Google Course Overview - Currie Colket s Home Page

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					Google Tips for Searching the World Wide Web




                  4 October 2011
   Slides at: http://www.colket.org/genealogy/USF/
                        Why Google????
Google.com is America’s most visited website, according to Alexa

                lists the main U.S.-focused google.com site
                    as the Internet's most visited website
                   For the entire International Community

See Google Wikipedia



Google Mission Statement

              to organize the world's information and make it
                     universally accessible and useful



                                                                   2
                            Google Syllabus
         Google Tips for Searching the World Wide Web
Instructor: Currie Colket     Phone: Google Search for: colket 941

Classes 1:30 PM to 2:50 PM on:     Lifelong Learning Academy: W11-SFM-25

 4 October         – Google Overview (with Basic Searches)

11 October         – Google Shortcuts; Google Advanced Searches

18 October         – Google Magic; Preferences

25 October         – Google Images; Google Videos; Google Maps; Google Earth

 1 November        – Downloading; Safety & Security; Google Toolbar;

 8 November        – Google Books; Google Scholar; Researching in other languages

15 November        – Google Account; Google Mail; Google Video Phone
22 November        – No Class, Thanksgiving Week
29 November        – Introduction to Hyper Text Markup Language (if on time)
                                                                               3
               Slides at: http://www.colket.org/genealogy/USF/
What’s a Google?




                   4
                                       Goal

Can you use the Internet to better your brain? Yes, say researchers at University
of California at Los Angeles who conducted a study called "Your Brain on
Google." The research team, led by Gary Small, MD, of UCLA’s Center on Aging,
explored whether searching the Internet stimulates areas of the brain that control
decision making, complex reasoning and vision. It does indeed, but only for those
who use Google or other search engines in a certain way. (He calls these people
Net Savvy People).*


           My personal goal is to turn you into a Net Savvy Person

This article is worth reading and is available online in ASCII and Microsoft Word

* “How Google Exercises Your Brain Monday”, Daily Health News,
 February 22, 2010 2:16 AM


                                                                                    5
             Google Overview
o   Computer Basics For This Course
o   Conducting a Simple Google Search
o   Why Search on the Internet?
o   History of the Internet
o   History of Browsing
o   Problem of Searching
o   Solution to Search Problem
o   Search Results
o   Google Basics
o   Notes on URLs (URL = Uniform Resource Locators)
o   Notes on IP Addresses (IP = Internet Protocol)
o   Google or Bing Might Not be Useful When …
                                               6
                            Computer Basics For
                              This Course - 1
Most Course Materials ONLINE at: http://www.colket.org/genealogy/USF (local)

    http://www.colket.org/genealogy/USF
                                                                Need To
                                                                Download
                                                                Files




                                                  To Download any file:
                                                  1. Left click on file
                                                  2. Save to Your Computer



                                                                           7
Computer Basics For
  This Course - 2
     To Download any file:
     1. Left click on file
     2. Save (to Your Computer)
     3. Select Directory and Identify Filename
        Useful to Download to Desktop
            and Later Move to Desired Directory
        Useful to keep filename, if meaningful
     4. Hit Save
                             After Download
                             Status Bar, the
                             File is on Your
                                Computer




                                               8
                             Computer Basics For
                               This Course - 3
          If you need Applications, Download them – They are FREE




To Open File:
Double Click On It

If you need Application,
Download the application

Execute the Application Installation

Then Double Click on File
                   Computer Basics For
                     This Course - 4
  PCs                      versus                      MACs




Google is platform independent!!
Google will even work on Workstations using UNIX
Hence almost everything in this course pertains to both systems!!
     Major impact is slides, which are in Microsoft PowerPoint
     Might want to view/print on PC system or download Apple Office
Please Ask Questions if you do not Understand Anything

                                                         11
             Google Overview
o   Computer Basics For This Course
o   Conducting a Simple Google Search
o   Why Search on the Internet?
o   History of the Internet
o   History of Browsing
o   Problem of Searching
o   Solution to Search Problem
o   Search Results
o   Google Basics
o   Notes on URLs (URL = Uniform Resource Locators)
o   Notes on IP Addresses (IP = Internet Protocol)
o   Google or Bing Might Not be Useful When …
                                               12
                                   Conducting a
                             Simple Google Search - 1
Go to
http://www.google.com




Enter Search
Term(s) In Window

 Click on
 Google
 Search
FYI, I use
Microsoft Internet
                                                Opportunity to
Explorer
Microsoft Windows 7                             get Google
Things will look different                      Chrome
If you use a different
Browser or Operating                                       13
System
                           Conducting a
                     Simple Google Search - 2

Search
Results

 Or

Results
Page

 Or

Results



                                                                       14
          Note: March 2010, the number of hits was 72,000 now 91,000
      Why Search on the Internet?
          Genealogical Research
          General Research
          Planning Travel / Booking Reservations
          Shopping
          Find products/product reviews
          Find books/book reviews
          Find movie/movie reviews
          Find music/music text/music reviews
          Find restaurants/restaurant reviews
          Verify Credit Card Charge Addresses
          Just find out information
          Find friends/colleagues
          Find scores to sporting events
          Find News/Weather
          Find legal records
          Find pictures, maps, etc.
          Fun
                                                      15
What do YOU want to search for on the Internet?????
             Google Overview
o   Computer Basics For This Course
o   Conducting a Simple Google Search
o   Why Search on the Internet?
o   History of the Internet
o   History of Browsing
o   Problem of Searching
o   Solution to Search Problem
o   Search Results
o   Google Basics
o   Notes on URLs (URL = Uniform Resource Locators)
o   Notes on IP Addresses (IP = Internet Protocol)
o   Google or Bing Might Not be Useful When …
                                               16
                         History of the Internet - 1
•   In early 1960’s computers were “standalone” with
     –   Different operating systems for different computers
     –   Different commands to perform similar functions (e.g., login, search)
     –   No communication between computers
•   Intergalactic Computer Network concept by J.C.R Lickider of Bolt, Beranek,
    and Newman (BBN) in August 1962
     – Concept contained almost everything the Internet is today.
•   DOD Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) adopted research
    concepts as ARPAnet as a means to share defense information between
    labs during the cold war.
•   Contract awarded to BBN on 7 April 1969.
•   Allowed communication between users of computers via packets of
    information.
•   First demonstration message sent on 29 October 1969 from a computer at
    UCLA to a computer at Stanford.
      - The message was received correctly, but caused the Stanford
         computer to crash                                              17
                              Man on Moon 20 July 1969
                      History of the Internet - 2
•   By September 1971, 23 nodes at DOD research centers and universities.
•   In 1971, the first network-to-network email was sent

          My first email address in 1979 was colket at OSU while working on Masters
          It was local and could only send and receive email from that OSU computer.

•   By 1973, 75% of ARPAnet traffic was email
•   By 1973, the file transfer protocol (ftp) was developed to allow file transfers over the
    ARPAnet
•   By 1981, there were 213 hosts with a new host added every 20 days

          My first internet address in 1982 was colket@nadc.navy.mil

          The extra nadc.navy.mil is called the Domain Name; each
          host had a unique Domain Name

•   In 1983, TCP/IP protocols became the principal protocol of the ARPAnet
      - TCP = Transmission Control Protocol; IP = Internet Protocol                       18
                    History of the Internet - 3
•   In 1983, the military aspects were segregated from Internet onto the MILNET to
    mitigate public access to military computers.
•   In 1985, gateways to external networks across North America, Europe, and Australia
    made the Internet global in scope.
•   In 1990 funding for ARPAnet infrastructure was transferred to NSF.
•   In March 1991 NSFnet opened up the use of Internet for commercial use.
      - Al Gore’s Super Information Highway
      - Called the World Wide Web

          My first home page was in 1992 at www.colket.org
     -   Any one can access using a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) (more later)

•   30 April 1995, NSFnet officially dissolved
     • At its peak, NSFnet connected more than 4,000 institutions and 50,000
        networks across the US, Canada, and Europe

     •   Protocol allowed for 4,294,967,296 addresses; already exceeded            19
                             History of Browsing
•   Early on very cumbersome
      • Generally login to a desired computer and search based on the directory
      • Every computer had its own directory structure and search application(s)
•   In 1980, Tim Berners-Lee proposed and prototyped ENQUIRE, a system to share
    documents
•   In 1990, he collaborated with Robert Cailliau on a joint proposal for the World Wide
    Web (WWW) or W3 project for a protocol to share information using hypertext.

     Became HyperText Markup Language (HTML) – defined using text

     This allowed people to organize information they wanted to share with Links
        to the information or files which could then be downloaded
•   Requires a browser that could read these HTML files using a protocol called:
     HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
•   Many commercial browsers available today
     • Internet Explorer (IE), Mozilla, Netscape, Firefox, etc.
     • Even Google has its own browser called “Google Chrome”
     • You need a current browser to access latest information                   20
                        Problem with Searching
Many search applications developed based on HTML        BUT

                               Search on Coke – 115,000,000 hits was 35,200,000 hits

Many of these are menu items at restaurants – Much useless information
You have hits from every restaurant that has coke on its menu

If you are interested in Coca-Cola headquarters in Atlanta, it may not appear until item
     23,672,344

        How do you get RELEVANT hits????

        How do you get hits ordered so that Relevant Hits are Ordered
        in a way that facilitates use????

Google found a way to “solve” this problem; Hence this course is on Google.

Microsoft BING uses similar techniques and is a major competitor to Google 21
                   Solution to Search Problem - 1
• 1995, Sergey Brin and Larry Page while students at Stanford
  came up with a concept of using the strength of the Internet
  community.
• Their technology evaluated a site primarily on how many other
  sites linked to it and ranked search results accordingly.
• The technology was called PageRank (named for Larry Page)
  although, it does rank pages as to which page is most important.
• PageRank tended to return results that people found useful,
           Resulting in a surprisingly valuable system
• PageRank was patented by Stanford University.
• In 1997, BackRub was a PageRank application so called
  because the technology analyzed what was
   going on behind the scenes.
• Fall, 1997 BackRub became Google
• http://infolab.stanford.edu/~backrub/google.html
• Sergey Brin and Larry Page purchased the
   exclusive licensing rights to PageRank for                 22
                    Solution to Search Problem - 2




• Google is an adaption of googol. A googol is the number 1 followed by
  100 zeros (10E100). (from Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy). This
  reflects the number of WWW pages it searches.
• In 1998, they dropped out of Stanford to develop Google.
• Set up shop in the Menlo Park garage of Susan Wojcicki
• 1998, 50 employees. 7 million searches a day.
• By 2005, Google was having 250 million web searches per day.
• Sergey Brin’s Net Worth is 18.7 Billion Dollars (26th richest in the world)
• Larry Page’s Net Worth is 18.6 Billion Dollars
• Google headquarters, the Googleplex, is located in Mountain View,
  California. As of March 31, 2009, the company has 19,786 full-time 23
  employees. 68 Worldwide locations
Solution to Search Problem - 3



                          Most
                         Relevant
                         Results
                           First




                                 24
           Google Results - 1
                                     Start
                                     Search
Search                               Advanced
Term(s)                              Search
                                     (Controls
                                     For Advanced
Tools &                              Search
                        Result       Options)
Filters
                        Statistics
                                     Sponsored
Link
                                     Links

Snippet


                     Sometimes        Result
Uniform              Similar Pages
Resource                              Links
                     Cached Pages
Locator
(URL)
                                         25
                                      Google Results - 2
Ordered By Relevance [Indented same site, less relevant]
Also sponsored links, links to news stories, Ads
   True, unpaid results are on the lower left
   Ads are on the right (no more than 10 per page)
   Sponsored Links on top (Ads, at a higher rate; colored background)
True Unpaid Search Results =>
   Title
   Text from site with Snippets of your search terms (in bold)
   URL => Uniform Resource Locator
   Size                                                        Recently
   Date – NOT created/updated, but when last crawled           Changed
       Over 8 billion Web pages crawled
       Crawls each page once a month
   Indication if Cached – Good place to go if Page Removed
       URL goes to current page
       Cached link goes to cached page – handy if page deleted or link broken
       Cached version is used to highlight key words
   File Format
        .html use browser
        .pdf use Adobe’s free reader at www.adobe.com
        .doc use Microsoft’s free reader at www.microsoft.com
        .ppt use Microsoft’s free reader at www.microsoft.com                   26
   Similar Results
                            Google Results - 3
                           New Since Last Year
Instant Preview – Click the magnifying glass icon        next to the
search result to see what a webpage is like
Location Feature – Sets default for searches
        Location auto-detected
                - by IP Address
                - or entered into Google Toolbar
        Can be changed, if you are looking for stuff in a different location
        **Only works in your selected country**
        Manually set location is stored in a “Cookie”
        Can also be turn off
Type of Content – Limit results to a particular type of web content:
        Images, Videos, News, Shopping, Books,
        Discussions, Places, Blogs, Real-time (e.g., updates from Twitter)
        or select the default – Everything
This is a big recent change Two years ago one had to search each database
                                                                      27
           --- The databases were not integrated --- They are now ---
             Google Overview
o   Computer Basics For This Course
o   Conducting a Simple Google Search
o   Why Search on the Internet?
o   History of the Internet
o   History of Browsing
o   Problem of Searching
o   Solution to Search Problem
o   Search Results
o   Google Basics
o   Notes on URLs (URL = Uniform Resource Locators)
o   Notes on IP Addresses (IP = Internet Protocol)
o   Google or Bing Might Not be Useful When …
                                               28
                                      Google Basics - 1
      Google cares about:                                                  Exceptions to
         Singular versus Plural – “apple” versus “apples”                   These Rules
         Order Of Words is Important for Ranking
             “brown bear” – things named “Brown Bear” first – 20,800,000 Hits
             “bear brown” – emphasis on bears – 87,000,000 Hits
                                                    Suggest putting Surnames first
         Spelling is Important
             Names originating in another alphabet have many valid transliterations
             Mohamed, Mohammed         Pelot, Pelote, Pelotte
                                                                          Sometime Spelling
      Google does not care about:                                        Suggestions
         Case Sensitivity – Hence “Samuel Pelot” = “samuel pelot”
The who
Is a Band Little Words Ignored – such as I, where, how, the, of, an, for, from,
         how, it, in, is, single digits, single letters. If desired, use quotes.
         Punctuation – MOST PUNCTUATION IS IGNORED.
         Only Apostrophes, hyphens, and quote marks analyzed.
         – Hence Pauls, Paul’s, and Pauls’ provide 3 different searches.
         Exceptions: Underscore when between 2 words: Quick_Sort
            Punctuation in proper names: C++, A#                                      29
            $ is understood to be dollars    “Nikon $400” ≠ “Nikon 400”
                                     Google Basics - 2
     Exact Order; Exact Phrase – Use quotation marks.
     This techniques is especially useful for genealogy – very
     different results for
11,000 Hits
              Samuel George Pelot versus “Samuel George Pelot” 37 Hits
8,670 Hits    George Samuel Pelot versus “George Samuel Pelot” 0 Hits
     Huh??? Should get the same number – Why???
     What about the middle name?
      Some sources report as initial or no middle initial (nmi)
     “Samuel Pelot”                 231 Hits
     “Samuel G Pelot”                24 Hits         Most Punctuation is ignored
     “Samuel G. Pelot”               24 Hits
     “Samuel nmi Pelot”               0 Hits
                                                            87,200 Hits with G.
                      410,200 Hits                 3,390,000 Hits with Graham        30
     Remember, a search for “Alexander Bell” will miss hits for “Alexander G Bell”
                         Google Basics - 3
Search Within Site/Domain – Identify site in query:
iraq site:nytimes.com – returns hits on “Iraq” in NY Times only
                        also returns hits in sources with “Iraq”
                        quoting nytimes.com
iraq site:.gov          returns hits only from a .gov domain
iraq site:.iq           returns hits only from an Iraq domain
Good for genealogy research:
  Pelot               394,000 Hits    Worldwide
  Pelot site:.fr       14,700 Hits    French Domain
  Pelot site:.ch        1,070 Hits    Swiss Domain
  Pelot site:.ca        2,900 Hits    Canadian Domain
  Pelot site:.us        2,410 Hits    US Domain (not null)
  Pelot site:.mil          89 Hits    US Military Domain
  Pelot site:.gov          947Hits    US Government Domain 31
  Pelot site:.biz        5,480 Hits   US Business Domain
                                 Google Basics - 4
      Exclude Terms – Use “-” preceded by a blank
Note:
       Say searching for anti-virus stuff for humans:
“-” is part of
                 anti-virus                       132,000,000 Hits
the word for
“anti-virus”     anti-virus -software              79,100,000 Hits
Strongly         jaguar -cars -football           Can use multiple negations
Connected
      and for the fellow with the surname of “Sparrow”
                 Sparrow                          63,400,000 Hits
                 Sparrow -bird                    60,400,000 Hits
                 Sparrow -bird -book              45,500,000 Hits


                 Note:
                 Combinations of Search Terms can be effective
                                                                       32
                           Google Basics - 5
Search Exactly “As Is” – Use “+” -only.
 Sometimes Google expands a search or provides synonyms.
 The “+” tells Google to match that word precisely:
   Child Care          262,000,000 Hits
   Child +Care         445,000,000 Hits        Never found the “+”
   +Child Care         446,000,000 Hits           To be useful
   +Child +Care        563,000,000 Hits
   “Child Care“         84,600,000 Hits

OR Operator – Sometimes you want hits for either/or
Use cap “OR” or OR Operator “|”
Tampa Bay Buccaneers                2,620,000 Hits
Tampa Bay Buccaneers   2004           298,000 Hits
Tampa Bay Buccaneers   2005           409,000 Hits
Tampa Bay Buccaneers   2004 2005      206,000 Hits
Tampa Bay Buccaneers   2004 OR 2005   726,000 Hits
Tampa Bay Buccaneers   2004 | 2005    726,000 Hits
                                                                     33
Exceptions: Phrases such as “FOR BETTER OR FOR WORSE”
                             Google Basics - 6


Feeling Lucky – Gives you the first page.
Wild Cards – Use a “*” – Works on words, not parts of words
   For Questions: “"How often does Halley's comet appear?“
   Pose as: Halley’s Comet appears every * years – it’s 76 years
   Also for unknown middle names Samuel * Pelot       1,740,000 Hits
   Difference for               “Samuel * Pelot“      1,279,000 Hits
   Note: For                     Samuel Pelot           334,000 Hits
   and For                      “Samuel Pelot“             231 Hits

Ten Word Limit – Search terms over 10 are ignored


                                                                   34
                             Google Basics - 7

Misspellings – Try alternative spellings
   thousands of Web sites mention Arnold Schwarznegger      70,000Hits
   though the governator spells his name "Schwarzenegger” 34,500,000 Hits




                                                      Google recognizes
                                                      some misspellings
                                                        and provides
                                                         alternatives
                                                     New since Mar 2010

                                                                    35
                         Google Basics - 8
Keep Search Terms Simple
 Most Queries do not require advanced operators or unusual
  syntax
    Simply enter name, place, product, or concept,
    Simple is good
 Think of terms likely to be on result pages
    Don’t use My Head Hurts
    Instead use Headache {term likely found on medical page}
 Describe what you want in as few words as possible
    Use Weather Cancun
    Instead of Weather Report for Cancun Mexico
 Choose Descriptive Terms
    Use Celebrity Ringtones
    Instead of Celebrity Sounds                            36
                                     Note on URLs
   • Results of Google Search provided as a
      • Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
   • URL Format:                Domain Name
                   World Wide Web
                                            Extension             URL
          http://www.google.com.uk                          Uniform Resource
                                                                 Locator

HyperText Transfer Protocol Domain Name         Domain Name Country Extension
   • Domain Names: http://www.networksolutions.com/
   • URL for my domain name is: http://www.colket.org
   • Domain name extensions include:
           .com .mobi .mil .gov .edu .net .info .org .biz .bz .tv
   • Domain Name Extensions (including Country):
     http://www.networksolutions.com/glossary/glossary-
     d.jsp#domainnameextensions
   • Domain Name Country Extensions –                                     37

               .be .ca .cn .de .es. ru.com se.com .us
                           Note on IP Addresses
• Every URL maps into a Unique Number called an IP
  (Internet Protocol) Address
           http://www.google.com => 216.239.51.99
• IPV4 in format of xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx (e.g., 208.77.188.166)
        232 can handle 4,294,967,296 addresses Google crawls
       Expected to run out in early 2000s                              Over
• IPV6 in format of x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x in late 1990s 8,000,000,000    Pages each
       (e.g., 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:1:1)                               month
       2128 (or 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 ) addresses
• IP addresses still work as IPV4 addresses all map to IPV6
• Operating systems are migrating to IPV6                         Need
                                                                  Current
   (e.g., Vista uses IPV6; XP uses IPV4)                          Browser
   Go to help/support on your computer searching for IPV6
                                                                           38
                Google or Bing Might Not Be Useful - 1



“Relevancy” might not be relevant to
Researchers and Genealogists.
Google’s use of Relevancy is not useful for doing many types of searches:

    •   Genealogy Searches on family surnames
    •   Obscure information
    •   Much non-business oriented information
    •   Rather unique information
             Google or Bing Might Not Be Useful - 2
Desired Information is in a Separate Database
    Auction Sites: Ebay | Craig’s List | UBid | Bid Start | Ebid | US Seek

Web Pages are Private and Not Available for Google
    Most businesses have a public web site and a private web site
    Only data companies want to share is available via Google

Very Specialized Searches
    email addresses
              – Meta Search Email Agent (MESA), at http://mesa.rrzn.uni-hannover.de/.
                MESA simultaneously queries the major Web-based email search
                engines, like WhoWhere and Switchboard
    News – NewsLink (http://newslink.org), directory for newspapers around the world
                                                                             Many
Limited Access Web Sites – Typically for profit sites, e.g.,
    ACM’s Digital Library – No Google access at all                          Models
    Ancestory.com – Google provides “Teaser” results to entice membership
    Chicago Tribune – Get “Teaser” hits on Google, but have to pay to access data

     Microsoft announced major competitor to Google – Called Bing.com
     Uses “Decision Engine” technology – takes wealth of knowledge and filters
     It to obtain information you need. - Certainly worth trying       40
                Exercise 1 (Not Homework:-)

1. Search on your last name    Colket  90,900 Hits 17,000 Hits
2. Search on your first name and last name Currie Colket
3. Search on your first name and last name in quotes
                  “Currie Colket”    2,140 Hits   Try Also With
                                     Was1,890       Bing.com

4. What thing did Abraham Lincoln have in his pockets
   when he was assassinated that was associated with the
   Confederacy? What was its significance?
5. What thing did Abraham Lincoln have in his pockets
   when he was assassinated that contained a hidden
   message?
6. What is the name of the oldest bible?
7. What is the name of the Roman map of Roads?
                                                                  41
                    Talk about next week!!!!
                   Questions




Please Ask Questions if you do not Understand Anything
                                                         42
                            Google Syllabus
         Google Tips for Searching the World Wide Web
Instructor: Currie Colket    Phone: Google Search for: colket 941

Classes 1:30 PM to 2:50 PM on:    Lifelong Learning Academy: W11-SFM-25

 4 October         – Google Overview (with Basic Searches)

11 October         – Google Shortcuts; Google Advanced Searches

18 October         – Google Magic; Preferences

25 October         – Google Images; Google Videos; Google Maps; Google Earch

 1 November        – Downloading; Safety & Security; Google Toolbar;

 8 November        – Google Books; Google Scholar; Researching in other languages

16 November        – Google Account; Google Mail; Google Video Phone

22 November or – Introduction to Hyper Text Markup Language (if on time)
29 November
                                                                               43
             Slides at: http://www.colket.org/genealogy/USF/

				
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