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Fetal Development Dr/ Sahar Elkheshen Lecturer of Maternity & Gynecological Nursing MUST Embryonic and Fetal Structures • Decidua • Fetal membranes • Amniotic sac • Umbilical cord • Placenta I - Decidua • Refers to endometrial lining during pregnancy. • It devided into three separate layers: Baisalis (directly under the embryo) Capsularis (enlarges as the embryo grows) Vera remaining lining of the endometrium. II - Fetal membranes The chorion is the fetal membrane closest to the uterine wall. The amnion is the thin, tough inner fetal membrane that lines the amniotic sac. III – Amniotic sac • Is enclosed within the chorion. • Expands into the chorionic cavity as it enlarges. • Fuses with the chorion by the 8th week of gestation. • Contains fluid known as amniotic fluids. Functions of amniotic fluid Helps to provide a buoyant (floating), temperature controlled environment. Serves as fluid wedge and lubricant that helps to open the cervix during birth. Later in through pregnancy fetal kidney function and baby urinates into the amniotic fluids and serves as the main source of fluid. Umbilical Cord • The flexible cordlike structure connecting a fetus at the abdomen with the placenta • containing two umbilical arteries and one vein that transport nourishment to the fetus and remove its wastes. IV - Placenta • The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, waste elimination and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply. First Month • By the end of the first month, the embryo is about 1/10 of an inch long. The heart, which is no larger than a poppy seed, has begun beating. First Month Two Months • The embryo is about 1 inch long and has distinct, slightly webbed fingers. Veins are clearly visible. The heart has divided into right and left chambers. Two Months Three Months • By now the fetus is 2 1/2 to 3 inches long and is fully formed. He has begun swallowing and kicking. All organs and muscles have formed and are beginning to function. Four Months • Your baby is covered with a layer of thick, downy(soft) hair called lanugo. His heartbeat can be heard clearly. This is when you may feel your baby's first kick. 4 months Five Months • A protective coating called vernix caseosa begins to form on baby's skin. By the end of this month, your baby will be nearly 8 inches long and weigh almost a pound. Six Months • Eyebrows and eyelids are visible. Your baby's lungs are filled with amniotic fluid, and he has started breathing motions. If you talk or sing, he can hear you. 6 Months Seven Months • By the end of the seventh month, your baby weighs about 3 1/2 pounds and is about 12 inches long. His body is well-formed. Fingernails cover his fingertips Eight Months • Your baby is gaining about half a pound per week, and layers of fat are piling on. He has probably turned head-down in preparation for birth. He weighs between 4 and 6 pounds. Nine Months • Your baby is a hefty 6 to 9 pounds and measures between 19 and 22 inches. As he becomes more crowded, you may feel him move around less.
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