Biosensors Anthony Carr Brett Gobe Ben LaPierre What are biosensors? Detectors based on selective molecular components of plants or animals. Modern Biosensors evolved from 2 different disciplines Molecular Biology Information Technology. Offers a wide variety of applications. Medical Environmental Military / Law Enforcement Evolution of the Medical Biosensor Mid 1950’s - Leland C Clark invents an electrode that measures dissolved oxygen in the blood of patients undergoing surgery. He surrounded a platinum electrode and reference electrode with a plastic membrane permeable to gases. The voltage differential measured between the two gave the rate at which the oxygen was being diffused. Clark extended this electrode idea to include glucose sensors. However these never made their way into routine patient care. This was due to flaws in accuracy when clots formed around the electrode. Required Characteristics Sensitivity Utility Low detection limits Field portability Cost Ruggedness Simplicity Reproducibility Reliability Ease of calibration Speed Stability Accuracy Room for Precision improvement Biosensors Combine a biological compound with a transducer What is a transducer? Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) What is FIA? Uses of Biosensors Environmental Monitoring Military Law Enforcement Medical Present Applications of Biosensors Medical Care (both clinical and laboratory use) The determination of food quality The detection of environmental pollutants Industrial Process Control Applications (cont’d.) Biosensors in process control will be able to measure materials in the process flow of temperature, pressure and the acidity readings. The development of biosensors in industry can improve manufacturing techniques, which would allow for a wider range of sensing molecules to be produced at a cheaper rate. In the field of medicine, tumor cells are used as a biosensor to monitor chemotherapeutic drug susceptibilities. Biosensors also play a role in the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and replacement organs such as an artificial pancreas for diabetics. It is found that biosensors are widely used in environmental testing by using a “flow- through” system to monitor wastewater (a flow-through system includes instruments using surface plasmon resonance). These censors are not only restricted to the use of molecules. Rather living microorganisms such as bacteria can be used to detect substances such as vitamin B12. Conclusively, biosensors play a part in the field of medicine, environmental quality, and industry mainly by identifying material and the degree of concentration present. QUESTIONS?
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