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					Review:

1) Name the 3 most popular sonnet forms.
2) How many lines in a sonnet?
4) What is a ballad?
5) What are the most common themes and motifs associated with the ballad?
6) What is the volta and what is its purpose in a poem?
7) In which line should you expect to find the volta?
8) How many lines in a:
    •Sestet
    •Quatrain
    •Octave
9) Which poet introduced the rhyming couplet in the sonnet form?
10) In which classical tradition would you find the origins of the ballad form?
Today:


1.Explore the ode poetic form
2.Begin examining the Romantic Period
3.Complete a cold reading of three connected
  poems.
The Ode
"Ode" comes from the Greek aeidein, meaning to sing or
chant, and belongs to the long tradition of lyric poetry.
Originally accompanied by music and dance, and later
reserved by the Romantic poets to convey their strongest
sentiments, the ode can be generalised as a formal address
to an event, a person, or a thing not present.


There are three typical types of odes: the Pindaric,
Horatian, and Irregular.
                   The Pindaric Ode is named for the ancient Greek
                   poet Pindar, who invented the ode.


                   Originally performed with a chorus and dancers,
                   often composed to celebrate athletic victories.


                   Comprised of 3 sections containing 3 related
                   ideas and a complex poetic metre.


                   Starts with a complex opening called a strophe.
                   Followed by an antistrophe, which mirrors the
                   opening.
                   Ends with an epode, the final closing section of a
The Pindaric Ode   different length using a different metre.


                   The William Wordsworth poem "Ode on
Background Only    Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of
                   Early Childhood" is a very good example of an
                   English language Pindaric ode.
Ode on Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood
By William Wordsworth (Romantic Poet) extract only


        There was a time when meadow, grove, and stream,
        The earth, and every common sight
        To me did seem
        Apparelled in celestial light,
        The glory and the freshness of a dream.
        It is not now as it hath been of yore;--
        Turn wheresoe'er I may,
        By night or day,
        The things which I have seen I now can see no more…
               The Horatian ode, named for the
               Roman poet Horace, is generally more
               tranquil and contemplative than the
               Pindaric ode.


               Less formal, less ceremonious, and
               better suited to quiet reading than
               theatrical production, the Horatian
The Horatian   ode typically uses a regular, recurrent
               stanza pattern.
    Ode

               An example is the Allen Tate poem
               "Ode to the Confederate Dead,"
Ode to the Confederate Dead by Allen Tate (Extract)


Row after row with strict impunity
The headstones yield their names to the element,
The wind whirrs without recollection;
In the riven troughs the splayed leaves
Pile up, of nature the casual sacrament
To the seasonal eternity of death;
Then driven by the fierce scrutiny
Of heaven to their election in the vast breath,
They sough the rumour of mortality…
   The Irregular Ode

The Irregular ode uses all manner of formal structures and styles,
while often only retaining the tone and common themes of the classical
ode.


Most Odes are irregular odes – a celebration of a person, idea or thing
written with a repetitive metre.


For example, "Ode on a Grecian Urn" by John Keats was written based
on his experiments with the sonnet. He bends the rules of the Ode to
achieve his own personal effect.
Grecian pottery, particularly expensive and
ceremonial urns (large vases), were often decorated
with elaborate stories or tales from mythology.
           John Keats 1795-1821
        Died age 26 of tuberculosis above the
        Spanish Steps in Rome.
        One of the great English Romantic Poets
        Most famous for his Ode sequence of 5
        odes written 1818-1819.
        Upper-middle class background.
Keats
        Lived in industrial London.
        Influenced by contemporaries Wordsworth
        and Coleridge.
Ode on a Grecian Urn by John Keats

Thou still unravish'd bride of quietness,
 Thou foster-child of Silence and slow Time,
Sylvan historian, who canst thus express
 A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme:
What leaf-fringed legend haunts about thy shape
 Of deities or mortals, or of both,
  In Tempe or the dales of Arcady?
 What men or gods are these? what maidens loth?
What mad pursuit? What struggle to escape?
 What pipes and timbrels? What wild ecstasy?
Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard
 Are sweeter; therefore, ye soft pipes, play on;
Not to the sensual ear, but, more endear'd,
 Pipe to the spirit ditties of no tone:
Fair youth, beneath the trees, thou canst not leave
 Thy song, nor ever can those trees be bare;
  Bold lover, never, never canst thou kiss,
Though winning near the goal--yet, do not grieve;
 She cannot fade, though thou hast not thy bliss,
  For ever wilt thou love, and she be fair!
Ah, happy, happy boughs! that cannot shed
 Your leaves, nor ever bid the Spring adieu;
And, happy melodist, unwearied,
 For ever piping songs for ever new;
More happy love! more happy, happy love!
 For ever warm and still to be enjoy'd,
   For ever panting, and for ever young;
All breathing human passion far above,
 That leaves a heart high-sorrowful and cloy'd,
   A burning forehead, and a parching tongue.
Who are these coming to the sacrifice?
 To what green altar, O mysterious priest,
Lead'st thou that heifer lowing at the skies,
 And all her silken flanks with garlands drest?
What little town by river or sea shore,
 Or mountain-built with peaceful citadel,
  Is emptied of this folk, this pious morn?
And, little town, thy streets for evermore
 Will silent be; and not a soul to tell
  Why thou art desolate, can e'er return.
O Attic shape! Fair attitude! with brede
 Of marble men and maidens overwrought,
With forest branches and the trodden weed;
 Thou, silent form, dost tease us out of thought
As doth eternity: Cold pastoral!
 When old age shall this generation waste,
  Thou shalt remain, in midst of other woe
Than ours, a friend to man, to whom thou say'st,
 'Beauty is truth, truth beauty'--that is all
  Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know.
Ode on a Grecian Urn 1819
Written in 1819, 'Ode on a Grecian Urn' was the third of the five 'great odes' of
1819, which are generally believed to have been written in the following order -
Psyche, Nightingale, Grecian Urn, Melancholy, and Autumn. Of the five, Grecian
Urn and Melancholy are merely dated '1819'.
The most discussed two lines in all
of Keats's poetry - '"Beauty is
truth, truth beauty," - that is
all/Ye know on earth, and all ye
need to know.' The exact meaning
of those lines is disputed by
everyone; no less a critic than TS
Eliot considered them a blight upon
an otherwise beautiful
poem. Scholars have been unable
to agree to whom the last thirteen
lines of the poem are
addressed. Arguments can be
made for any of the four most
obvious possibilities, -poet to
reader, urn to reader, poet to urn,
poet to figures on the urn.
Practice Your
Close Reading
  Analysis
        Billy Collins 1941-   (age 68)
     American Poet Laureate (2 terms)


    ‘Taking off Emil Dickinson’s clothes’
    Billy Collins 1941-   (age 68)
  American Poet Laureate (2 terms)


‘Taking off Emil Dickinson’s clothes’


     Emily Dickinson 1830-1886
        Major American Poet
Lived an introverted and reclusive life
 Fewer than a dozen of her eighteen
hundred poems were published in her
              lifetime.
First, her tippet made of tulle,
easily lifted off her shoulders and laid
on the back of a wooden chair.


And her bonnet,
the bow undone with a light forward pull.


Then the long white dress, a more
complicated matter with mother-of-pearl
buttons down the back,
so tiny and numerous that it takes forever
before my hands can part the fabric,
like a swimmer's dividing water,
and slip inside.
You will want to know
that she was standing
by an open window in an upstairs bedroom,
motionless, a little wide-eyed,
looking out at the orchard below,
the white dress puddled at her feet
on the wide-board, hardwood floor.


The complexity of women's undergarments
in nineteenth-century America
is not to be waved off,
and I proceeded like a polar explorer
through clips, clasps, and moorings,
catches, straps, and whalebone stays,
sailing toward the iceberg of her nakedness.
Later, I wrote in a notebook
it was like riding a swan into the night,
but, of course, I cannot tell you everything –
the way she closed her eyes to the orchard,
how her hair tumbled free of its pins,
how there were sudden dashes
whenever we spoke.


What I can tell you is
it was terribly quiet in Amherst
that Sabbath afternoon,
nothing but a carriage passing the house,
a fly buzzing in a windowpane.
So I could plainly hear her inhale
when I undid the very top
hook-and-eye fastener of her corset


and I could hear her sigh when finally it was unloosed,
the way some readers sigh when they realize
that Hope has feathers,
that reason is a plank,
that life is a loaded gun
that looks right at you with a yellow eye.

				
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