The Elements of Persuasion - Angelfire by lanyuehua


									The Elements of Persuasion

 “ . . . Verbal communication that
 attempts to bring about a
 voluntary change in judgment so
 that readers or listeners will
 accept a belief they did not hold
 the Reader’s Belief

  Recognize that you are
  confronted by a deeply
rooted belief that can only
be changed by the reader.
Know your audience:
 Have specific readers in mind.
 Identify with your readers.
 Be careful about the tone of your
 Provide evidence.
 Write in a readable style.
Means of Persuasion
 The writer should
   Knowledgeable
    – The writer
    must appear to
    be fully and
    informed on the
 Argument is a way of thinking.
 You observe something and draw a
  conclusion from it.
 Of course, this conclusion must be
  sound in order to persuade the
Clear Thinking
The writer should be fair.

 Common signs of unfairness:
  misrepresentation of an
  opposing view by
  inaccurate reporting
           The Fallacy of
 The soundness of any
  depends on the
  number of instances
  on which it is based.
 The greater the
  number, the greater
  the likelihood that the
  generalization is
Examples of Overgeneralizing
 My parents don’t want me to go to Ajax
  University because, they say, the students
  there are not law-abiding. They read in the
  paper about a student who was arrested
  for disorderly conduct.
 Teachers are doing very well these days.
  My mother knows a teacher who owns a
  limo and has bought a yacht.
     and Prejudice

Ex. My neighbor is a Scot
and he has a bad temper.
All Scots are ill-tempered
Avoid such words as these:
 All
 Always
 Never
 None
 Everyone
 Only
Cause-and-Effect Fallacy

The reasoning fallacy of
assuming that because an
event preceded a second
event, it caused the second
        The Fallacy
   of the False Analogy

 “The fallacy comes in when
 we use an analogy instead of
 proof, read more into it than
 the facts warrant, and note
 only similarities while
 ignoring differences.”
Example of False Analogy

 Society should treat the
 scientists who developed
 the atom bomb in the same
 way that it treats a person
 who supplies guns to
Fallacy of Attacking the Name
     Instead of the Issues

  This means attacking the
   person rather than the
       facts or issues.
The Fallacy of Rationalizing

   Rationalizing presents
      your point of view
  without substantial proof.
The Fallacy of “Either-Or”

     Thinking of a problem or a
    solution as having only two
 sides is either-or thinking, and
 it is responsible for much poor
Nothing is either all bad or all
good --- all black or all white.
    The Fallacy of Circular
    Thinking—Begging the

Circular thinking occurs when
people appear to be presenting
arguments in favor of a point, but,
in reality, present no arguments at
all. What they say, in effect, is
that the statement is true because
it is true.
 Honesty is the best policy when trying to
  persuade someone of your point of view.

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