THE QUALITY OF YOUR LIFE IS THE QUALITY OF YOUR COMMUNICATION ~ BOTH WITH YOURSELF & OTHERS 29 March 2013 2 Rebuild Your Life Through Effective Communication Dr Ali Sajid, PhD, PEC, ISLAMABAD Don’t curse the darkness light a candle Chinese Proverb Sharing of Resources "A candle loses nothing by Lighting another candle" If you have your sight, you are blessed. If you have insight, you are a thousand times blessed. 7 Words Are Energy Never use words like defeats, failure & problem. Always talk of “Hope, Belief, Faith, Victory & Success.” When you use a Positive word, a wave of Positive word, engulfs you, raising your Energy Levels & Putting you in a “Winning Frame of Mind.” Words are Energy use them in your favour!! To be conscious that you are ignorant is a great step to knowledge. - Benjamin Disraeli Doing is Believing "I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand." (Confucius 551-479 BC) Communication "He who wishes to talk well must first think well.” "When you speak, your speech should be better than your silence would have been." (Origin unknown) New Style? "I praise loudly. I blame softly.“ (Catherine the Great, 1729-1796.) Test of Intellect "Whoever in debate quotes authority uses not intellect, but memory." (Leonardo Da Vinci) Good Writing "What is written without effort is in general read without pleasure." (Samuel Johnson.) Bad Attitude of Employee Don’t waste your time trying to change employees, Who have bad attitudes Inn Pareen a Kaleesa koo Kaleesa say hatta doon "Great speakers are not born, they're trained." -- Dale Carnegie "Perhaps you will forget tomorrow the kind words you say today, but the recipient may cherish them over a lifetime.“ Dale Carnegie Conversation with Wise Man “A single conversation with a wise man is better than ten years of study.” --Chinese Proverb Light Be a light, not a judge. Be a model, not a critic. - Stephen Covey "Communication skills are the lifeblood of a successful life...if you plan on spending any time there..." -- Doug Firebaugh "Communication is really all anyone ever gets paid for ultimately...and if you cannot effectively communicate...you will PAY...not get paid..." -- Doug Firebaugh "Little deeds of kindness, little words of love, help to make earth happy like the heaven above." Julia A. Fletcher Carney Of all the things you wear, your expression is the most important "You are not only responsible for what you say, but also for what you do not say." – Martin Luther "Kind words can be short and easy to speak, but their echoes are truly endless." - Mother Theresa of Calcuta Challenge EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION Management Process Planning Organizing Leading Controlling Communication External Environment Customers Suppliers Stockholders Governments Community others Purpose & Function of Communication Mgrl Effectiveness Through Communication You Spend Most of Your Time at Work Communicating. Your Success- Based on Strong Communication Skills. Communication Is Becoming in Increasingly Important In Increased Globalization, Diversity Workplace Specialization. Communication Tech Offers New Opportunities of Communicate More Often & More Efficiently Than Ever Before. Managerial Function of Communication Managers have three basic jobs. Collect Information : Collect relevant info from conversations, phone calls, memos, office memo, Reports, databases, & internet. Convey Info & Decision : To inside & outside org through speeches, press releases, videos, memos, letters. Promote Interpersonal Unity : Motivate people through speeches, conversations on lunch & on ceremonies & through walking around. ( garmoo ghamoo ka lahoo zooq a yaqan say) . Toward Effective Communication Org goal Goals-related Communication behavior network objectives Communication Communication activities policies Relationship of Communication Factors to Org Goals Mgr as nerve centre in Info Processing Network Manager as monitor Gathers external info Manager as monitor (through liaison role) form Gathers internal info contacts, informers, peers, (through leader role) & experts Form subordinates Manager as nerve center in information-processing network Mgr as disseminator Distributes information Mgr as spokesperson to subordinates Need for Communication • Very strong in Human beings • Considered as a basic need, as in the case of eating, sleeping, etc. • Established as both a social & individual need Interpersonal Communication Three Broad Types Oral, Written, Nonverbal Oral Communication: Consists of all forms of spoken info\ Most preferred type of communication used by mgrs. Mgrs prefer face-to-face & telephone communication to written communication because it permits immediate feedback. Written Communication: letters, memos, policy manuals, reports, forms, & other documents used to share info in org. Nonverbal Communication Involves all messages - non language responses. Anything that sends message. Mgrs often underestimate its importance. Hidden messages & can influence process & outcomes of face-to-face communication. The Importance of Communication Skills as Expressed by Business Authorities “Top executives from Fortune 500 companies rate communications skills as the most important quality for business leaders.” New York Times Business Section “There may be no single thing more important in our efforts to achieve meaningful work and fulfilling relationships than to learn and practice the art of communication.” The Art of Leadership Max De Pree, Author Evidence of Communication Weakness in Business “I’m surprised how so many people struggle with communication.” --Michael Rook, Production Manager Hewlett Packard, San Diego, CA “The first thing the H R Department did was give me a writing book.” --Sam Reeves, IT Consultant AMS, Denver, CO Cost of Correspondence One page business letter that took 10 minutes to dicate cost between $13.60 and $20.52 in 1996. Poor writing costs even more since it Waste Time. Wastes Effort. Jeopardizes goodwill. ) Communication is shared feelings/shared understanding. If you can honestly achieve that goal, you are communicating. Who Is Responsible? The Communicator. How Much Is The Communicator Responsible? 60 Percent! 29 March 2013 36 29 March 2013 37 Think > listen > talk 29 March 2013 38 Why is communication important ? • Inspires confidence • Builds respect • Helps make friends • Reveals your ability to others • Develops a distinct personality 29 March 2013 39 We need to improve communication... as 70 % of our communication efforts are: misunderstood misinterpreted rejected distorted or not heard 29 March 2013 40 Communication in Organizations Chief Executive Officer Sales Legal Production Financal Enginering HR Manage r Plant Plant Plant Manager Manager Manager Diagonal communication Horizontal or lateral communication Upward and downward communication Copy Rights Dr Sajid 29 March 2013 42 43 29 March 2013 PEOPLE ARE INFLUENCED, PROBLEMS ARE SOLVED, CHANGES ARE FACILITATED, EXCELLENT RELATIONSHIPS ARE DEVELOPED, DESIRED RESULTS ARE ACHIEVED, AND SUCCESS IS ENSURED. 29 March 2013 44 PLAYS A VITAL ROLE IN DISCOVERING OURSELVES & THE WORLD AROUND US 29 March 2013 45 IS NOT JUST GETTING THE MESSAGE ACROSS BUT ITS ACCEPTANCE FROM ITS INTENDED RECEIVERS WHICH CAUSES THE EXPECTED BEHAVIOUR FROM THE RECEIVERS OF THE MESSAGE ONLY THEN, THE RECEIVERS WILL BE WILLING TO CONVERT THE COMMUNICATION INTO ACTION 29 March 2013 47 LISTEN TO, OBSERVE & INTERPRET ALL FORMS OF LANGUAGE IS ESSENTIAL FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION 29 March 2013 48 Communication is a two-way process of giving and receiving info through one or more number of channels. Communication Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages Importance Of Communication Organizational / Functional: greater info access & awareness Improves coordination: reduces logical gaps Encourages cooperation: helps bring everyone in th mainstream Gives a direction: to tasks and activities Morale and empowerment Decision making aid Speeds up orgal processes Better focus on customer requirements Generates a greater sense of orgal commitment & involvement A Problem Solving Tool: by clarity, preciseness & feedback What needs to be communicated Information/data + Attitudes Values Moods Emotions Communication is a process through which mgrs coordinate, lead, & influence their subordinates. Ability to communicate effectively – considered by most mgrs critical in determining managerial success. Ability involves broad array of activities, “Reading, listening, managing & interpreting info, serving clients, writing, speech-making, & use of symbolic gestures”. Communication relates, directly to basic mgt functions. Delegation, Coordination, & Org change & Development also Entail Communication. Essential Tool for People Who Want to Stay in Touch With Rest of World. Developing “Reward systems & interacting with subordinates” as part of Leading function etc – Impossible w/o some form of communication Essential to: Establishing standards, Monitoring performance, & Taking corrective actions. Pervasive part of virtually all managerial activates. The bridge between our separate realities is communication . . . To communicate is to relate." -- Layne and Paul Cutright Communication in Org In Enterprises, info must flow faster. Short stoppage on fast-moving production line - costly - lost output. Production Problems communicated quickly for corrective action Info increased - frequently causing info overload. Need more relevant info. Necessary to have for effective decision making. Getting info from mgrs’ superiors & subordinates - from depts & people elsewhere org. Communication skills can make or break career of org. Elements of Communication Encoding Perception & Interpretation Message Nonverbal Communication s Channel Communicator COMMUNICATION PROCESS Stimulus Filter Feedback Message Destination Medium Communication Process Social Context Sender Encodes Medium Decodes Receiver Feedback Noise Noise Basic Element in Communication Process Original Message Percentage of Understanding lost in communication 100 Percent Top mgt’s understanding 63 percent VP Understanding 56 percent General mgr’s understanding 40 percent Average Division mgr’s understanding Average 30 percent Information Unit mgr’s understanding Information 20 percent Loss Employee’s understanding Loss FEEDBACK: Process of verifying messages & receiver’s attempts to ensure - message be decoded is what sender really meant to convey. Through feedback, communication becomes dynamic, two-way Process rather than just event. Meant To avoid communication failure as it provides preliminary info to sender. Listening: Key to interrupting Mgr must avoidUnderstand subordinates & putting them on defensive. To elicit honest feedback, mgr should develop atmosphere of trust & confidence & Supportive Leadership Style, With de-emphasis on status. Characteristics of Effective & Ineffective Feedback Effective Feedback Ineffective Feedback 1. Intended to help the employee. 1. Intended to belittle the employee. 2. Specific. 2. General. 3. Descriptive. 3. Judgmental. 4. Useful. 4. Inappropriate. 5. Timely. 5. Untimely. 6. Willingly heard by employee. 6. Makes the employee defensive. 7. Clear. 7. Not understandable. 8. Valid. 8. Inaccurate. Dr. Sajid, Communication, Oct 2k8 Noise Internal or external interference with or distraction form intended message. Can cause distortion in sending & receiving of messages. In addition to physical conditions- make communication more difficult- Emotional states can also create noise. Some Basic Truths about Communication Meanings sent are not always received. Meaning is in the mind. Symbols of communication - imperfect. Elements of Good Talking Voice Quality Talking Style Word Choice & Vocabulary Listening: Key to Understand Rushed, Never-listening mgr will Seldom Get Objective View of Function of Org. How to overcome Communication Roadblocks ? • Effective Listening • Reading body language • Effective Speaking • Skill Training The Process of Listening Types of Listening Active vs. Passive Positive vs. Negative What Kind is it? Appreciative Empathic Discriminative Analytical Effective Listening Behaviors that support effective listening Behaviors that hinder effective listening Effective Listening Behaviors that support effective listening • Maintaining relaxed body posture • Leaning slightly forward if sitting • Facing person squarely at eye level • Maintaining an open posture • Maintaining appropriate distance • Offering simple acknowledgements • Reflecting meaning (paraphrase) • Reflecting emotions • Using eye contact • Providing non-distracting environment Effective Listening Behaviors that hinder effective listening • Acting distracted• No response • Invalidating response, put downs • Interrupting • Criticizing • Judging • Diagnosing • Giving advice/solutions • Changing the subject • Reassuring without acknowledgment Importance of Listening "There is none so blind as those who will not listen." (William Slater) Test of Listening "If you don't agree with me it means you haven't been listening.“ (Sam Markewich.) When people talk, listen completely. Most people never listen. Franklin Delano Roosevelt "Listening looks easy, but it's not that simple. Every head is a world." ---Cuban proverb "Do not save your loving speeches for your friends till they are dead; do not write them on their tombstones, speak them rather now instead." --- Anna Cummins Time, Empathy, & Concentration on communicator's messages are Prerequisites for understanding. People want to be heard, want to be taken seriously, want to be understood. "Effective communications starts with listening." --Robert Gately Importance of Listening Exists as first verbal skill people learn Accounts for most of communication time Ranks hi in business Requires high in business Requires clear thinking, patience motivation, & hard work Often overestimated in effectiveness Truly listening to someone is one of the greatest gifts we give to each other. Listening from our hearts- open and waiting for the other to speak what is truly in their heart - is a ministry of hospitality. It is holy work. Speaking from the heart takes courage – to risk & be vulnerable with another." Kay Lindahl Nature of Listening Sensing Filtering Remembering "How often could things be remedied by a word. How often is it left unspoken." -- Norman Douglas "Silence is the training ground for the art of listening." -- Linda Douty, "Remember that silence is sometimes the best answer." - Dalai Lama "Responsible Listening is speaking we do to prove to the other person that we understand what his or her total message said. saves us from attacking & defending. allows for no judgment of the other person's character. Its only function is to present, what speaker meant at this moment, in this conversation. Listening is suspension of judgments- until we gain new info" Peter deLisser The Listening Process Begins with symbols - entering receiver’s sensory world Involves process of selective perception Depends upon listener’s (a) sensory limitations, (b) degree of alertness, (c) conditioning Entails Nervous system & filtering by the mind Continues with search for ways to express meaning Ends by sending message More & Less Effective Listening Skills Active, focused Passive, laid back Pays attention Easily distracted Asks questions Asks no question Keeps open mind Has preconceptions Assimilates Disregards information information Comparison of Non-listening & Active Listening Non-listening Active Listening Orientation toward self Orientation toward others Little use of mind (thinking) Significant use of mind Lack of etiquette Good application of etiquette Inattention to principles of effect Effective use of principles of No consideration of alternate effect messages Consideration of alternate Little empathy messages Casual attention to meaning Much empathy Intense attention to meaning Emphasis on winning Emphasis on understanding Little personal involvement Much personal involvement Inattention to nonverbal Focus on nonverbal communication communication Results in conflict Results in rapport Improving Listening Ability Commit to improve Focus attention Cultivate accuracy of filtering Concentrate on remembering Apply techniques Our first responsibility as effective listeners is to understand ourselves as communicators. Just as the sources of the communication message should be trained in self-intra personal communication, so, too, should listeners know themselves." --- Carolyn Coakley The Ten Commandments of Listening Stop talking Put talker at ease Show talker you want to listen Remove distractions Empathize with talker Be patient Hold your temper Go easy on argument and criticism Ask questions Stop talking “Writing is thinking on paper. Anyone who thinks clearly should be able to write clearly about any subject at all.” William Zinsser, Author -- On Writing Well Some Tips for Improving Written Communication Many people fall into habit of using technical jargon that can be understood only by experts in same field. Common problems in written communications are that writers omit conclusion or bury it in report, are too wordy, & use poor grammar, ineffective sentence structure, & incorrect spelling. Some Tips for Improving Written Communication Use simple words & phrases. Use short & familiar words Use personal pronouns (such as “you”) whenever appropriate. Give illustrations & examples; use charts. Use short sentences & paragraphs. Use active verbs, as in “Mgr plan…” Avoid unnecessary words. Orgl Skills Three orgl skills - Enhance comm effectiveness for both sender & receiver – a. Follow up b. Regulating info flow c. Understanding richness of different media. Following up simply involves checking at later time to be sure that message received & understood. Regulating information flow –sender or receiver takes steps to ensure that overload does not occur. Managing Communication Within Diverse Orgs Communication permeates every org. Some messages are clear effective; others cause confusion & errors. some messages sent throughout org contain misinfo or secret info- impede org processes. Formal communication follows chain of command & is recognized as official. Vertical Info: Flow of info both up & down chain of command. Involves exchange of message b/w two or more levels in org. The more elaborate our means of communication, the less we communicate. Kin Hubbard Flow of communication At the workplace * Upward From subordinates to superior * Downward From superiors to the subordinates * Lateral From one employee to another Types of communication Formal Informal COMMUNICATION NETWORKS Formal communication network : follows the hierarchical structure of the organization, or the "chain of command." Informal communication network: involves communication that follows the "grapevine." Formal Communication HEAD Instructions and directives Information Managers Managers Workers Workers Workers Workers Efforts at coordination Formal Communication Channels. Official structure of an org. Typically shown by org chart of any org. A box -link in the Chain of Command. A line-for formal channel for transmission. Type of Communication Communicating among members of an org. Formal communication channels. Informal communication channels. Formal Communication Channels. Downward information flow. Upward information flow. Horizontal information flow. DIRECTION OF COMMUNICATION FLOW Downward communication flows from upper management down to the employees at lower ranks. Job instruction Ideology Information Feedback Upward communication is initiated by those at the lower levels of the organization positive timely support current policy Downward Communication Flows from people at hi to lower levels in org hierarchy. Esp. in org with “Authoritarian Atmosphere”. Media for oral downward communication- instructions, speeches, meetings, telephone, loudspeakers, even grapevine. Memo, letters, handbooks, pamphlets, policy statements, procedures, electronic news displays. Info lost/distorted -comes down chain of command. Top mgt issuance of policies- does not ensure communication. Directives -not understood or read. Feedback essential for finding out whether info perceived as intended. Downward flow of info through org- time-consuming. Delays - frustrating - top mgrs insist info sent directly to person requiring it. Upward Communication From subordinates to superiors - continues up hierarchy. Hindered by mgrs in communication chain - filter messages - transmit info- unfavorable news to bosses. Objective transmission of info essential for control. Upper mgt needs to know production performance, marketing info, financial data, what lower-level employees thinking. Primarily nondirective - found in participative - democratic orgs. Suggestion systems- appeal - grievance procedures, complaint Systems, Counseling sessions, joint setting of objectives, Grapevine, group meetings, practice open-door policy, oral Questionnaires, exit interviews, ombudsperson. Upward Communication Ombudsman-. Originated in Sweden, - civil servant to investigate complaints about fed bureaucracy. Companies established position for person - investigates employees’ concerns. Anheuser-Busch, Control Data, GE, McDonnell Douglas & AT&T few companies using ombudsperson in 1986, suggesting workers trust person. Position provide “Valuable Upward Communication Link” - front-page scandals & legal costs by grinning improprieties - attention of appropriate person before problems. Effective communication requires environment - subordinates feel to communicate. Org climate influenced by upper mgt, creating free flow communication rests with superiors. CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION Face to Face Interactive TV - high speed connections (two way) Video-Voice / Data Channel (one way) Telephone E-mail Personal written correspondence Formal written message Public speaking Data Reports Broadcast e- mails / reports Formal & Informal Commun networks in a Div of a Small Mnfg Company Department Manager Supervisor Supervisor Navy Solid Lines = Formal Network Coral Dashed Lines = Informal Network (at a moment in time, for they change often) Formal Communication Channels. Distortion: misunderstanding or communication errors at different communication links in the chain. To reduce distortion reduce number of levels in the structure. Flat structure & wide span of control. Fragmented info. (isolated), Less flexibility. Informal Communication Channels. Grapevine: Supplements formal channels. 80% of info that travels around through grapevine is business related & 75_95% is accurate. Informal channels increase as organization has closed formal channels. Common Grapevine Chains Found in Org Gossip Chain Cluster Chain (One person tells many) (Many people tell few) COMMUNICATION PATTERNS Vertical: Downward • rationale for doing jobs • organization’s policies, practices • performance appraisals • sense of mission Vertical: Upward • reports on work, progress • unsolved problems requiring managerial assistanc • Suggestions and ideas • Subordinates’ feelings about jobs, co-workers, the organization Horizontal • task coordination • information sharing • problem solving • conflict resolution • peer support TM 14-6 CENTRALIZED COMMUNICATION NETWORKS Y X Chain x x X DECENTRALIZED COMMUNICATION NETWORKS Circle All-channel External Communication Network. Communication in and out of an organization. Types: Formal contacts with outsiders Informal contacts with outsiders. Devolution of responsibility. Performance based reward system. Quality teams. Suggestion schemes. Special newsletters. Mgt by Wandering Around-Informal Commn Popular form of informal communication Basic idea -some mgrs keep in touch with what’s going on by wandering around & talking with people – immediate subordinates, subordinates far down orgl hierarchy, delivery people, customers, or anyone else who is involved with company in some way. Bill Marriott, frequently visits kitchens, loading docks, & custodial work areas when-ever he tours Marriott hotel. Claims that by talking with employee throughout hotel, he gets new ideas & has better feel for entire company. CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION VOCAL NON-VOCAL VERBAL SPOKEN WORDS WRITTEN WORDS NON- SIGH FACIAL EXPRESSION VERBAL GRUNT POSTURE / GESTURE INFLECTION SPATIAL RELATIONSHIP Non-Verbal Communication: People send messages to each other without talking. They communicate through facial expressions, head positions, arm and hand movements, body posture, positioning of legs & feet, and the way people use “space” Body Language • Interpreting body language is vital in any communication process • Observe the body movements and postures • Match the other person’s body language, if appropriate and if required. Types of Nonverbal Communication Body Language Space Time Para language Color Layout and Design Types of Nonverbal Communication: Kinesic behavior,-body motion such as gestures, facial expressions, eye behavior, touching,- Body movement. Physical characteristics- body shape, physique, posture, height, weight, hair, & skin color. Paralanguage- Voice quality, volume, speech rate, pitch, & laughing. Environment- Building & room design, furniture & interior decorating, light noise, & cleanliness. Time-Being late or early, keeping others waiting, & other relationships between time & status. Reading Body Language Unspoken message Behavior “ I’m nervous Clearing throat Expelling air (such as “Whew!”) Placing hand over mouth while speaking Hurried cigarette smoking “I’m superior to you.” Peering over tops of eyeglasses Pointing a finger Standing behind a desk & leaning palms down on it Holding jacket leaps while speaking Interpersonal Communication From Advantages Disadvantages Oral 1. Promotes feedback 1. May suffer form & interchange. inaccuracies. 2. It easy to use 2. Leaves no permanent record. 3. Seldom time for thoughtful response. Written 1. Tends to be more 1. Inhibits feedback & accurate. interchange. 2. Provides record of 2. Is more difficult & time communication. consuming. Communication Audit One way to improve communication in org is to conduct communication audit. Such audit is tool for examining communication policies, networks & activities. Organizational communication is viewed as group of communication factors related to organizational goals. Communication Audit One way to improve communication in org is to conduct communication audit. Such audit is tool for examining communication policies, networks & activities. Organizational communication is viewed as group of communication factors related to organizational goals. COMMUNICATING THORUGH TECHNOLOGY E-mail. Electronic meeting software. Video conferencing software. Whiteboard software. Group scheduling software. The Internet Internet is a network of networks. Network is a group of computers that are connected to share the information. LAN-WAN. Concept of a PAPERLESS ORGANIZATION. Barriers to Effective Communication Despite its apparent simplicity, communication process rarely operates flawlessly. Barriers interfere with organizational excellence. Consequently, info transmitted form one party to another -Distorted, & communication problems -result. Communication -Barriers Process Barrier Every Step in Communication process is necessary for effective communication. Blocked steps become barriers. Following situations: Sender barrier. A management trainee with unusual new idea fails to speak up at meeting for fear of criticism. Encoding barrier. A Boluchi-speaking factory worker cannot get Sindahi-speaking supervisor to understand grievance about working conditions. Process Barriers Medium Barrier. After getting no answer three times & busy signal twice, customer concludes that a store’s consumer hot line is waste of time. Decoding Barrier. A restaurant mgr does not understand unfamiliar computer jargon during a sales presentation for laptop computers. Receiver barrier. A mgr who is preoccupied with preparation of budget asks clerk to repeat earlier statement. Feedback barrier. During on-the-job training, failure of trainee ask any questions causes mgr to wonder if any real understanding what is being taken place. Choosing appropriate medium is especially important for mgrs who must overcome physical barriers. A mgr with a soft voice can reach hundreds of people by using a sound system. Physical Barriers Sometimes physical object blocks effective communication. For example, a Factory worker, who wears ear protectors probably could not hear someone yelling : “Fire!” Distance is another physical barrier. Thousand of miles between New York & Islamabad & time-zone difference can complicate communication in a global org. Semantics is study of meaning of words. Words are indispensable, thought they can sometimes cause a great deal of trouble. Mgrs in such fields as accounting, computer science, or advertising may become so accustomed to their own technical language that they forget that people outside their field may not understand them. Unexpected reactions or behavior by others may signal a semantic barrier. Psychological . & social barriers are probably responsible for more blocked communication than any other type of barrier. People’s backgrounds, racial prejudice, distrust of opposite sex, or lack of self-confidence Distrust, Threat & Fear Undermine communication. In climate with forces, any message will be viewed with skepticism. Distrust can be result of inconsistent behavior by superior, or it can be due to past experiences - subordinate punished for honestly reporting unfavorable, but true, information to boss. In light of threats – whether real or imagined – people tend to tighten up, become defensive, & distort information. Inadequate knowledge Conflicting signals N Differences O V in interpretations N E V R Differences in E Language perception B differences R A B L Inappropriate A Use of expressions Inappropriate emotions L Ambiguity Distraction Polarization Barriers Within Organizations. Info overload. Message complexity. Message competition. Differing status. Lack of trust. Inadequate structures. Closed communication climate. Unethical communication. Inefficient communication. Physical distraction. Incorrect choice of medium. Media richness Info Overload Occurs when amount of info -process is exceeded. Mgr’s responsibility in disseminator role is to filter large volumes of info & distribute it appropriately. Info overloaded lead to: Failing to process or ignoring some of info. Processing info incorrectly. Delaying processing of info until info overload abates. Searching for people to help process some of info. Lowering quality of info processing. Withdrawing from info flow.
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