What are biosensors?
Detectors based on selective molecular
components of plants or animals.
Modern Biosensors evolved from 2 different
Offers a wide variety of applications.
Military / Law Enforcement
Evolution of the Medical
Mid 1950’s - Leland C Clark invents an
electrode that measures dissolved oxygen in
the blood of patients undergoing surgery.
He surrounded a platinum electrode and
reference electrode with a plastic membrane
permeable to gases. The voltage differential
measured between the two gave the rate at
which the oxygen was being diffused.
Clark extended this electrode idea to include glucose
However these never made their way into routine patient
care. This was due to flaws in accuracy when clots
formed around the electrode.
Low detection limits Field portability
Reliability Ease of calibration
Accuracy Room for
Combine a biological compound with a
What is a transducer?
Flow Injection Analysis
What is FIA?
Uses of Biosensors
Present Applications of
Medical Care (both clinical and
The determination of food quality
The detection of environmental
Industrial Process Control
Biosensors in process control will be able to measure
materials in the process flow of temperature, pressure
and the acidity readings.
The development of biosensors in industry can
improve manufacturing techniques, which would allow
for a wider range of sensing molecules to be
produced at a cheaper rate.
In the field of medicine, tumor cells are used as a
biosensor to monitor chemotherapeutic drug
Biosensors also play a role in the manufacturing of
pharmaceuticals and replacement organs such as an
artificial pancreas for diabetics.
It is found that biosensors are widely used in
environmental testing by using a “flow-
through” system to monitor wastewater (a
flow-through system includes instruments
using surface plasmon resonance).
These censors are not only restricted to the
use of molecules. Rather living
microorganisms such as bacteria can be used
to detect substances such as vitamin B12.
Conclusively, biosensors play a part in the
field of medicine, environmental quality, and
industry mainly by identifying material and
the degree of concentration present.