Aquatic Ecosystems

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					Aquatic Ecosystems
            Abbysal Zone
 Location: At depths of 4,000 to 6,000 m
    or (13,123 to 19,685 ft)
 Abiotic Factors: no sunlight, immense
   pressure (76 megapascals or 11,000 psi), cold, (2-3 oC), and
  little nutrients
 Biotic Factors: Black swallower, tripod fish, deep-sea
  angler fish, coelacanth and giant squid
 Simple food chain: chemosynthetic bacteria -> shrimp - >
  tripod fish
 Challenges: technology for deep sea exploration
         Beaches/Intertidal Zone
 Location: where the ocean meets
 Abiotic Factors: sunlight,
  exposed to air at low tide and
  underwater at high tide,
  fluctuating salinity
 Biotic Factors: contains a high
  diversity of species; algae,
  mollusks, snails, crabs, sea stars,
  seaweed, clams, and shore birds
 Simple food chain: algae-> snails -
  > crabs
 Challenges: human
  encroachment, pollution
             Coral Reefs
   Location: warm waters
    between 23oN and 23oS latitude
   Abiotic Factors: average water temperature is 18oC,
    salinity ranges from 34 to 37 ppt, moisture level is
    full, sun is energy source
   Biotic Factors: zooxanthellae, algae, sea urchins,
    sponges, sea stars, worms, fish, sharks, rays,
    lobsters, shrimp, octopus, snails.
   Simple food chain: algae -> sea coral -> butterfly
   Challenges: weather, tidal emersions, human
    encroachment especially for recreational purposes
    have greatly damaged reefs.
         Mangrove Swamps
   Location: saline habitats in the tropics and subtropics;
    latitudes 25oN and 25oS
   Abiotic Factors: brackish water, varying salinity from
    18 to 40 ppt, varying water depths
   Biotic Factors: mangrove trees, algae, barnacles,
    oysters, sponges, bryozoans, mangrove crabs, fish, and
   Simple food chain: algae -> barnacles -> fish
   Challenges: weather, storm
     surges, tidal emersions,
     pollution, and human
   Location: typically found at
    the tidal mouths of rivers
   Abiotic Factors: brackish
    and turbid water, varying pH, varying salinity,
    varying water levels
   Biotic Factors: diatoms, dinoflagellates, crabs,
    clams, oysters, black drum, jelly fish.
   Simple food chain: diatoms -> shrimp -> fish
   Challenges: weather, tidal emersions, human
    encroachment, pollution, and over fishing.
         Salt Marshes
   Location: Salt marshes occur all along
    the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts
    between 25oN latitude and 42oN,
    reaching their northern limit on the
    New Jersey coast.
   Abiotic Factors: brackish/turbid
    water, varying salinity, varying water
   Biotic Factors: cordgrass, glasswort,
    algae, crabs, snails, insects, snakes,
    turtles, fiddler crabs, and birds
   Simple food chain: cord grass-> snail ->
   Challenges: weather, tidal emersions,
    human encroachment, and pollution .
           Hydrothermal vents
 Location: At depths of about 2,100m near volcanically
  active places, areas where tectonic plates are moving
  apart, ocean basins, and hotspots
 Abiotic Factors: no sunlight, immense
   pressure (76 mega pascals or 11,000 phi), water can
  reach 400oC and is rich in sulfides
 Biotic Factors: chemosynthetic bacteria, giant tube
  worms, clams, limpets, shrimp, crabs, and lobsters
 Simple food chain: chemosynthetic bacteria ->
  copepods - > crabs
 Challenges: mineral

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