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					         THE QUALITY OF YOUR LIFE
 IS THE QUALITY OF YOUR COMMUNICATION ~
      BOTH WITH YOURSELF & OTHERS
29 March 2013                        2
Rebuild Your Life
          Through


Effective Communication
    Dr Ali Sajid, PhD,
           PEC,
        ISLAMABAD
Don’t curse the
darkness light a
    candle
     Chinese Proverb
Sharing of Resources

"A candle loses
   nothing by
    Lighting
another candle"
If you have your sight,
     you are blessed.
If you have insight, you
   are a thousand times
          blessed.

                            7
        Words Are Energy
 Never use words like defeats, failure &
  problem. Always talk of “Hope, Belief,
  Faith, Victory & Success.”
 When you use a Positive word, a wave of
  Positive word, engulfs you, raising your
  Energy Levels & Putting you in a
 “Winning Frame of Mind.”
           Words are Energy use
           them in your favour!!
To be conscious that you
 are ignorant is a great
   step to knowledge.
        - Benjamin Disraeli
    Doing is Believing
 "I hear and I forget. I
   see and I remember.
I do and I understand."
      (Confucius 551-479 BC)
        Communication
 "He who wishes to talk
  well must first think
  well.”
 "When you speak, your
  speech should be better
  than your silence would
  have been." (Origin unknown)
          New Style?

"I praise loudly.
I blame softly.“
 (Catherine the Great, 1729-1796.)
   Test of Intellect

"Whoever in debate
quotes authority uses
  not intellect, but
     memory."
      (Leonardo Da Vinci)
          Good Writing
"What is written without effort
 is in general read without
 pleasure."
(Samuel Johnson.)
 Bad Attitude of Employee
Don’t waste your time
   trying to change
      employees,
Who have bad attitudes
 Inn Pareen a Kaleesa koo Kaleesa say
               hatta doon
"Great speakers are not born, they're
 trained."
 -- Dale Carnegie

 "Perhaps you will forget
 tomorrow the kind words you
 say today, but the recipient may
 cherish them over a lifetime.“
 Dale Carnegie
    Conversation with Wise Man
“A single conversation
with a wise man is better
than ten years of study.”
--Chinese Proverb
                   Light

 Be a light, not a judge.
 Be a model, not a critic.
 - Stephen Covey
"Communication skills are the lifeblood of a
  successful life...if you plan on spending any
  time there..."
 -- Doug Firebaugh


  "Communication is really all anyone ever
 gets paid for ultimately...and if you cannot
 effectively communicate...you will PAY...not
 get paid..."

 -- Doug Firebaugh
"Little deeds of kindness, little words of
  love, help to make earth happy like the
  heaven above."
 Julia A. Fletcher Carney

Of all the things you wear, your
 expression is the most important
"You are not only
 responsible for what
 you say, but also for
 what you do not say."
 – Martin Luther
"Kind words can be
 short and easy to
  speak, but their
  echoes are truly
     endless."
 - Mother Theresa of Calcuta
Challenge

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
                        Management Process
Planning   Organizing                       Leading   Controlling




                            Communication



                          External
                             Environment
                           Customers
                           Suppliers
                           Stockholders
                           Governments
                           Community
                           others
 Purpose & Function of Communication
          Mgrl Effectiveness Through
                Communication

 You Spend Most of Your Time at Work
  Communicating.
 Your Success- Based on Strong Communication
  Skills.
 Communication Is Becoming in Increasingly
  Important In Increased Globalization, Diversity
  Workplace Specialization.
 Communication Tech Offers New Opportunities of
  Communicate More Often & More Efficiently Than
  Ever Before.
                        
    Managerial Function of Communication
 Managers have three basic jobs.
 Collect Information : Collect relevant info from
  conversations, phone calls, memos, office memo,
  Reports, databases, & internet.

 Convey Info & Decision : To inside & outside org
  through speeches, press releases, videos, memos,
  letters.

 Promote Interpersonal Unity :
Motivate people through speeches, conversations on
  lunch & on ceremonies & through walking around.
( garmoo ghamoo ka lahoo zooq a yaqan say)


.
 Toward Effective Communication

                    Org goal




  Goals-related                 Communication
    behavior                   network objectives




 Communication                   Communication
    activities                      policies


Relationship of Communication Factors to Org Goals
                   Mgr as nerve centre in
                  Info Processing Network

          Manager as monitor
         Gathers external info               Manager as monitor
      (through liaison role) form            Gathers internal info
      contacts, informers, peers,            (through leader role)
              & experts                       Form subordinates



        Manager as nerve center in information-processing network



 Mgr as disseminator
Distributes information               Mgr as spokesperson
    to subordinates
   Need for Communication


    • Very strong in Human beings
    • Considered as a basic need,
as in the case of eating, sleeping, etc.
   • Established as both a social &
            individual need
            Interpersonal Communication

Three Broad Types
Oral, Written, Nonverbal
Oral Communication: Consists of all forms of spoken info\
Most preferred type of communication used by mgrs.
Mgrs prefer face-to-face & telephone communication to
    written communication because it permits immediate
    feedback.
Written Communication: letters, memos, policy manuals,
    reports, forms, & other documents used to share info in org.
Nonverbal Communication Involves all messages -               non
    language responses. Anything that sends message.
Mgrs often underestimate its importance. Hidden messages & can
    influence process & outcomes of face-to-face communication.
     The Importance of Communication Skills as
         Expressed by Business Authorities
“Top executives from Fortune 500 companies rate
 communications skills as the most important quality
 for business leaders.”
                          New York Times
                          Business Section


“There may be no single thing more important in our
 efforts to achieve meaningful work and fulfilling
 relationships than to learn and practice the art of
 communication.”
                          The Art of Leadership
                          Max De Pree, Author
Evidence of Communication Weakness in Business

      “I’m surprised how so many
            people struggle
         with communication.”
                   --Michael Rook, Production Manager
                       Hewlett Packard, San Diego, CA

                    “The first thing the H R
              Department did was give me a
                             writing book.”
                          --Sam Reeves, IT Consultant
                                    AMS, Denver, CO
     Cost of Correspondence
 One page business letter that took 10
  minutes to dicate cost between $13.60
  and $20.52 in 1996.
 Poor writing costs even more since it
 Waste Time.
 Wastes Effort.
 Jeopardizes goodwill.
   )




Communication is shared
feelings/shared understanding.

If you can honestly achieve that
goal, you are communicating.
Who Is Responsible?

 The Communicator.


              How Much Is The
            Communicator Responsible?



                       60 Percent!
29 March 2013   36
29 March 2013   37
Think > listen > talk
29 March 2013       38
Why is
communication
important ?
•   Inspires confidence
•   Builds respect
•   Helps make friends
•   Reveals your ability to others
•   Develops a distinct personality
29 March 2013                         39
          We need to
  improve communication... as

70 % of our communication efforts are:
 misunderstood
 misinterpreted
 rejected
 distorted or
 not heard

   29 March 2013                         40
         Communication in Organizations
                     Chief Executive Officer




 Sales   Legal   Production      Financal       Enginering        HR
Manage
   r

      Plant        Plant              Plant
     Manager      Manager            Manager


                                               Diagonal communication
                                            Horizontal or lateral
                                              communication
                                            Upward and downward
                                               communication
                     Copy Rights Dr Sajid
29 March 2013   42
43   29 March 2013
PEOPLE ARE INFLUENCED,
PROBLEMS ARE SOLVED,
CHANGES ARE FACILITATED,
EXCELLENT RELATIONSHIPS ARE DEVELOPED,
DESIRED RESULTS ARE ACHIEVED, AND

SUCCESS IS ENSURED.




  29 March 2013                          44
           PLAYS A VITAL ROLE
       IN DISCOVERING OURSELVES &
           THE WORLD AROUND US




29 March 2013                  45
IS NOT JUST GETTING
     THE MESSAGE ACROSS
   BUT ITS ACCEPTANCE
     FROM ITS INTENDED RECEIVERS
     WHICH CAUSES
     THE EXPECTED BEHAVIOUR
     FROM THE RECEIVERS
     OF THE MESSAGE

ONLY THEN, THE RECEIVERS
     WILL BE WILLING TO
     CONVERT THE COMMUNICATION
          INTO ACTION
29 March 2013                      47
  LISTEN TO,
  OBSERVE &
  INTERPRET
                ALL FORMS OF LANGUAGE
                IS ESSENTIAL FOR
                EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

29 March 2013                             48
      Communication
   is a two-way process
of giving and receiving info
   through one or more
   number of channels.
         Communication

Communication
    is the process of sending and
 receiving    messages
        Importance Of Communication

 Organizational / Functional: greater info access &
  awareness
 Improves coordination: reduces logical gaps
 Encourages cooperation: helps bring everyone in th
  mainstream
 Gives a direction: to tasks and activities
 Morale and empowerment
 Decision making aid
 Speeds up orgal processes
 Better focus on customer requirements
 Generates a greater sense of orgal commitment
  & involvement
 A Problem Solving Tool: by clarity, preciseness &
  feedback
What needs to be communicated


Information/data   +      Attitudes

                          Values
                          Moods
                          Emotions
Communication is a process through
   which mgrs coordinate, lead, &
    influence their subordinates.
Ability to communicate effectively –
 considered by most mgrs critical in
  determining managerial success.
  Ability involves broad array of activities,
        “Reading, listening, managing &
  interpreting info, serving clients, writing,
       speech-making, & use of symbolic
                   gestures”.
  Communication relates, directly to basic
                mgt functions.
Delegation, Coordination, & Org change &
 Development also Entail Communication.
 Essential Tool for People Who Want to Stay
  in Touch With Rest of World.
              Developing
          “Reward systems &
    interacting with subordinates”
   as part of Leading function etc –
     Impossible w/o some form of
             communication
 Essential to: Establishing standards,
Monitoring performance, & Taking
 corrective actions. Pervasive part of
 virtually all managerial activates.
  The bridge between our
     separate realities is
     communication . . .
To communicate is to relate."
         -- Layne and Paul Cutright
              Communication in Org

 In Enterprises, info must flow faster.
 Short stoppage on fast-moving production line -
  costly - lost output.
 Production Problems communicated quickly for
  corrective action
 Info increased - frequently causing info overload.
 Need more relevant info.
 Necessary to have for effective decision making.
 Getting info from mgrs’ superiors &
 subordinates - from depts & people elsewhere org.
Communication
skills can make or
 break career of
        org.
       Elements of Communication
                     Encoding
                                    Perception &
                                   Interpretation


               Message
                                           Nonverbal
                                      Communication
                                           s
                         Channel




Communicator
COMMUNICATION PROCESS

 Stimulus          Filter




     Feedback     Message




 Destination      Medium
          Communication Process


                        Social Context



 Sender       Encodes     Medium         Decodes      Receiver

                          Feedback
          Noise                                    Noise



Basic Element in Communication Process
                  Original Message
       Percentage of Understanding lost in communication

                        100 Percent
                   Top mgt’s understanding

                        63 percent
                     VP Understanding

                          56 percent
                 General mgr’s understanding

                         40 percent
Average         Division mgr’s understanding       Average
                         30 percent
Information       Unit mgr’s understanding
                                               Information
                       20 percent
Loss             Employee’s understanding                  Loss
            FEEDBACK:
Process of verifying messages &
 receiver’s attempts to ensure -
 message be decoded is what
 sender really meant to convey.
 Through feedback,
  communication becomes
  dynamic, two-way Process
  rather than just event.
 Meant To avoid
  communication failure as it
  provides preliminary info to
  sender.
    Listening: Key to interrupting
 Mgr must avoidUnderstand
            subordinates
 & putting them on defensive.
  To elicit honest feedback,
mgr should develop atmosphere
     of trust & confidence
& Supportive Leadership Style,
 With de-emphasis on status.
                          Characteristics of Effective &
                             Ineffective Feedback
                  Effective Feedback                Ineffective Feedback
1. Intended to help the employee.           1. Intended to belittle the employee.

2. Specific.                                2. General.

3. Descriptive.                             3. Judgmental.

4. Useful.                                  4. Inappropriate.

5. Timely.                                  5. Untimely.

6. Willingly heard by employee.             6. Makes the employee defensive.

7. Clear.                                   7. Not understandable.

8. Valid.                                   8. Inaccurate.



                         Dr. Sajid, Communication, Oct 2k8
               Noise
Internal or external interference with
     or distraction form intended
               message.
Can cause distortion in sending &
receiving of messages. In addition to
physical       conditions-       make
communication more difficult-
  Emotional states can also create
                 noise.
 Some Basic Truths about
  Communication
 Meanings sent are not always
  received.
  Meaning is in the mind.
  Symbols of communication -
  imperfect.
        Elements of Good Talking
 Voice Quality
 Talking Style
 Word Choice & Vocabulary
 Listening: Key to Understand
     Rushed, Never-listening mgr will
      Seldom Get Objective View of
             Function of Org.
    How to overcome
Communication Roadblocks ?

     • Effective Listening
  • Reading body language
     • Effective Speaking
        • Skill Training
The Process of
  Listening
      Types of Listening
 Active vs. Passive
 Positive vs. Negative

 What Kind is it?
     Appreciative
     Empathic
     Discriminative
     Analytical
Effective Listening
Behaviors that support
  effective listening

 Behaviors that hinder
   effective listening
Effective Listening


Behaviors that support effective listening

• Maintaining relaxed body posture
• Leaning slightly forward if sitting
• Facing person squarely at eye level
• Maintaining an open posture
• Maintaining appropriate distance
• Offering simple acknowledgements
• Reflecting meaning (paraphrase)
• Reflecting emotions
• Using eye contact
• Providing non-distracting environment
Effective Listening

Behaviors that hinder effective listening
• Acting distracted• No response
• Invalidating response, put downs
• Interrupting
• Criticizing
• Judging
• Diagnosing
• Giving advice/solutions
• Changing the subject
• Reassuring without acknowledgment
Importance of Listening

"There is none so
blind as those who
  will not listen."
      (William Slater)
    Test of Listening
"If you don't agree with
     me it means you
          haven't
     been listening.“
       (Sam Markewich.)
When people talk,
 listen completely.
 Most people never
 listen.
       Franklin Delano Roosevelt
"Listening looks easy, but it's
 not that simple. Every head is
 a world."
 ---Cuban proverb

"Do not save your loving speeches
 for your friends till they are dead;
do not write them on their
 tombstones, speak them rather
 now instead."
 --- Anna Cummins
      Time, Empathy, &
       Concentration on
        communicator's
          messages are
Prerequisites for understanding.
  People want to be heard,
 want to be taken seriously,
   want to be understood.
"Effective communications
 starts with listening."
 --Robert Gately
       Importance of Listening
 Exists as first verbal skill people learn
 Accounts for most of communication
  time
 Ranks hi in business
 Requires high in business
 Requires clear thinking, patience
  motivation, & hard work
 Often overestimated in effectiveness
 Truly listening to someone is one of the greatest
              gifts we give to each other.

 Listening from our hearts- open and waiting for
  the other to speak what is truly in their heart - is
               a ministry of hospitality.
                   It is holy work.
     Speaking from the heart takes courage –
       to risk & be vulnerable with another."

                    Kay Lindahl
      Nature of Listening
 Sensing
 Filtering
 Remembering
"How often could things be
  remedied by a word. How
  often is it left unspoken."
  -- Norman Douglas
"Silence is the training ground
  for the art of listening."
 -- Linda Douty,
"Remember that
 silence is
 sometimes the
 best answer."
- Dalai Lama
"Responsible Listening is speaking we do to
  prove to the other person that we
  understand what his or her total message
  said.
saves us from attacking & defending.
 allows for no judgment of the other person's
  character.
Its only function is to present, what speaker
  meant at this moment, in this conversation.
Listening is suspension of judgments-
until we gain new info"
 Peter deLisser
              The Listening Process
 Begins with symbols - entering receiver’s sensory
   world
 Involves process of selective perception
 Depends upon listener’s
 (a) sensory limitations,
 (b) degree of alertness,
 (c) conditioning
 Entails Nervous system & filtering by the mind
 Continues with search for ways to express meaning
 Ends by sending message
        More & Less Effective Listening Skills

Active, focused                         Passive, laid back




 Pays attention                         Easily distracted




 Asks questions                         Asks no question




Keeps open mind                        Has preconceptions



  Assimilates                             Disregards
  information                             information
          Comparison of Non-listening & Active
                       Listening
       Non-listening                       Active Listening
Orientation toward self                  Orientation toward others
Little use of mind (thinking)            Significant use of mind
Lack of etiquette                        Good application of etiquette
Inattention to principles of effect      Effective use of principles of
No consideration of alternate             effect
messages                                 Consideration of alternate
Little empathy                            messages
Casual attention to meaning              Much empathy
                                         Intense attention to meaning
Emphasis on winning
                                         Emphasis on understanding
Little personal involvement              Much personal involvement
Inattention to nonverbal                 Focus on nonverbal
communication                             communication
Results in conflict                      Results in rapport
        Improving Listening Ability
   Commit to improve
   Focus attention
   Cultivate accuracy of filtering
   Concentrate on remembering
   Apply techniques
 Our first responsibility as effective
 listeners is to understand ourselves
           as communicators.
      Just as the sources of the
 communication message should be
      trained in self-intra personal
    communication, so, too, should
      listeners know themselves."
          --- Carolyn Coakley
    The Ten Commandments of Listening
   Stop talking
   Put talker at ease
   Show talker you want to listen
   Remove distractions
   Empathize with talker
   Be patient
   Hold your temper
   Go easy on argument and criticism
   Ask questions
   Stop talking
“Writing is thinking
 on paper. Anyone
 who thinks clearly
 should be able to
 write clearly about
 any subject at all.” William Zinsser, Author
                    --
                                  On Writing Well
       Some Tips for Improving Written
              Communication
   Many people fall into habit of using
technical jargon that can be understood
     only by experts in same field.
     Common problems in written
 communications are that writers omit
 conclusion or bury it in report, are too
wordy, & use poor grammar, ineffective
sentence structure, & incorrect spelling.
        Some Tips for Improving Written
               Communication
Use simple words & phrases.
Use short & familiar words
Use personal pronouns (such as “you”)
whenever appropriate.
Give illustrations & examples; use charts.
Use short sentences & paragraphs.
Use active verbs, as in “Mgr plan…”
Avoid unnecessary words.
                        Orgl Skills

Three orgl skills - Enhance comm effectiveness for both
sender & receiver –
a. Follow up
b. Regulating info flow
c. Understanding richness of different media.
Following up simply involves checking at later time
        to be sure that message received & understood.
Regulating information flow –sender or receiver takes steps to
             ensure that overload does not occur.
    Managing Communication Within Diverse Orgs

Communication permeates every org.
Some messages are clear effective; others cause
confusion & errors.
some messages sent throughout org contain misinfo or
secret info- impede org processes.
Formal communication follows chain of command & is
recognized as official.
Vertical Info: Flow of info both up & down chain of
command. Involves exchange of message b/w two or
more levels in org.
 The more elaborate our means of
  communication, the less we
  communicate. Kin Hubbard
         Flow of communication

At the workplace
* Upward
 From subordinates to superior
* Downward
  From superiors to the subordinates
* Lateral
  From one employee to another
      Types of communication

 Formal




Informal
  COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
 Formal communication network :
    follows the hierarchical structure
    of the organization,
    or the "chain of command."

 Informal communication network:
     involves communication
    that follows the "grapevine."
Formal Communication

                                    HEAD




                                                                    Instructions and directives
Information




                    Managers                        Managers




              Workers     Workers           Workers       Workers



                               Efforts at coordination
   Formal Communication Channels.
         Official structure of an org.
  Typically shown by org chart of any org.
   A box -link in the Chain of Command.
 A line-for formal channel for transmission.
           Type of Communication
Communicating among members of
  an org.
Formal communication channels.
Informal communication channels.
      Formal Communication
            Channels.
 Downward information flow.

 Upward information flow.

 Horizontal information flow.
       DIRECTION OF COMMUNICATION FLOW


Downward communication
    flows from upper management down
    to the employees at lower ranks.
        Job instruction
        Ideology
        Information
        Feedback

Upward communication
    is initiated by those at the lower levels of the organization
        positive
        timely
        support current policy
                Downward Communication

 Flows from people at hi to lower levels in org hierarchy.
 Esp. in org with “Authoritarian Atmosphere”.
 Media for oral downward communication- instructions,
  speeches, meetings, telephone, loudspeakers, even
  grapevine.
 Memo, letters, handbooks, pamphlets, policy statements,
  procedures, electronic news displays.
 Info lost/distorted -comes down chain of command.
 Top mgt issuance of policies- does not ensure
  communication.
 Directives -not understood or read.
 Feedback essential for finding out whether info perceived
  as intended.
 Downward flow of info through org- time-consuming.
 Delays - frustrating - top mgrs insist info sent directly to
  person requiring it.
              Upward Communication
 From subordinates to superiors - continues up
  hierarchy.
Hindered by mgrs in communication chain - filter messages
  - transmit info- unfavorable news to bosses.
 Objective transmission of info essential for control.
Upper mgt needs to know production performance,
  marketing info, financial data, what lower-level
  employees thinking.
 Primarily nondirective - found in participative -
  democratic orgs.
 Suggestion systems- appeal - grievance procedures,
  complaint Systems,
 Counseling sessions, joint setting of objectives,
 Grapevine, group meetings, practice open-door policy,
  oral Questionnaires, exit interviews, ombudsperson.
              Upward Communication
 Ombudsman-. Originated in Sweden, - civil servant to
  investigate complaints about fed bureaucracy.
 Companies established position for person - investigates
  employees’ concerns.
 Anheuser-Busch, Control Data, GE, McDonnell Douglas & AT&T
  few companies using ombudsperson in 1986, suggesting
  workers trust person.
 Position provide “Valuable Upward Communication Link” -
  front-page scandals & legal costs by grinning improprieties -
  attention of appropriate person before problems.
 Effective communication requires environment -
  subordinates feel to communicate.
 Org climate influenced by upper mgt, creating free flow
  communication rests with superiors.
CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION

    Face to Face
    Interactive TV - high speed connections (two way)
    Video-Voice / Data Channel (one way)
    Telephone
    E-mail
    Personal written correspondence
    Formal written message
    Public speaking
    Data Reports
    Broadcast e- mails / reports
Formal & Informal Commun networks in a
Div of a Small Mnfg Company
                                       Department
                                        Manager




               Supervisor                                      Supervisor




Navy Solid Lines = Formal Network
Coral Dashed Lines = Informal Network (at a moment in time, for they change often)
          Formal Communication Channels.

 Distortion: misunderstanding or communication
  errors at different communication links in the chain.
 To reduce distortion reduce number of levels in
  the structure.
 Flat structure & wide span of control.
 Fragmented info. (isolated), Less flexibility.
 Informal Communication Channels.
 Grapevine: Supplements formal channels.
 80% of info that travels around through grapevine is
  business related & 75_95% is accurate.
 Informal channels increase as organization has closed
  formal channels.
      Common Grapevine Chains Found in Org




     Gossip Chain            Cluster Chain
(One person tells many)   (Many people tell few)
COMMUNICATION PATTERNS
              Vertical:
              Downward
                • rationale for doing jobs
                • organization’s policies, practices
                • performance appraisals
                • sense of mission


              Vertical: Upward
              • reports on work, progress
              • unsolved problems requiring managerial assistanc
              • Suggestions and ideas
              • Subordinates’ feelings about jobs, co-workers,
                 the organization

               Horizontal
               • task coordination
               • information sharing
               • problem solving
               • conflict resolution
               • peer support
TM 14-6

           CENTRALIZED COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
                    Y               X           Chain



                                                  x
                    x               X




           DECENTRALIZED COMMUNICATION NETWORKS


          Circle                                        All-channel
     External Communication Network.
 Communication in and out of an organization.
Types:
 Formal contacts with outsiders
 Informal contacts with outsiders.
        Devolution of responsibility.
     Performance based reward system.
               Quality teams.
            Suggestion schemes.
            Special newsletters.
     Mgt by Wandering Around-Informal Commn

Popular form of informal communication
Basic idea -some mgrs keep in touch with what’s going
on by wandering around & talking with people –
immediate subordinates, subordinates far down orgl
hierarchy, delivery people, customers, or anyone else
who is involved with company in some way.
Bill Marriott, frequently visits kitchens, loading docks,
& custodial work areas when-ever he tours Marriott
hotel. Claims that by talking with employee throughout
hotel, he gets new ideas & has better feel for entire
company.
 CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION

            VOCAL        NON-VOCAL

VERBAL   SPOKEN WORDS    WRITTEN WORDS



 NON-        SIGH       FACIAL EXPRESSION

VERBAL
             GRUNT            POSTURE /
                              GESTURE

           INFLECTION           SPATIAL
                             RELATIONSHIP
Non-Verbal Communication:
People send messages to each other
          without talking.

    They communicate through
         facial expressions,
           head positions,
     arm and hand movements,
            body posture,
   positioning of legs & feet, and
    the way people use “space”
Body Language


• Interpreting body language is vital
     in any communication process
• Observe the body movements and postures
• Match the other person’s body language,
     if appropriate and if required.
          Types of Nonverbal
            Communication

   Body Language
   Space
   Time
   Para language
   Color
   Layout and Design
Types of Nonverbal Communication:

Kinesic behavior,-body motion such as gestures, facial
expressions, eye behavior, touching,- Body movement.

Physical characteristics- body shape, physique, posture,
   height, weight, hair, & skin color.

Paralanguage- Voice quality, volume, speech rate, pitch, &
laughing.

Environment- Building & room design, furniture & interior
decorating, light noise, & cleanliness.

Time-Being late or early, keeping others waiting, & other
relationships between time & status.
                  Reading Body Language


Unspoken message         Behavior
“ I’m nervous            Clearing throat
                         Expelling air (such as “Whew!”)
                         Placing hand over mouth while speaking
                         Hurried cigarette smoking
“I’m superior to you.”   Peering over tops of eyeglasses
                         Pointing a finger
                         Standing behind a desk & leaning palms
                         down on it
                         Holding jacket leaps while speaking
               Interpersonal Communication


From      Advantages                 Disadvantages
Oral      1.    Promotes feedback    1.   May      suffer     form
                & interchange.            inaccuracies.
          2.    It easy to use       2.   Leaves no permanent
                                          record.
                                     3.   Seldom       time     for
                                          thoughtful response.
Written   1.    Tends to be more     1.   Inhibits feedback &
                accurate.                 interchange.
          2.    Provides record of   2.   Is more difficult & time
                communication.            consuming.
            Communication Audit

One way to improve communication in org is to
       conduct communication audit.

     Such audit is tool for examining
communication policies, networks & activities.

  Organizational communication is viewed as
  group of communication factors related to
             organizational goals.
            Communication Audit

One way to improve communication in org is to
       conduct communication audit.

     Such audit is tool for examining
communication policies, networks & activities.

  Organizational communication is viewed as
  group of communication factors related to
             organizational goals.
       COMMUNICATING THORUGH TECHNOLOGY
                     E-mail.
          Electronic meeting software.
          Video conferencing software.
              Whiteboard software.
           Group scheduling software.

                    The Internet
             Internet is a network of networks.
Network is a group of computers that are connected to share
                      the information.
                          LAN-WAN.
     Concept of a PAPERLESS ORGANIZATION.
     Barriers to Effective Communication



Despite its apparent simplicity, communication
      process rarely operates flawlessly.

     Barriers interfere with organizational
                  excellence.

Consequently, info transmitted form one party
  to another -Distorted, & communication
              problems -result.
             Communication -Barriers
Process Barrier
 Every Step in Communication process is necessary
  for effective communication.
 Blocked steps become barriers.
 Following situations:

Sender barrier. A management trainee with unusual
  new idea fails to speak up at meeting for fear of
  criticism.

Encoding barrier. A Boluchi-speaking factory worker
  cannot get Sindahi-speaking supervisor to
  understand grievance about working conditions.
                       Process Barriers
Medium Barrier. After getting no answer three times &
busy signal twice, customer concludes that a store’s
consumer hot line is waste of time.
Decoding Barrier. A restaurant mgr does not understand unfamiliar
   computer jargon during a sales presentation for laptop computers.
Receiver barrier.
A mgr who is preoccupied with preparation of budget asks clerk to repeat
   earlier statement.
Feedback barrier.
During on-the-job training, failure of trainee ask any
questions causes mgr to wonder if any real understanding
what is being taken place.
Choosing appropriate medium is especially important for
mgrs who must overcome physical barriers.
A mgr with a soft voice can reach hundreds of people by
using a sound system.
            Physical Barriers

Sometimes physical object blocks effective
  communication.
For example, a Factory worker, who wears
  ear protectors probably could not hear
  someone yelling : “Fire!” Distance is
  another physical barrier.
Thousand of miles between New York &
  Islamabad & time-zone difference can
  complicate communication in a global org.
Semantics is study of meaning of words.
Words are indispensable, thought they can sometimes cause a
  great deal of trouble.
Mgrs in such fields as accounting, computer science, or
  advertising may become so accustomed to their own
  technical language that they forget that people outside
  their field may not understand them.
Unexpected reactions or behavior by others may signal a
  semantic barrier.
Psychological . & social barriers are probably responsible for
  more blocked communication than any other type of
  barrier.
People’s backgrounds, racial prejudice, distrust of opposite
  sex, or lack of self-confidence
               Distrust, Threat & Fear
Undermine communication.
In climate with forces, any message will be viewed
with skepticism.
Distrust can be result of inconsistent behavior by
superior, or it can be due to past experiences -
subordinate      punished for honestly reporting
unfavorable, but true, information to boss.

In light of threats – whether real or imagined – people
tend to tighten up, become defensive, & distort
information.
      Inadequate
      knowledge
                          Conflicting
                           signals        N
       Differences                        O
V   in interpretations                    N
E                                         V
R                        Differences in
                                          E
       Language            perception
B      differences                        R
A                                         B
L     Inappropriate                       A
    Use of expressions   Inappropriate
                           emotions       L
        Ambiguity

                           Distraction
       Polarization
         Barriers Within Organizations.
   Info overload.
   Message complexity.
   Message competition.
   Differing status.
   Lack of trust.
   Inadequate structures.
   Closed communication climate.
   Unethical communication.
   Inefficient communication.
   Physical distraction.
   Incorrect choice of medium.
     Media richness
                          Info Overload

Occurs when amount of info -process is
exceeded.
Mgr’s responsibility in disseminator role is to filter large volumes of info &
distribute it appropriately.
Info overloaded lead to:


Failing to process or ignoring some of info.
Processing info incorrectly.
Delaying processing of info until info overload abates.
Searching for people to help process some of info.
Lowering quality of info processing.
Withdrawing from info flow.

				
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