacher:      ____________________________

Cycle of Analysis…………………………………………………….. 3

Information Sheets………………………………………………… 4

     Skill Classification…………………………………………….. 5
     Model / Skilled Performer……………………………………. 7

Gathering Information…………………………………………….. 9

     Importance of Gathering Information………………………. 10
     Methods of Gathering Information………………………….. 11
     Personal Reflection Sheet…………………………………… 13
     Quality EvaluationSheet………………………………………14
     Skills Repertoire Sheet……………………………………… 15
     PAR Sheet…………………………………………………….. 18
     Appropriateness of Methods………………………………… 19

Analysing Information…..…….…………………………………... 20

     Strengths and Weaknesses…………………………………. 21
     Development Needs…………………………………………..22

Developing Performance…………………………………………. 23

     Stages of Learning………………………………………........ 24
     Methods of Practice………………………………………….. 25
     Principles of Effective Practice……………………………… 28
     Programme of Work………………………………………….. 32
     Motivation, Concentration and Feedback………………….. 36

Monitoring and Evaluating……………………………………….. 38

Homework Questions……………………………………………….. 42

Past Paper Questions………………………………………………..45

Study Checklist……………………………………………………….49

                       Cycle of Analysis


     MONITOR /                                          ANALYSE


1.     I GATHER INFORMATION on my performance.

2.     I ANALYSE the results to identify my strengths and

3.     I create a programme of work to DEVELOP my performance.

4.     I MONITOR and EVALUATE my programme of work - this
       helps me to find out if my performance is improving.


                            Skill Classification
Skills are classified by different criteria. Classifying a skill according to these
different criteria is particularly helpful in determining which types of practice
are most likely to improve a specific skill.

Open and Closed Skills

Skills exist on a continuum (a line) between open and closed. Look at the
spectrum below:

Closed                                                                        Open

Gymnastics            Hockey                Basketball                   Football
Forwards Roll         Penalty               Lay-up                       Volley

With closed skills, the performer is in total control of the movement(s).
He/she decides when to begin the skill and there is a stable, unchanging
environment. There is no variation in the way the movement is performed. For
example, when performing a forward roll:

   You are in control of when you perform the skill
   The mat is always the same size
   There is no change in environment ie. No wind, rain etc

Open skills have to be adapted to meet the needs of the changing
environment. The performer has to learn various techniques in order to meet
the demands of the situation. For example, when performing a jump in
gymnastics the following factors can vary:

   The level of the apparatus (low, medium, high)
   Your landing position from previous skill if in a sequence

The main features of open and closed skills are as follows:

Closed Skills                              Open skills
Same judgments                             Differing judgements
Performer controls pacing                  No control of pacing
Stable environment                         Changing environment
Same movement patterns                     Movement patterns adapted

Simple and Complex Skills

Skills are also either predominantly simple or complex.

Simple skills are relatively straightforward to learn and require little decision -
making. For example, a forward roll in gymnastics is relatively simple as it
involves the straightforward repetition of a set of movements with a relatively
low level of coordination and decision - making.

In gymnastics a handstand into forward roll is a complex skill. The skill is
made up of many different parts (subroutines). The skill requires control and
timing in order to link the parts of the skill together effectively so that it
appears smooth. Fluency and refinement are also important for ‘aesthetic’
type activities such as gymnastics where the skill has to ‘look good’.

Below is an outline of the differences between simple and complex skills.

Simple                                     Complex
Few movements                              Many Movements
Little coordination needed                 Coordination vital
Few judgements made                        Many judgements made
Simple order of movements e.g. short       Complicated order of movements e.g.
serve                                      overhead backhand drop shot

Discrete or Continuous Skills

Skills exist on a continuum between discrete/serial and continuous.

In gymnastics a forward roll is an example of a discrete skill. This skill has a
clear beginning and ends as the performer makes decisions about the next
stage of his or her sequence.

Continuous skills are characterised by their ongoing nature and for having
repetitive patterns. Leaping, running and jumping are examples of continuous

                Model / Skilled Performer
Skill describes the purpose of linked sequences of movements.

Technique is a way of executing a skill.

What makes a skilled performance?

A model performer is an individual who can demonstrate a skilled
performance. Comparing your performance with a model/skilled
performer is a good way to see what parts of your performance
you can improve.

Gymnastics Example

Show fluent and controlled movements
The performer demonstrates movements in body shape, changes
in direction, free flowing movements, light sustained movements,
good body tension, finishing touches (eg poise, hand position, feet
etc). They link skills together smoothly and fluently within a
sequence. The performer shows movement skills which are fluent
and controlled using a minimal amount of energy.

Select correct options
The performer shows an ability to select the best skill in terms of
apparatus set-up. They should also select the correct order of skills
so that they can be linked together smoothly and fluently in a

Use skills which reflect experience and ability
Performers should know his/her own strengths and weaknesses.
For example, a handstand into forward roll requires precise timing
and control to execute the skill effectively – a beginner would find
this difficult and so would perform a basic skill such as a forward

Features of a Skilled/Model Performer:

           Control
           Fluency
           Presentation
           Good body tension
           Variety of skills
           Quality in their movements
           Motivated
           Focused
           High skill level
           Good linking skills

Who are my model performers?
 Video;
 Classmate;
 Teacher.

Benefits of watching a skilled/ model performance

 Shows me how to improve by giving me a clear picture of what I
  am trying to achieve;

 Allows me to break skills down into the preparation, action and
  recovery stages;

 Helps me construct observation sheets, such as my Skill
  Repertoire and PAR sheets;

 It allows me to compare my performance against specific

 Allows me to identify my strengths and weaknesses;

 Allows me to set targets for my programme of work;

 Model performers helps to motivate me to copy them;

 Show a wide range of skills which can inspire me to try to

 Helps improve feedback.


Why should I gather information on my performance?

 Allows me to identify my strengths / weaknesses:
     o then I can focus on my weakness.
  Example -

 Allows me to make comparisons:
     o to a model/skilled performer.
  Example -

 Allows me to plan my programme of work so it:
     o is focused on my weakness;
     o is set at the appropriate level of difficulty;
     o has appropriate targets.
  Example -

 Gives me a permanent record:
     o set rules / procedures for each method;
     o they can be accurately repeated;
     o they can be used for comparison when monitoring /
       evaluating later.
  Example -

 Can motivate me to improve
  Example -

               Gathering Information (NAB Q1)
Before we design a programme of work it is essential that we gather
information on our performance using the following methods:

      Personal Reflection Sheet              Quality Evaluation Sheet

         Skill Repertoire Sheet                        PAR Sheet

                              Video Analysis

                         Model/Skilled Performer

              Gathering Information (NAB Q1)
              Description of Different Methods

Model/Skilled Performer

Video Analysis

Skill Repertoire Sheet

Quality Evaluation Sheet

Personal Reflection Sheet

PAR Sheet


To be completed by myself based on my own thoughts and feelings.


                                 Good           Ok                Poor
        Do I Have:-
                             1          2   1        2        1          2

1. At least 7 skills

2. Changes in body shape

3. Changes in direction

4. Balances

5. Sudden explosive

6. Light sustained

7. Good body tension

8. Good linking skills

9. Finishing touches



                                 Good           Ok                Poor
  Performance Quality
                             1          2   1        2        1          2
1. Steady Balance (5 sec)

2. Controlled tuck into
   forward roll

3. Finish roll balanced

4.Legs straight in
   shoulder stand

5. Control into half split

6. Straight limbs and wide
   spread in cartwheel

7. Hold handstand straight

8.Controlled drop into
  forward roll

9. Strong push to stand

10. Flight in round off

11.Two foot landing in

12. Good linking skills

13. Changes in direction

14. Finishing touches


      To be completed by my classmate while they observe my performance, or by
      myself watching a video of my own performance.


                                       Good              Ok                Poor
                                   1          2      1        2        1          2

1. Arabesque

2. Forward roll

3. Back to shoulder stand

4. Back diagonally to half split

5. Cartwheel on diagonal

6. Handstand into forward roll

7. Running round-off




                  FOCUSING ON A WEAK SKILL

Now that we have gathered initial data, we are going to focus on a specific
skill. You can do this by identifying a weak skill from your Skill Repertoire

Weak Skill:   ……………………………………………………

In order to construct your PAR Sheet (on next page) follow these instructions:

       Watch a model performer – video / classmate / teacher;

       Break the skill down into three phases; Preparation, Action and

       Break down each phase into further subroutines

           o You should try to identify three subroutines for each phase.

       Copy each subroutines into your PAR Sheet;

       Your PAR Sheet is now ready to use 

You will now video yourself performing the skill repeatedly. While watching
the video you can complete the PAR Sheet. You will be able to:

       View your own performance;

       Pause the video to allow you to observe particular subroutines;

       Watch in slow motion and freeze-frame which makes it easier to
        observe accurately;

       Rewind any part of the video allowing you to watch it as many times as

       Keep the video as a permanent record allowing comparisons at a later

                               PAR SHEET

  WEAK SKILL:……………………………………………
PHASE OF        Features of skilled performance   My Performance 1   My Performance 2
 ACTION                SUBROUTINES                Date:              Date:




                                                Good          Ok        Poor

                    Stand straight
 PREPARATION        Raise both arms above
                    head and lift one leg

                    Place hands on mat
                    shoulder width apart and
                    lock elbows
                    Step in and kick up
  ACTION            straight with leading leg
                    Bring other leg up to
                    meet in straight position
                    and hold balance
                    Slowly overbalance
                    maintaining straight body
                    Bend arms in control

                    Tuck head in and roll on
                    curved back
                    Push up through legs to
                    Finish in balanced
   RECOVERY         control ready to move to
                    next action in the

      Why were the methods appropriate? (NAB Q2)

 Watching a Skilled/model performer
    o gives me a clear picture of what I am trying to achieve;
    o allows me to compare my performance against it;
    o help me construct observation sheets, such as my Skill
       Repertoire and PAR sheets.
    o can motivate me to improve.

 Video analysis allowed me to:
     o watch my own performance;
     o analyse in more accurate detail using freeze-frame,
       rewind, slow-motion, etc.
     o they can be accurately repeated;
     o keep a permanent record that can be used for comparison
       to monitor / evaluate later.

 Observation sheets:
    o highlight strengths and weaknesses within my
    o have set rules / procedures for each method;
    o can be accurately repeated;
    o can be used for comparison to monitor / evaluate later.

 Video analysis and Observation sheets allow me to plan my
  programme of work so it:
     o is focused on my weakness;
     o is set at the appropriate level of difficulty;
     o has appropriate targets.

 Observation sheets completed by classmates / teacher give me
  a fair and unbiased opinion;


Identify the strengths and weaknesses of your performance:

Personal Reflection /Quality Evaluation /Skill Repertoire Sheet

1st Strength



2nd Strength



3rd Strength



1st Weakness



2nd Weakness



3rd Weakness



              DEVELOPMENT NEEDS (NAB Q4)

Identify the development needs of your weak skill using your PAR Sheet:

Weak Skill:    ___ _____________________________________

Development Need 1_______________________________________________



Development Need 2 ______________________________________________



Development Need 3 _______________________________________________



Development Need 4 ______________________________________________




Stages of Learning

1. Cognitive

At the cognitive stage of learning the performer is a beginner and has very
little experience of the activity, skill and/or technique. At this stage you find
out what the skill involves, establish the subroutines of the skill and make your
first attempts at learning each part. There is little control or fluency when
performing the skill and movement patterns are awkward and uncoordinated.
Errors are likely at this stage in learning and the performance will be

   Get a mental picture of the skill;
   Slow the movement down if possible;
   Compare with a model performer.

2. Practice

At the practice stage of learning you can perform the skill more consistently
with fewer errors. You still need to focus on the various subroutines of the
skill. At this stage you link together all the required parts of the skill.
Effective practice will reduce the number of mistakes made during

   Repeated practice, so that you become more consistent in performing the
   skill or technique successfully.
   Practice in a controlled environment
   Pressure gradually increased as you improve E.g. gradually reducing the
   amount of support given
   Builds confidence

3. Automatic

At this stage of learning the performer makes very few errors and is able to
focus on other aspects of their performance other than the skill itself. At this
stage errors are much less likely and most key parts of a skill have become
‘automatic’. Due to your higher skill level you can give closer attention to
more detailed aspects of your performance.

   Put the skill/technique you have learned into a sequence situation;
   Quality and consistency of the skill are maintained in the sequence;
   Concentrate on your ‘finishing touches’ (pointed toes, body tension)

              Methods of Practice (NAB Q6)
Six of the most common methods of practice are described below:

When developing skills and techniques you use different methods of
practice. The most common methods are:

   Gradual Build-Up
   Mini - Sequence

When developing a skill or technique and designing programmes of
work different methods of practice are used. It is important that a
performer chooses a type of practice that is appropriate to their stage of

The ladder below outlines how the various types of practice linked with
the stages of learning.

                                                   Automatic Stage
                                                   Mini - Sequence

                         Practice Stage

Cognitive Stage
Gradual Build-Up
(Partner Support)

Gradual Build Up

Gradual build-up is a useful practice method for learning complex skills. It
   breaking down a skill into smaller, simpler parts;
   practice one individual part of the skill in isolation;
   increase the complexity by adding another part of the skill;
   repeat process until you can effectively perform the entire skill;
   allows you to develop confidence whilst ensuring quality.
   ensure the performer learns in a safe environment.
For example, when trying to learn the handstand into forward roll in
gymnastics it may be best to learn in smaller stages

For example:

1. Front support position with partner lifting legs up.
2. Reverse handstand against wall.
3. Kicking up with leading leg ensuring it is straight against wall using
4. Practice handstand against wall using crash mats
5. Practice handstand using partner as supporter
6. Handstand into forward roll on crash mat
7. Handstand into forward roll using standard mats (repetition)

Repetition Practice

This method, as the name suggests, involves performing a skill repeatedly
and allows the performer to focus on specific subroutines and develop muscle
memory. You may practice very small parts of the skill or the entire skill

Mini-Sequence Practice

This is where the skill is included in a shortened sequence of skills in order to
practice linking movements. A performer needs to practice the skill within the
context of a sequence of movements. They need to be able to start the skill
balanced and finish balanced and in control in order for them to perform the
next movement in the sequence effectively.

For example:
cartwheel - handstand forward roll – round off.
I must ensure that I finish my cartwheel balanced to allow me a controlled step
in and kick up to handstand. I then must finish my handstand forward roll
balanced standing straight on two feet ready to move into my running round

Skills and Techniques                                                          26
In gymnastics we will focus on the following three methods:

                  Gradual Build-Up
                  Mini Sequence

                Methods of Practice Examples

Gradual Build Up Examples:

Repetition Practice Examples:

Mini Sequence Examples:

Skills and Techniques                                         27
                Principles of Effective Practice

The principles of effective practice give structure and progression to a
programme of work and also ensure that improvements are made over time.
There are 7 principles of effective practice:

               Intensity of Practice
               Work-to-Rest Ratio
               Achievable Progressive Stages
               Strengths and Weaknesses
               Awareness of Skilled Performer
               Clear Objectives
               Effect of Boredom and Fatigue

Intensity of Practice

The method of practice chosen must be appropriate to the stage of learning,
for example…

   Practices at the cognitive stage should be more basic and focused on
    individual subroutines of the weak skill. They should involve little or no
    pressure and movement, for example…
        o gradual build up
   Practices at the practice stage should be more game-like but still focused
    mainly on weak stroke. They should involve slightly more pressure and
    some movement, for example…
        o whole/part/whole practices
   Practices at the automatic stage should be as game-like as possible,
    while still focusing on the weak stroke. They should involve decision
    making, increased pressure, movement and combinations of strokes, for
        o mini-sequencing


   As the performer’s skill level and experience increases, the intensity of the
    practices should be increased to be more challenging

   The intensity of the practices refers to both the complexity of the practice
    itself and the work-to-rest ratio

Skills and Techniques                                                          28
                               Work-to-Rest Ratio

Practices must be planned to have appropriate periods of work and rest…

   if work periods are too long, fatigue and / or boredom could set in which
    will reduce the quality of practices and encourage bad habits in
   if work periods are too short then the subroutines would not be properly
    acquired by the performer
   if rest periods are too long then the body can begin to ‘cool down’
    increasing the risk of injury and reducing the performer’s ability to perform
    to the best of their ability
   if rest periods are too short then the performer will not recover fully,
    which would also cause a reduction in the quality of practice

For example…
 A 3 hour training session, without breaks, will tire out the individual and
   concentration, as well as the quality of the skills performed, will drop.
 A 5 minute skill session will have little or no effect on the individual’s
   acquisition or improvement of a new /weak skill.

                        Achievable Progressive Stages

As the performer’s skill level increases, it is vital that the intensity of practices
is also increased…

   If practices are progressed too slowly then boredom can develop as the
    level of intensity will be too low for the performer
   If practices are progressed too quickly then the quality will decrease as
    the level of intensity will be too high for the performer

For example…
 Once a performer demonstrates control, fluency and consistency during a
   shadow practice they should progress to a slightly more complex shadow
   practice or change to a simple feed practice, before boredom develops
 However, if the performer progressed directly from shadow practices to
   continuous rally practices then the intensity would be too high, there would
   be no control, fluency or consistency and the quality would decrease

Skills and Techniques                                                              29
                          Strengths and Weaknesses

Practices should be focused on improving your weak stroke…

   At the cognitive stage of learning practices should focus on individual
    subroutines with the strokes that are particularly weak
   At the practice stage of learning the subroutines performed together but
    practices are still focused on execution of the weak stroke
   At the automatic stage practices relate to the weak stroke, but focus more
    on applying the stroke with game-like situations

   During some practices it is also useful to be aware of strengths in order to
    allow the performer to remain focused on the weak stroke, for example…
        o During combination rally practices it would be appropriate to design
           a pattern of strokes that includes the performer’s stronger strokes
           combined with their weak stroke. This mean that they can still focus
           on the weak stroke, not worrying about how to perform the other

                        Awareness of Skilled Performer

During all practices it is vital to ensure that the stroke and each individual
subroutine is error free and being performed with control, fluency and
 Comparisons to the skilled performer allow this
 Feedback is essential to enable you to make comparisons
 The focus must be on the quality of practice, rather than quantity

For example,
 During a shadow practice it is important that some sort of external
   feedback is received in order to correct any errors in performance. This
   could be verbal feedback from a classmate / teacher or visual feedback
   using video delay. The feedback would be based in comparisons between
   the performer and the skilled performer – a P.A.R. sheet could also be

Skills and Techniques                                                            30
                               Clear Objectives

Setting clear objectives can help with motivation and also allows accurate
monitoring / evaluating. Objectives should be S.M.A.R.T. (see course

For example…
 Short term objectives could be…
      o ‘by the end of week two my programme of work, to improve my
         positioning and turn side in preparation for the high’
      o ‘by week three of my programme of work, to improve my Poole Test
         score by 4 points’
 Long term objectives could be…
      o ‘by the end of my programme of work, to improve my high clear,
         specifically the four weakest subroutines on my PAR sheet’
      o ‘to get as high a grade as possible in Higher PE’

                        Effect of Boredom and Fatigue

   If the method of practice is…
         o too high an intensity then fatigue can develop
         o too low an intensity then boredom can develop
   In both cases, the performer is likely to have many errors in their
    subroutines, develop bad habits and skill development will affected

For example…
 If a performer carried out a combination practice for ten minutes without a
   break, the quality of the skill and subroutines would drop. Appropriate
   work-to-rest ratios would have to be introduced to ensure that the intensity
   was high enough to challenge the performer, but low enough to allow the
   performer to carry out the practice with equality.
 If a performer who was at the practice stage of learning was carrying out a
   feed practice that was more suitable to the cognitive stage they would
   become bored and lose interest. A more suitable practice for that stage of
   learning would need to be used, such as a continuous rally practice.

Skills and Techniques                                                        31
                    Programme of Work (NAB Q8)
   I must consider the stages of learning, methods of practice and
   principles of effective practice in order to ensure my programme of
   work is effective.

   Skills and Techniques                                            32
                 Programme of Work (NAB Q8)
I must consider the stages of learning, methods of practice and principles of
effective practice in order to ensure my programme of work is effective.

I will train twice per week working on my skill and whole performance.

Each session will start with a warm-up including a run and a stretching routine
using both static and dynamic stretches of all major muscle groups and joints.

An alternative activity is used to practice other skills within the sequence and
to prevent boredom setting in.

Sessions 1 and 2

Gradual Build Up            Working on the handstand phase below.

Repetition                  Front support position to work on locking arms.
                            Partner lifts legs to increase pressure

                            Kicking up with leading leg ensuring it is straight.
                            Use a crash mat against the wall for support.

                            Bringing up the second leg alongside the first one.
                            and hold. Use a crash mat against the wall for

Alternative Activity        Work on improving the arabesque into forward roll
                            or develop it into a more complex balance.

Whole Sequence              Focusing on changes of direction.

Sessions 3 and 4

Once achieved the handstand phase move on to the drop down into forward

Gradual Build Up            Use a crash mat to give added support and
                            confidence so that you don’t hurt yourself. Perform
                            the handstand on the floor mat and then drop
                            down into forward roll on the crash mat.

                            Repeat previous practice on double roller mats
                            then remove one mat to allow you to perform this
                            successfully on a single floor mat.

Skills and Techniques                                                              33
Alternative Activity       Work on body position in shoulder stand to
                           backward roll ensuring legs are straight and you
                           are high on your shoulders.
                           Try whole routine making sure there is quality in
                           each skill.

Whole Sequence             Focusing on the quality of each skill.

Sessions 5 and 6

Once you have achieved the handstand forward roll it has to be put into

Mini Sequence              Put a skill on either side of the handstand forward
                           roll so that there is flow in and out of the movement
                           and puts the skill back into the whole performance.

                           E.g. At the end of the cartwheel go straight into the
                           handstand/forward roll and as you stand up from
                           this go straight into the running round off.

Alternative Activity       Work on the quality of the cartwheel and the
                           running round off.

Whole Sequence             Focusing on direction, quality of movement and

Skills and Techniques                                                          34
Adapting my Programme of Work (NAB Q10)
In order for me to continue to improve my performance I had to
regularly adapt and progress my programme of work, for

   To make programme of work less challenging:

        Minimise movement involved

        Decrease work time

        Increase rest time

        Decrease number of skills involved

        Decrease level of pressure

        Use a simpler practice/routine

   To make programme of work more challenging:

        Adding movement

        Increase work time

        Decrease rest time

        Increase number of skills involved

        Increase level of pressure

        Use a more complex practice/routine

Skills and Techniques                                            35
Motivation is your level of desire to succeed. In order to effectively
improve your performance you must be motivated. There are two
main types of motivation; internal and external.

                Internal                         External

     Internal motivation is a        Motivation to be involved in an
 performer’s individual level of     activity for reasons other than
desire to succeed. How much a           simply participation, for
 performer wants to improve or       example, for a prize / reward /
    succeed for themselves                      grade / etc

In sport, most people have a combination of both internal and
external motivation. A useful way to maintain your motivation for
an activity is to use target setting. Setting SMART targets can help
keep you motivated in order to achieve the desired level of

Concentration is the ability of your mind to focus on the task in
hand. For improvement to be made you must have high levels of
concentration during practice.

To perform at a high level you need to pay part attention to some
cues and full attention to others. In most activities you cannot pay
full attention all the time. Therefore it is important that performers
heighten their level of concentration at particular times during the
performance. This is especially the case in activities that have
very pronounced start/stop patterns such as table tennis.

Skills and Techniques                                                36
Feedback describes information you collect about your
performance. It plays an important role in skill learning and
development. The two types of feedback are also known as
internal and external.

Internal Feedback relates to my own thoughts and feelings
about my own performance it also relates to kinaesthetic feedback.

External Feedback can be obtained through verbal, written or
visual information.

       Verbal Feedback:      Spoken feedback from classmate /

       Written Feedback:     General Performance Sheet
                             Skill Repertoire Sheet
                             PAR Sheet

       Visual Feedback :     Watching my own performance
                             Recorded Video / Video Delay /Mirror

Using feedback in a meaningful way is essential for performance
improvement. It helps you plan improvements to your performance
and provides reinforcement about the successful parts of your
performance. This encourages you to work towards further

Effective Feedback

For feedback to be most effective it should be positive. Positive
feedback focuses on what you did well and suggests how further
improvements could be made. Feedback also needs to be
precise, accurate and be given as soon as possible. Immediate
feedback is most effective.

Skills and Techniques                                               37

Skills and Techniques   38
                        Monitoring (NAB Q11)
Monitoring is checking the success during your programme of
work. We can use the following methods:

    Personal reflections Diary
    Repeat methods of gathering information

Monitoring your programme of work is very important, as your
programme may need modified. If it is too easy or too difficult the
types of practices may need to be adapted.

In order to monitor your progress throughout your programme or
work, it is useful to keep a personal reflections diary, like the one
shown below. You should record what you did at each session,
how difficult each practice was and how you felt after each

                        Personal reflections diary

Session 1

Session 2

Session 3

Session 4

Session 5

Session 6

Skills and Techniques                                              39
                        Monitoring (cont.)
You can also monitor your programme by repeating the methods
you used to gather information at the start and comparing the
results. For example, you could repeat the PAR sheet and video
analysis and compare your new results with your previous results.

Q. Why is it important to monitor your programme?

 to allow comparisons to previous information gathered;

 to check what progress has been made;

 to check if targets have been met;

 to see if my programme has been appropriate (principles);

 to see if I need to make any changes / adaptations to my
  programme (progressive overload);

 to identify any new strengths / weaknesses;

 to motivate me to keep working or to work harder.

Skills and Techniques                                          40
Evaluating is checking the success at the end of your programme
of work. On completion of your programme or work you should
evaluate how successful it has been. You achieve this by using
the same methods used when monitoring:

    Personal reflections Diary
    Repeat methods of gathering information

Effectiveness of your programme of work? (NAB Q12)

Repeat PAR sheet:

 How did improving each of the subroutines make your weak skill
  more effective?

Specific examples of improvements made (NAB Q13)

Repeat General Performance and Skill Repertoire sheets:

 How did improving your weak skill improve your whole

 How did your programme of work improve other areas of

Future Development Needs (NAB

 Continue to improve weak skill?

 Focus on different weak skill(s)?
    o Skill Repertoire sheet

 Focus on other areas of
     o General Performance sheet

Skills and Techniques                                         41
                        Homework Questions

                        Demands of Performance

1a)    With reference to the list below, describe what makes a
       skilled / model performance:
                                 Fluency
                                 Controlled movement
                                 Decision making
                                 Appropriate skills and techniques

1b)    Describe the essential skills required to perform well in this

1c)    Describe two skills, one that you have performed well and
       one that is in need of improvement.

1d)    Describe, in detail, a skill which you regard as a weakness.

                         Gathering Information

2a)    Describe one method you used to gather information on
       your whole performance.

2b)    Describe how did you gathered information on one skill?

2c)    Using one of the following:

            mechanical analysis
            movement analysis
            consideration of quality

       give details of how you gathered information on a weak skill.

2e)    Why were your methods appropriate?

Skills and Techniques                                                 42
                         Analysing Information

3a)    Describe the strengths and weaknesses of your

3b)    What effect did your strength have on your whole

3c)    What effect did your weak skill have on your whole

3e)    Describe the specific parts of your weak skill you had
       difficulty to perform.

                        Developing my Weakness

4a)    How did you use the information gathered to plan an
       appropriate programme of work?

4b)    What methods of practice did you use to develop your
       weak skill?

4c)    Describe two methods of practice you have used to
       develop your weak skill. Give examples of the practices

4d)    Explain why these two methods helped to improve the

4e)    Describe a programme of work you used to develop your
       weak skill.

4f)    How did you make sure your practices were effectiveness?

4g)    What principles of effective practice did you consider and
       how did they help develop your skill?

4h)    Identify methods of practice suitable to the cognitive stage
       of learning. Explain why they are appropriate

Skills and Techniques                                             43
                        Developing my Weakness (cont.)

4i)    Describe how you used…
                                              motivation
                                              concentration
                                              feedback

4j)    Explain why the following factor is important in the
       development of your weak skill…
                                            motivation
                                            concentration
                                            feedback

4k)    Explain how a skilled / model performance can help you
       develop your whole performance.

                           Monitoring & Evaluating

5a)    Why is it important to monitor your performance regularly?

5b)    How did you monitor the effect of your practices on your
       whole performance?

5c)    How did the improvement programme help your whole

5d)    What would you now regard as your future development
       needs? What effect might this have on your performance?

Skills and Techniques                                               44
                        Past Paper 2008

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                        Past Paper 2009

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                        Past Paper 2010

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                        Past Paper 2011

Skills and Techniques                     48
                        Skills and Techniques

1.     a)      Skill Classification

       b)      Model/Skilled Performer

2.     Gathering Information          a)   Why?

                                      b)   How?

                                      c)   Appropriate methods?

3.     Strengths / Weaknesses

4.     Stages of Learning

5.     Methods of Practice

6.     Principles of Effective Practice

7.     Programme of Work

8.     Factors Affecting Performance a)           Motivation

                                           b)     Concentration

                                           c)     Feedback

9.     Monitoring                          a)     Why?

                                           b)     How?

10.    Evaluating

11.    Effect of Whole Performance

12.    Future Development

Skills and Techniques                                             49

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