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					              ENGLISH
      FOR CHEMISTRY STUDENTS 1




Table of contents:



SCHOOL ............................................................................................ 2/93

CHEMISTRY .................................................................................... 22/93

LABORATORY ................................................................................. 62/93

ENVIRONMENT ............................................................................... 78/93




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                                      UNIT 1
                                     SCHOOL

WARM UP

1 Make groups of 3-4. Introduce yourself to the rest of the group and see how much you
  can remember about the other students. Include your name, school department,
  specialization, your likes and dislikes, where you live, your background and any other
  information you want to add. Choose a group speaker, who will then briefly
  introduce the group to the rest of the class.

2 Work in the same groups. See which names of school departments you can remember.

3 Answer the following questions:
What is the official name of our school in English?
What is the structure of administration?
Do you know all the position titles?
Do you know the name of the rector, the head of your department or the head of the language
department?
What are the names of some of your subjects?


PRE-READING

4 Find the right definitions for the following expressions:
 1. to pursue sth                  a. the only one of its kind
 2. unique                         b. central, main, key, most important
 3. to comprise sth                c. to run, control, manage
 4. to turn out                    d. to be made up of, or formed from
 5. core courses                   e. to have as its parts or members
 6. total enrolment                f. to produce
 7. to consist of                  g. to carry out, make efforts to achieve
 8. to subscribe                   h. to give, lend
 9. to operate                     i. the number of people registered at an institution/course
10. to provide                     j. to pay to receive copies of a magazine/newspaper
                                   regularly

5 Match the expressions to make collocations:

1. provide                          a. of the academic title Engineer
2. pursue                           b. a number of outstanding chemists
3. turned out                       c. to some 300 professional periodicals
4. consist                          d. the needs of all faculties
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 5. accommodate                      e. almost 780 staff
 6. comprises                        f. beyond master studies
 7. award                            g. of four faculties
 8. operate                          h. a superbly equipped Central Library
 9. subscribes                       i. education
10. last three years                 j. scientific research


               The Past and the Present of the Institute of Chemical
                               Technology, Prague




The Institute of Chemical Technology (ICT), Prague is a public university providing
education and pursuing scientific research, development and implementation activities. The
ICT Prague is known for both the depth and broadness of its educational and research
activities in almost all branches of chemistry, chemical engineering, food chemistry and
technology, biochemistry, refining, water-treatment, power and biological sciences and
technologies, as well as environmental protection, materials sciences and other chemistry-
based fields of study.

The ICT Prague turned out a number of outstanding chemists, among them Professor Otto
Wichterle, the inventor of soft contact lenses in the 1950s. Vladimír Prelog, professor at the
ETH Zürich who won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1975, graduated from the School of
Chemical Technology in 1928, and he gained his PhD degree there several years later.

The ICT Prague consists of four faculties, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Faculty of
Environmental Technology, Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology, Faculty of
Chemical Engineering, and departments accommodating the needs of all ICT Faculties.

The ICT Prague currently comprises almost 780 staff, including about 40 professors, 100
associate professors, and 280 assistant professors and assistants. The Faculties of the ICT are
accredited to provide three-year Bachelor programmes, successive two-year Master
programmes (ending with the award of the academic title Engineer), and PhD programmes.
The total enrolment at the ICT Prague is about 2,500 Master and Bachelor students and more
than 600 PhD students.

The ICT Prague operates a superbly equipped Central Library, which contains more than
100,000 volumes of books, handbooks, encyclopaedias, periodicals and other publications.
The Library subscribes to some 300 professional periodicals and has an electronic access to
scientific journals.
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Several pieces of unique and most up-to-date scientific equipment are located in the Central
Laboratories, which provide services to all Faculties in implementing scientific projects as
well as in teaching postgraduate students.

Study programs and branches

The Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (ICT Prague) offers the following types of
study programmes:

a. Bachelor programme lasts for three years. Study programmes at all faculties are based on
core courses embracing general subjects. Graduates are awarded the title "Bachelor"
(equivalent to BSc)

b. Master programme links up to BSc programme and takes 2 years. It comprises core and
specialized courses. Studies lead to the "engineer" degree ("inženýr" in Czech, equivalent to
an M.Sc.)

c. postgraduate doctoral studies leading to a Ph.D. degree lasting three years beyond master
studies

Bachelor programmes:

Faculty of Chemical Technology      Applied Chemistry and Materials
                                    Chemistry and Chemical Technologies
                                    Chemistry and Applied Ecology
                                    Drug Synthesis and Production
                                    Conservation-Restoration of Cultural Heritage Objects –
                                    Works of Arts and Crafts

Faculty of Environmental Technology
                                  Environmental Technology

Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology
                                  Food and Biochemical Technology
                                  Food Science and Biotechnology

Faculty of Chemical Engineering     Engineering and Management
                                    Process Engineering and Enterprise Management
                                    Engineering Informatics

Master's programmes:

Faculty of Chemical Technology      Chemistry and Chemical Technologies
                                    Chemistry of Materials and Materials Engineering

Faculty of Environmental Technology
                                  Environmental Technology

Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology
                                  Biochemistry and Biotechnology
                                  Food Chemistry and Analysis
                                  Food Technology
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Faculty of Chemical Engineering    Technical Physical and Analytical Chemistry
                                   Economics and Management of Chemical and Food Co.
                                   Process Engineering and Informatics

PhD programmes

Faculty of Chemical Technology     Chemistry
                                   Chemistry and Chemical Technologies
                                   Chemistry and Technology of Materials

Faculty of Environmental Technology
                                  Environmental Chemistry and Technology
                                  Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Environment
                                  Chemistry and Technology of Fuels

Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology
                                  Chemistry
                                  Microbiology
                                  Biochemistry and Biotechnology
                                  Food Chemistry and Technology

Faculty of Chemical Engineering    Chemistry
                                   Chemical and Process Engineering
                                   Applied Mathematics

http://www.vscht.cz/homepage/english/main/university/general_info


COMPREHENSION

6 What are the three main study programmes at the ICT and what degrees do they
  lead to?

7 Name the 4 faculties.


VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR

8 Fill in the gaps with appropriate expressions:
    consists                       comprises                          graduated
    including                      accommodating                      awarded
    turned out                     subscribes                         equipped
    accredited                     broadness                          outstanding
    gained

    a) The ICT Prague is known for both the depth and ……………… of its educational and
       research activities in almost all branches of chemistry.


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    b) The ICT Prague …………………. a number of ………………. chemists, among them
       Professor Otto Wichterle.
    c) Vladimír Prelog, professor at the ETH Zürich who won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry
       in 1975, ……………….. from the School of Chemical Technology in 1928, and he
       ………………… his PhD degree there several years later.
    d) The ICT Prague ………………………. of four faculties, Faculty of Chemical
       Technology, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Faculty of Food and Biochemical
       Technology, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, and departments ……………………
       the needs of all ICT Faculties.
    e) The ICT Prague currently …………………. almost 780 staff, ……………………
       about 40 professors, 100 associate professors, and 280 assistant professors and
       assistants.
    f) The Faculties of the ICT are ………………….. to provide three-year Bachelor
       programmes, two-year Master programmes and PhD programmes.
    g) The ICT Prague operates a superbly …………………. Central Library.
    h) The Library ……………….. to some 300 professional periodicals and has an
       electronic access to scientific journals.
    i) Graduates are ………………… the title "Bachelor" (equivalent to BSc)


9 Use the right preposition:
    a) The university consists ……….. six faculties.
    b) The school laboratory is equipped ……… modern machines and devices.
    c) Paul graduated ………. the ICT Prague in 2005.
    d) The Library subscribes ………… a large number of professional periodicals.
    e) The faculty comprises ……….. 8 departments.



DISCUSSION

10 Discuss in pairs or small groups:
     Why did you choose to study at the ICT Prague?
     Have you ever studied abroad? What was it like?


11 Read the following text and fill in the chart:
The Institute comprises four faculties. At the head of the Institute is the Rector (Am:
President) of the Institute; the faculties (Am: schools) are headed by the Deans of the Faculty.
Each faculty is further subdivided into departments, each department being directed by the
Head of the Department, usually a professor. The rest of the teaching staff are readers/senior
lecturers (Am: associate professors) and lecturers (Am: assistant professors).

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The structure of administration is as follows:


DIRECTOR of Students’ City                              REGISTRAR


                                     ………...


VICE-RECTOR for Foreign Affairs                  VICE-RECTOR for Science and Research
VICE-RECTOR for Education                        VICE-RECTOR for Development


……..                       ……….                  ……..               ……….
FACULTY                    FACULTY               FACULTY            FACULTY




DEPARTMENT                 DEPARTMENT            DEPARTMENT         DEPARTMENT


……………………………….. (PROFESSOR)
READERS
……………..




PRE-READING


12 Explain the underlined expressions:
undergraduate institution ………………………………………………………………………..
contemporary society's problems ……………………………………………………………….
solid grounding in general chemistry …………………………………………………………..
fulfil the requirements ………………………………………………………………………….
the general chemistry prerequisite ……………………………………………………………..
designed expressly for freshmen ………………………………………………………………..
subsequent years ………………………………………………………………………………..
science major ……………………………………………………………………………………




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13 Match the underlined expressions with their definitions:
1. undergraduate institution                a. condition, necessity, need
2. contemporary society's problems          b. precondition, something that must happen or
                                            exist before another thing is possible
3. solid grounding in general chemistry     c. start or cause to happen
4. to fulfil the requirements               d. following
5. the general chemistry prerequisite       e. the most important subject that a university
                                            student is studying
6. designed expressly for freshmen          f. a university/college for students who want to
                                            take their first degree
7. subsequent years                         g. present day, existing or happening now
8. science major                            h. foundation, instruction in the basic facts or
                                            principles
9. to initiate the studies                  i. clearly, explicitly, specifically




         YALE COLLEGE, DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY




Yale College, founded in 1701, is a coeducational undergraduate institution offering
instruction in the liberal arts and sciences to about 5,200 students. The College is the oldest
and the largest school of the University, which also comprises the Graduate School of Arts
and Sciences and ten professional schools.

The wide range of courses offered by the Department of Chemistry reflects the position of
chemistry as the foundation of all the molecular sciences.


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Students with B.A. or B.S. degrees in chemistry go on to a variety of professional callings. In
addition to graduate work in chemistry, biochemistry, medicine, or other health-related
disciplines, the department's graduates find their broad scientific training useful in fields such
as business management and law. As contemporary society's problems involve ever more
complex scientific issues, degree programs in the sciences become increasingly appropriate
for students wishing to pursue careers in public policy, government, or public service. The
breadth of exposure to the physical and life sciences makes chemistry an especially
appropriate major for these students.

The department offers a flexible arrangement of beginning and upper-level courses intended
to meet a variety of student interests. The choice of a proper course of study depends on the
student's preparation and career goals. The director of undergraduate studies is available to
assist students in choosing course offerings best suited to their educational needs.

The majority of students intending to major in one of the physical or life sciences, as well as
those planning to pursue postgraduate studies in a health-related discipline, should begin the
study of chemistry in their freshman year.

Placement in introductory courses. The introductory chemistry courses are designed to
address the varied needs of Yale freshmen for a solid grounding in general chemistry.
Placement in these courses is determined by the Chemistry department, using achievement
test scores as well as information provided by preregistration and by the Admissions Office.
Students may gain access to more advanced courses by taking the department's placement
examination.

The department offers a range of courses that commonly serve as a student's entry into the
study of chemistry at Yale. The majority of students begin with a general chemistry sequence,
Chemistry with Problem Solving, Comprehensive General Chemistry or Quantitative
Foundations of General Chemistry. All of these courses fulfil the requirements for general
chemistry in the Chemistry major and serve as the general chemistry prerequisite for any of
the more advanced courses offered by the department.

Students with a sufficiently strong background in chemistry may initiate their studies with
courses in organic or physical chemistry. Freshman Organic Chemistry is designed expressly
for freshmen. Physical Chemistry with Applications in the Physical Sciences is taught with
the needs of freshmen in mind. Placement in any of these advanced courses provides
chemistry and life science students with greater flexibility in course selection during
subsequent years.

In addition, the Chemistry department offers three one-term courses intended for non–science
majors: Chemistry in Popular Novels, Introduction to Green Chemistry and Chemistry,
Energy, and the Environment. These courses have no prerequisites. They do not satisfy
medical school requirements or the requirements for any science major (including Chemistry).



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Requirements of the major. Both the B.A. and B.S. degrees in Chemistry have a core-course
requirement that includes a year of general chemistry and laboratory, a year of organic
chemistry and laboratory, a year of physical chemistry and laboratory, and a term course in
inorganic chemistry. There is a great deal of flexibility in fulfilling these requirements and in
adapting the Chemistry degree program to the requirements of medical and other professional
schools.

http://www.yale.edu/yalecollege/publications/ycps/chapter_iv/chemistry.html




COMPREHENSION

14 Say whether these statements are true or false:
    a) The Chemistry department’s graduates can find a job in a variety of fields except for
       business management and law.
    b) Students intending to major in one of the physical or life sciences, and those planning
       to study a health-related discipline, should begin the study of chemistry in the first
       year of their studies.
    c) Yale freshmen cannot gain access to more advanced courses.
    d) There are special courses in organic or physical chemistry for freshmen with a
       sufficiently strong background in chemistry.
    e) Students who intend to major in non-science subjects may not attend any of the
       Chemistry department’s courses.
    f) No course in inorganic chemistry is required for the B.A. or B.S. degrees in
       Chemistry.



VOCABULARY

15 Choose 2 suitable expressions for each sentence:
    1. Degree programs in the sciences become increasingly appropriate for students wishing
       to …………………. careers in public policy, government, or public service.
       a) fail              b) persuade          c) make               d) pursue



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    2. The introductory chemistry courses are designed to address the varied needs of Yale
       freshmen for a solid …………………… in general chemistry.
       a) foundation         b) grinding          c) grounding          d) studying

    3. All of these courses fulfil the requirements for general chemistry in the Chemistry
       major and serve as the general chemistry …………………. for any of the more
       advanced courses offered by the department.
       a) need                b) requirement         c) prerequisite       d) exquisite

    4. Freshman Organic Chemistry is designed …………………. for freshmen.
         a) expressly            b) expressively    c) specifically        d) introductory

    5. Students with a sufficiently strong background in chemistry may ……………… their
       studies with courses in organic or physical chemistry.
       a) kick off           b) initiate            c) initial         d) begin


16 Fill in the table with appropriate forms:
       Adjective           / Antonym   Noun                      Verb
       broad
       long
                                       width
                                                                 thicken
       high                                                      0
       0                    0          weight
       short
       0                    0                                    grow



DISCUSSION

17 Discuss the differences between the chemistry courses offered at the Institute of
   Chemical Technology in Prague and those at Yale College. Think in terms of
   flexibility, broadness, pre-requisites and degrees.

18 Would you like to study at Yale College? Why (not)? Where do you see the
   advantages/disadvantages of the educational system at Yale College?


ROLEPLAY

19 You are going to act out an interview of a candidate for the Erasmus exchange
   program. One of you is an interviewer from the school’s Language department and
   the other one is a student-candidate. Ask and answer questions about the student’s
   background in chemistry and foreign languages, about his/her intentions and
   reasons for studying abroad, about the potential school and its system etc.
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WRITING

20 Choose one of the following topics:
    a) Write an essay comparing tertiary (university/college) chemistry studies in the US and
       the Czech Republic (you can make it more specific by comparing ICT Prague and
       Yale College, or more general by comparing the two different educational systems in
       those two countries).

    b) Write a magazine article that introduces and promotes ICT Prague in attempt to attract
       potential future students. When writing, keep in mind the type of readers you are
       trying to address and the type of information they might appreciate. Should it be
       formal or informal? Serious or fun?

    c) Write a letter to a friend stating your intention to study chemistry abroad and
       explaining the reasons why you want to do so.


VOCABULARY EXERCISES

21 Find words which are described by the following definitions:

    a ceremony at which students receive a university degree = ……………………………….
    scientific study done in the field, such as measuring and examining things = …………..…
    the grounds of a university = ………………………………………………………………..
    a large hall (in schools) where meals are served = ………………………………..………..
    time of rest and recreation away from school = …………………………………..………...
    a speech to a group of students, especially as a method of teaching at universities =………
    the head of a university = ………………………………………………………………...…
    the head of a faculty = ……………………………………………………………………....

22 Choose two words that go together and write sentences which will describe the
   system of study at the Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague:
         entrance               ceremony             credit              graduation
                 postgraduate                elective             courses
         subject                      plants                compulsory           student
                 gain           exam         experience           obtain
         industrial      laboratory                  scholarship         central
                 library        grant        program              research



23 Explain the meaning of these expressions in English:
     to cram for an exam – superficial knowledge – to grant a scholarship – a freshman – gaps
     in knowledge – to acquire knowledge – exam fever – to undertake research – mid-year
     holidays – a credit – to observe the rules


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24 Give opposites:
     a private school
     successful
     compulsory subjects
     to fail (in) an exam
     to be absent
     failure
     to enter the university

25 Match verbs with nouns:

                   DO                                  courses
                                                       homework
                                                       research
                   GET                                 projects
                                                       credits
                                                       exams
                   TAKE                                a thesis
                                                       an experiment
                                                       a degree
                                                       a job


26 Match these words with their definitions:

         1. thesis             a. annual grant to a student studying for a degree
         2. graduate           b. someone who is ambitious
         3. education          c. a dissertation written as part of an academic degree
         4. a high-flier       d. a student at a college or university
         5. scholarship        e. a person who has completed a course of study in college or
                               university
         6. undergraduate      f. the process of learning, training and instruction in schools,
                               colleges and universities


27 Read the following sentences and find the appropriate meaning for the phrasal
   verbs:
         a. He didn’t know the meaning of the word but didn’t think to look it up in the
            dictionary.
         b. He catches on very quickly. You never have to explain anything twice.
         c. Could you please speak up? We can’t hear you at the back.
         d. I can’t work out how to do this math problem.
         e. Margaret has always had problems keeping up with the other students in the class.



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         1      maintain the same level
         2      calculate, solve
         3      understand
         4      find information in a reference book
         5      talk more loudly


28 Work out the crossword:




Across
 1. engage in or follow up
 6. register, enter in a list
 8. head of a faculty
 9. obligatory
10. careful, systematic or scientific search or inquiry
11. dissertation embodying results of original research
13. award or acceptance of an academic degree
14. include, contain, be made of, constitute

Down
 2. student at a college or university studying for a 1st degree
 3. optional
 4. gain
 5. newcomer, 1st year student
 7. the act of accepting into a school or organization
12. to be unsuccessful




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LISTENING

29 Before listening to the recording, discuss in pairs the following questions:

How much do you know about Biochemistry? Can you define it?
What does a biochemist do?

30 Match these words with their definitions:
 1 emerge                           a) include
 2 heredity                         b) extremely important
 3 abundant                         c) come out, appear
 4 inhibit                          d) essential
 5 pertaining                       e) genetics, inheritance
 6 integral                         f) accurate and deep understanding
 7 vital                            g) relating, that are relevant
 8 occur                            h) take on, accept responsibility for
 9 undertake                        i) plentiful, rich, big
10 insight                          j) slow down, hold back, reduce
11 involve                          k) appear, happen

31 Match words to make collocations:
1 develop                           a) growth
2 extract                           b) trials
3 waste                             c) methods
4 spill                             d) research
5 inhibit                           e) packaged
6 toxicological                     f) over
7 conduct                           g) products
8 neatly                            h) effects
9 clinical                          i) nutrients

32 Listen to an extract from an article on Biochemistry and fill in the gaps as you
   listen:


                                   BIOCHEMISTRY

Is a Broad Scientific Discipline

Biochemistry is the study of the structure, composition, and chemical reactions of substances
in living systems. Biochemistry ………………… as a separate discipline when scientists
combined biology with organic, inorganic, or physical chemistry and began to study such
topics as how living things obtain energy from food, the chemical basis of heredity, and what
fundamental changes …………. in disease. Biochemistry includes the sciences of molecular
biology; immunochemistry; neurochemistry; and bioinorganic, bioorganic, and biophysical
chemistry.
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Has a Wide Range of Applications

Biochemistry is ………….. to medicine, dentistry, and veterinary medicine. In food science,
biochemists research ways to develop abundant and inexpensive sources of ………… foods,
determine the chemical composition of foods, develop methods to extract …………... from
waste products, or invent ways to prolong the shelf life of food products. In agriculture,
biochemists study the interaction of herbicides with plants. They examine the structure-
activity relationships of compounds, determine their ability to inhibit ……………., and
evaluate the toxicological effects on surrounding life.

Biochemistry …………… over into pharmacology, physiology, microbiology, and clinical
chemistry. In these areas, a biochemist may investigate the mechanism of a drug action;
………………. in viral research; conduct research pertaining to organ function; or use
chemical concepts, procedures, and techniques to study the diagnosis and therapy of disease
and the assessment of health.

Work in the field of biochemistry is often ……………. to toxicology. Rogene Henderson,
senior scientist and supervisor of the Biochemical Toxicology Group at Lovelace Respiratory
Research Institute, does research to understand ways in which organic compounds in the body
are changed by enzymes into toxic metabolites. Henderson focuses on ………………….. the
health effects of inhaled pollutants.

Is Interacting With Scientists from Many Disciplines

‘Real-world problems seldom come neatly …………… for one discipline to study’, says
Henderson. ‘For example, our institute collaborated with the Department of Energy to
investigate the health effects of an increased number of diesel-powered cars on the road. To
address this problem, we needed engineers, aerosol scientists, veterinarians, analytical
chemists, pathologists, and mathematicians as well as biochemists to work as a team.’
Henderson explains that she often ………………… with people outside of her organization.

David Green, senior research investigator in cardiovascular drug discovery, echoes the
sentiment that interaction with others is an ……………. part of the job. Green specializes in
enzymology; he identifies and characterizes enzymes as drug discovery targets.

The underlying principle of biochemistry is understanding the structure of living systems. By
understanding the structure of something, a scientist has a …………… start to understanding
its function.

Williamson Jamie Williamson, an associate professor of chemistry at the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology says: ‘This exchange of information is one of the most gratifying
things about being a researcher. The information and ………………. that you possess makes
you a valuable scientist. So, the more you share your information, the better.’

Studying the cell and chemistry of life results in valuable contributions being made in
medicine, industry, and society. This knowledge is used in fighting illness and improving the
quality of life, making the field interesting, challenging, rewarding, and full of opportunity.
Biochemistry is a vast, huge field. Although we already understand much about how cells
work, we really have just ………………. the surface. The field is wide open.

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33 Before you read the rest of the article, explain the following expressions:

mammals ……………………………………………………………………………………….

to occur ………………………………………………………………………………………..

to be tied to ……………………………………………………………………………………

animal tissue …………………………………………………………………………………..

to combat diseases ……………………………………………………………………………..

to manufacture …………………………………………………………………………………

curious ………………………………………………………………………………………….

altering conditions ……………………………………………………………………………...

perseverance …………………………………………………………………………………….

essential skills …………………………………………………………………………………..

to earn a degree …………………………………………………………...……………………

cell biology …………………………………………………………………………………….

biology major …………………………………………………………………………………..

foundation ……………………………………………………………………………………...



34 Read the rest of the article:

Work Description

Biochemists study the chemical components and processes of living systems plants, insects,
viruses, microorganisms, and mammals to explain how and why chemical reactions occur.
Their work contributes to many fields of science.

Working Conditions

Biochemists work in modern research laboratories that stimulate creative work. Often they
interact with scientists and specialists from other fields because their research is tied to
another discipline.

Places of Employment

Colleges and universities employ the majority of biochemists as teachers or researchers in
schools of arts and sciences, medicine, engineering, pharmacy, dentistry, veterinary medicine,
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and agriculture. The Department of Agriculture, the National Institutes of Health, and the
Environmental Protection Agency are just a few of the government agencies that employ
biochemists specializing in basic research analyzing food, drugs, air, water, waste, or animal
tissue. Industries that produce pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals, foods, feeds, and
consumer products also employ biochemists in research as well as in areas outside the lab
such as marketing, management, science information, technical writing, and editing. Drug
companies employ biochemists to research the causes of disease and to develop drugs to
combat these diseases. Biotechnology companies employ biochemists in research quality
control, clinical research, manufacturing, and information systems with applications to the
environment, energy, human health care, agriculture, and animal health. Some biochemists
work in hospitals.

Personal Characteristics

Biochemists are curious about the chemical origins of life, the cell, the effects of organisms
on the cell, and how altering conditions can improve life on earth. They are creative,
imaginative, hardworking individuals who enjoy interacting with other scientists to discover
applications for their work. Perseverance is a key to success. Because they often work in
teams, biochemists must be cooperative and able to work well with others. Oral and written
communication skills are essential.

Education and Training

Preparing for a career in this field requires earning a bachelors degree in biochemistry or
chemistry with specialties in cell biology, genetics, molecular biology, biophysics, and
biochemical methods. A bachelors degree in biology with more emphasis on chemistry,
physics, and mathematics than may be required of a biology major, coupled with a
biochemistry course and lab work, will also provide a foundation for entering the field. Some
universities offer a one-year program after undergraduate school for training in specialized
laboratory techniques. Positions that involve teaching in a college or directing research
require at least a masters degree, preferably a doctorate.

Job Outlook

Job opportunities are good for skilled professionals trained in this field. The field is expanding
and growth is expected in industry, especially in genetic research.

http://portal.acs.org/portal/acs/corg/content?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=PP_ARTICLEMAIN
&node_id=1188&content_id=CTP_003379&use_sec=true&sec_url_var=region1


COMPREHENSION

35 Answer the following questions:

        Name 3 sciences that biochemistry includes.

        Which other sciences are closely connected to biochemistry?


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        Where can you find a job as a biochemist?

        What personal characteristics should a biochemist have?

        What qualifications do you need if you want to work as a biochemist?


36 Before listening to the recording, match these words with their definitions:
     1 emerge                       a) include
     2 involve                      b) extremely important
     3 vital                        c) come out, appear
     4 occur                        d) deep understanding
     5 insight                      e) appear, happen


37 Match words to make collocations:
     1 extract                      a) trials
     2 waste                        b) research
     3 conduct                      c) products
     4 clinical                     d) effects
     5 toxicological                e) nutrients


38 Listen to an extract from an article on Biochemistry and fill in the gaps as you
   Listen:


                                   BIOCHEMISTRY

Is a Broad Scientific Discipline

Biochemistry is the study of the structure, composition, and chemical reactions of substances
in living systems. Biochemistry ………… as a separate discipline when scientists combined
biology with organic, inorganic, or physical chemistry and began to study such topics as how
living things obtain energy from food, the chemical basis of heredity, and what fundamental
changes ………….. in disease. Biochemistry includes the sciences of molecular biology;
immunochemistry; neurochemistry; and bioinorganic, bioorganic, and biophysical chemistry.

Has a Wide Range of Applications

Biochemistry is ……………. to medicine, dentistry, and veterinary medicine. In food science,
biochemists research ways to develop abundant and inexpensive sources of …………. foods,
determine the chemical composition of foods, develop methods to extract ………….. from
waste products, or invent ways to prolong the shelf life of food products. In agriculture,
biochemists study the interaction of herbicides with plants.



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Biochemistry spills over into pharmacology, physiology, microbiology, and clinical
chemistry. Work in the field of biochemistry is often ……………. to toxicology.

Is Interacting With Scientists from Many Disciplines

‘Real-world problems seldom come neatly packaged for one discipline to study’, says Rogene
Henderson, senior scientist and supervisor of the Biochemical Toxicology Group at Lovelace
Respiratory Research Institute. ‘For example, our institute collaborated with the Department
of Energy to investigate the health effects of an increased number of diesel-powered cars on
the road. To address this problem, we needed engineers, aerosol scientists, veterinarians,
analytical chemists, pathologists, and mathematicians as well as biochemists to work as a
team.’ Henderson explains that she often ……………. with people outside of her
organization.

The underlying principle of biochemistry is understanding the structure of living systems. By
understanding the structure of something, a scientist has a …………. start to understanding its
function. As an associate professor of chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Jamie Williamson states: ‘The information and ………... that you possess makes you a
valuable scientist. So, the more you share your information, the better.’

Studying the cell and chemistry of life results in valuable contributions being made in
medicine, industry, and society. This knowledge is used in fighting illness and improving the
quality of life, making the field interesting, challenging, rewarding, and full of opportunity.
Williamson says: ‘Biochemistry is a vast, huge field. Although we already understand much
about how cells work, we really have just scratched the surface. The field is wide open.’

http://portal.acs.org/portal/acs/corg/content?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=PP_ARTICLEMAIN
&node_id=1188&content_id=CTP_003379&use_sec=true&sec_url_var=region1


COMPREHENSION

39 Answer the following questions:

        Name 3 sciences that biochemistry includes.

        Which other sciences are closely connected to biochemistry?

        Where can you find a job as a biochemist?

        What personal characteristics should a biochemist have?



ROLEPLAY

40 Act out a job interview with an applicant for the post of a biochemist at a chosen
   field/branch. First discuss the specifics of the post, workplace and requirements for
   the position.

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WRITING


41 Write a short essay discussing what field of chemistry you would like to specialize in
   and why.



GRAMMAR LINKS

42 Refresh your knowledge of the word order in English sentences by referring to the
   Grammar File, Sentence Structure Section.




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                                         UNIT 2
                                       CHEMISTRY


WARM UP

1 Find the twenty words related to chemistry in any direction (Beaker, gas, mass,
  experiment, particles, metal, vessel, charge, alkali, acid, react, lab, melt, substance, boron,
  flask, oil, chemicals, liquid, pressure).


                           W   U   Y   E   R   U   S   S   E   R   P   M   H   H
                           S   R   Z   A   E   B   E   A   K   E   R   G   E   K
                           X   K   D   R   E   O   I   L   T   D   M   A   X   O
                           E   I   F   P   A   R   T   I   C   L   E   S   P   I
                           C   M   L   L   D   O   O   H   H   I   T   S   E   L
                           N   N   A   G   K   N   E   N   A   Q   A   A   R   D
                           A B S D O M O E R U L M I P
                           T I K A I E T B G I E R M U
                           S M B C L C C O E D S B E T
                           B E A A L K A L I V S J N V
                           U L A B S G E E B N E L T K
                           S T S A E F R O P K V R O I


2 Try to explain in English meaning of the words you know, your teacher will give you
  a sample sentences using the words from the puzzle you don’t know so you can guess
  their meaning.

3 Discuss in pairs or small groups what are the pros and cons of using chemistry in
  everyday life (medicine, agriculture, food industry etc.). First decide who is for and
  who is against (role play) and try to persuade others. Then present your true opinion.


4 Answer the following questions:
   What is/isn’t interesting about chemistry for you?
   What was your first encounter with chemistry?
   Do you remember your first chemical experiment?



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READING
5 Read the following article

                                 What Is Chemistry?
Chemistry is the study of matter and energy and the interactions between them. This is also
the definition for physics, by the way. Chemistry and physics are specializations of physical
science. Chemistry tends to focus on the properties of substances and the interactions between
different types of matter, particularly reactions that involve electrons. Physics tends to focus
more on the nuclear part of the atom, as well as the subatomic realm. Really, they are two
sides of the same coin.
The formal definition of chemistry is probably what you want to use if you're asked this
question on a test. If you look 'chemistry' up in Webster's Dictionary, you'll see:
"chem·is·try n., pl. -tries. 1. the science that systematically studies the composition,
properties, and activity of organic and inorganic substances and various elementary forms of
matter. 2. chemical properties, reactions, phenomena, etc.: the chemistry of carbon. 3. a.
sympathetic understanding; rapport. b. sexual attraction. 4. the constituent elements of
something; the chemistry of love. [1560-1600; earlier chymistry]."
My glossary definition is the short and sweet, "scientific study of matter, its properties, and
interactions with other matter and with energy".
An important point to remember is that chemistry is a science, which means its procedures are
systematic and reproducible and its hypotheses are tested using the scientific method.
Chemists, scientists who study chemistry, examine the properties and composition of matter
and the interactions between substances. Chemistry is closely related to physics and to
biology. As is true for other sciences, mathematics is an essential tool for the study of
chemistry.
Why to Study Chemistry?
Because understanding chemistry helps you to understand the world around you. Cooking is
chemistry. Everything you can touch or taste or smell is a chemical. When you study
chemistry, you come to understand a bit about how things work. Chemistry isn't secret
knowledge, useless to anyone but a scientist. It's the explanation for everyday things, like why
laundry detergent works better in hot water or how baking soda works or why not all pain
relievers work equally well on a headache. If you know some chemistry, you can make
educated choices about everyday products that you use.
What Fields of Study Use Chemistry?
You could use chemistry in most fields, but it's commonly seen in the sciences and in
medicine. Chemists, physicists, biologists, and engineers study chemistry. Doctors, nurses,
dentists, pharmacists, physical therapists, and veterinarians all take chemistry courses.
Science teachers study chemistry. Fire fighters and people who make fireworks learn about
chemistry. So do truck drivers, plumbers, artists, hairdressers, chefs... the list is extensive.
What Do Chemists Do?
Whatever they want. Some chemists work in a lab, in a research environment, asking
questions and testing hypotheses with experiments. Other chemists may work on a computer

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developing theories or models or predicting reactions. Some chemists do field work. Others
contribute advice on chemistry for projects. Some chemists write. Some chemists teach. The
career options are extensive.
Chemistry basics
As we said, chemistry is the study of matter and the interactions between different types of
matter and energy. The fundamental building block of matter is the atom. An atom consists of
three main parts: protons, neutrons, and electrons. Protons have a positive electrical charge.
Neutrons have no electrical charge. Electrons have a negative electrical charge. Protons and
neutrons are found together in what is called the nucleus of the atom. Electrons circle around
nucleus.
Chemical reactions involve interactions between the electrons of one atom and the electrons
of another atom. Atoms which have different amounts of electrons and protons have a positive
or negative electrical charge and are called ions. When atoms bond together, they can make
larger building blocks of matter called molecules.

All matter consists of particles called atoms. Here are some useful facts about atoms:

              Atoms cannot be divided using chemicals. They do consist of parts, which
               include protons, neutrons, and electrons, but an atom is a basic chemical building
               block of matter.
              Each electron has a negative electrical charge.
              Each proton has a positive electrical charge. The charge of a proton and an
               electron are equal in magnitude, yet opposite in sign. Electrons and protons are
               electrically attracted to each other.
              Each neutron is electrically neutral. In other words, neutrons do not have a charge
               and are not electrically attracted to either electrons or protons.
              Protons and neutrons are about the same size as each other and are much larger
               than electrons.
              The mass of a proton is essentially the same as that of a neutron. The mass of a
               proton is 1840 times greater than the mass of an electron.
              The nucleus of an atom contains protons and neutrons. The nucleus carries a
               positive electrical charge.
              Electrons move around outside the nucleus.
              Almost all of the mass of an atom is in its nucleus; almost all of the volume of an
               atom is occupied by electrons.
              The number of protons (also known as its atomic number) determines the
               element. Varying the number of neutrons results in isotopes. Varying the number
               of electrons results in ions. Isotopes and ions of an atom with a constant number
               of protons are all variations of a single element.
              The particles within an atom are bound together by powerful forces. In general,
               electrons are easier to add or remove from an atom than a proton or neutron.
               Chemical reactions largely involve atoms or groups of atoms and the interactions
               between their electrons.

www.chemistry.about.com




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VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR

6 Make opposites of the words written in bold above.

7 Complete the following paragraph with appropriate prepositions:
To arrive at the electron configurations ........ atoms, you must know the order ........ which the
different sublevels are filled. Electrons enter available sublevels ........... order of their
increasing energy. A sublevel is filled or half-filled before the next sublevel is entered. For
example, the s sublevel can only hold two electrons, so the 1s is filled at helium (1s2). The p
sublevel can hold six electrons, the d sublevel can hold 10 electrons, and the f sublevel can
hold 14 electrons. Common shorthand notation is to refer ...... the noble gas core, rather than
write out the entire configuration. For example, the configuration ........ magnesium could be
written [Ne]3s2, rather ................. writing out 1s22s22p63s2.


COMPREHENSION
8 Can you summarize the most important points of what you have just read?
9 Are there any other basic facts about chemistry you would tell someone who has never
  met chemistry before?


PAIR WORK
10 Try to figure out 5 most elementary things a proper introduction to chemistry
   cannot dispense with – compare with your friend and try to create a list of top five
   most elementary chemistry facts together.


PRE-READING COMPETITION
11 How much do you know about the periodic table? How many facts can you come up
   with your friend? The pair with the longest list wins.


READING
12 Read the text about the periodic table.

Periodic table
Introduction to the Periodic Table
People have known about elements like carbon and gold since ancient time. The elements
couldn't be changed using any chemical method. Each element has a unique number of
protons. If you examine samples of iron and silver, you can't tell how many protons the atoms
have. However, you can tell the elements apart because they have different properties. You
might notice there are more similarities between iron and silver than between iron and
oxygen. Could there be a way to organize the elements so you could tell at a glance which
ones had similar properties?


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What is the Periodic Table?
Dmitri Mendeleyev was the first scientist to create a periodic table of the elements similar to
the one we use today. This table showed that when the elements were ordered by increasing
atomic weight, a pattern appeared where properties of the elements repeated periodically. This
periodic table is a chart that groups the elements according to their similar properties.

Why was the Periodic Table Created?
Why do you think Mendeleyev made a periodic table? Many elements remained to be
discovered in Mendeleyev's time. The periodic table helped predict the properties of new
elements.

Mendeleyev's Periodic Table
Compare the modern periodic table with Mendeleyev's table. What do you notice?
Mendeleyev's table didn't have very many elements, did it? He had question marks and spaces
between elements, where he predicted undiscovered elements would fit.

Discovering Elements
Remember changing the number of protons changes the atomic number, which is the number
of the element. When you look at the modern periodic table, do you see any skipped atomic
numbers that would be undiscovered elements? New elements today aren't discovered. They
are made. You can still use the periodic table to predict the properties of these new elements.

Element Properties and Trends
The periodic table helps predict some properties of the elements compared to each other.
Atom size decreases as you move from left to right across the table and increases as you move
down a column. Energy required to remove an electron from an atom increases as you move
from left to right and decreases as you move down a column. The ability to form a chemical
bond increases as you move from left to right and decreases as you move down a column.

Today's Periodic Table
The most important difference between Mendeleyev's table and today's table is the modern
table is organized by increasing atomic number, not increasing atomic weight. Why was the
table changed? In 1914, Henry Moseley learned you could experimentally determine the
atomic numbers of elements. Before that, atomic numbers were just the order of elements
based on increasing atomic weight. Once atomic numbers had significance, the periodic table
was reorganized.

Periods and Groups
Elements in the periodic table are arranged in periods (rows) and groups (columns). Atomic
number increases as you move across a row or period.

Periods
Rows of elements are called periods. The period number of an element signifies the highest
unexcited energy level for an electron in that element. The number of elements in a period
increases as you move down the periodic table because there are more sublevels per level as
the energy level of the atom increases

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Groups
Columns of elements help define element groups. Elements within a group share several
common properties. Groups are elements which have the same outer electron arrangement.
The outer electrons are called valence electrons. Because they have the same number of
valence electrons, elements in a group share similar chemical properties. The Roman
numerals listed above each group are the usual number of valence electrons. For example, a
group VA element will have 5 valence electrons.

Representative vs. Transition Elements
There are two sets of groups. The group A elements are called the representative elements.
The group B elements are the nonrepresentative elements.

What is on the Element key?
Each square on the periodic table gives information about an element. On many printed
periodic tables you can find an element's symbol, atomic number, and atomic weight.

Classifying Elements
Elements are classified according to their properties. The major categories of elements are the
metals, nonmetals, and metalloids (semi-metals).

Metals
You see metals every day. Aluminium foil is a metal. Gold and silver are metals. If someone
asks you whether an element is a metal, metalloid, or non-metal and you don't know the
answer, guess that it's a metal.

What are Properties of Metals?
Metals share some common properties. They are lustrous (shiny), malleable (can be
hammered), and are good conductors of heat and electricity. These properties result from the
ability to easily move the electrons in the outer shells of metal atoms.

What are the Metals?
Most elements are metals. There are so many metals, they are divided into groups: alkali
metals, alkaline earth metals, and transition metals. The transition metals can be divided into
smaller groups, such as the lanthanides and actinides.


13 Can you name any non-metals and metalloids (semi-metals)? Do you know any of
   their typical properties and practical applications?



GRAMMAR

14 Could you find in the text any examples of passive voice? Transform active sentences
   you choose from the text into the passive voice.
     Reference: Grammar File - Passive voice – explanation + exercises

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LISTENING

Listening: elements (gold, plutonium, antimony)
http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/podcast/element.asp




15 Listen to the recording and answer the following questions:

Antimony:

What properties did the speaker mention?
Why did the „war“ on antimony break out?
What is „stibnite“?
What was it used for in Egypt?
How is antimony related to the creation of the word „alcohol“?
What did Valentine claim about antimony?
What did Valentine say about the origin of the name „antimony“?
What was the main use of antimony by the 19th century?

Gold:

When and where were the first gold coins used?
How thick is the thinnest film we can make?
Why is it used in Concorde planes?
Who brought most of ancient gold to Europe?
Why did pirates bite gold coins? Did it work?
Where does most gold come from?


Plutonium:

What is it used for?
What was the project Manhattan engineering district designed for?
How many different forms does plutonium have and what are its properties under normal
conditions?
What gives this element unusual magnetic properties?
Is plutonium a natural element or is it man-made?
Why is it so difficult to explore plutonium?

Now listen again, check your answers with the transcripts and answer the additional
questions below them:




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Chemistry in Its Element - Antimony

(Promo)
You're listening to Chemistry in its element brought to you by Chemistry World, the magazine
of the Royal Society of Chemistry
(End promo)

Chris Smith
Hello, this week we meet the chemical that's maimed and murdered, but often with the best
intentions. To tell the story of the element that can't quite make up its mind if it's a metal or
not here's Phil Ball.

Phil Ball
Many wars have been fought over territory, some over pride or love or money. But in the
1600s a long and bitter war was waged over antimony.
What, you might ask, is there to fight about in this apparently unremarkable element, a soft,
greyish metal that doesn't even conduct electricity well enough to qualify as a true metal? It
has its uses, but they are mundane: as an alloy component of battery electrodes and of pewter,
and as a flame retardant.
But at the heart of the Antimony War, which raged in France and Germany throughout much
of the seventeenth century, was a more unlikely use of antimony. Some doctors of that age
believed that it was a vital ingredient in medicine. The advocates and opponents of this point
of view didn't actually take up arms: they fought with pen in hand, sometimes denouncing one
another in terms far more vitriolic than we'll find in the academic literature today.
It's very curious that the subject of this dispute should be antimony, because this element is
actually rather toxic, causing liver damage in large enough doses. But pharmaceutical uses of
antimony have a long history. In the ancient world it was known primarily in the form of its
black sulphide ore, called stibnite, which the Greek physician Dioscorides recommended for
skin complaints in the first century AD. The Egyptians, meanwhile, used stibnite as a
cosmetic, applying it as a form of mascara. They called it kuhl, meaning 'eye-paint', and to the
later Islamic alchemical physicians this became al-kohl. From its original meaning of
powdered stibnite, this term came to designate any powder, and then a potent extract of any
substance. In the early sixteenth century the Swiss alchemical physician Paracelsus called a
distilled extract of wine alcool vini, from where we get the modern word alcohol: a long and
strange road from eye make-up to intoxicating liquor.
Paracelsus was particularly fond of antimony compounds as medicines. After his death,
Paracelsus's chemical medicine was championed by many doctors in Europe, especially
in France, and some of these made antimony their most prized remedy. One, a German salt-
maker who wrote under the false persona of a fifteenth-century monk called Basil Valentine,
published an entire book advertising antimony remedies in 1604 called The Triumphal
Chariot of Antimony. Valentine admitted that antimony was poisonous - in fact he offered an
apocryphal explanation for the name, saying that it derives from anti-monachos, meaning
'anti-monk' in Latin, because he once unintentionally poisoned several of his fellow monks by
adding it secretly to their food in an attempt to improve their health. But he claimed that
alchemy could be used to free the metal of its toxic effects and make it "a most salutary
Medicine".
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The Paracelsian chemical physicians were opposed by traditionalists who preferred the
medical theories of the ancient doctors like Hippocrates, based on the idea that our health is
controlled by a balance of four humours. This was partly a battle for academic power, but the
rival camps were also split along religious and political lines. So there was a lot riding on the
struggle, and for a time it crystallized around the medical value of antimony.
The toxicity of antimony can cause vomiting - but to its supporters, this was seen as a good
thing. They would administer the salt antimony tartrate as a so-called emetic, a vomit-inducer
that was believed to purge the body of other bad substances.
Some doctors continued to prescribe antimony freely after the inconclusive Antimony War,
and it has been suggested that a fondness for antimony remedies was what actually killed
Mozart in 1791. By the nineteenth century it had become a favourite slow poison for
murderers eager to conceal their crimes - a chemical villain almost as notorious as lead.
Chris Smith
But would Mozart have been the maestro that he was without the help of Antimony? Well I
guess we will never know. Thank you very much to science writer and author Phil Ball.
Next week we'll be telling the tale of the element that at one time quite literally kept the world
going, but not quite in the way you might think.
John Emsley
The summer of 1618 saw England gripped by drought, but as Henry Wicker walked across
Epsom Common he came across a pool of water from which thirsty cattle refused to drink. He
found that the water tasted bitter and on evaporation it yielded a salt which had remarkable
effects: it acted as a laxative. This became the famous Epsom's salt (magnesium sulfate,
MgSO4) and became a treatment for constipation for the next 350 years.
Chris Smith
350 years, certainly sounds like a bad case of constipation. Thankfully John Emsley will be
running smoothly through the element with atomic number 12 and that's Magnesium in next
week's Chemistry in its Element, I hope you can join us. I'm Chris Smith, thank you for
listening, see you next time.
(Promo)
Chemistry in its element is brought to you by the Royal Society of Chemistry and produced by
thenakedscientists. com. There's more information and other episodes of Chemistry in its
element on our website at chemistryworld.org/elements.
(End promo)
Was there any other information about antimony that´s new to you?
What do you think the expression „most salutary medicine“ means?




Chemistry in Its Element - Gold
(Promo)
You're listening to Chemistry in its element brought to you by Chemistry World, the
magazine of the Royal Society of Chemistry
(End promo)
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Chris Smith
Hello, in this week's episode of Chemistry in its Element, we're taking a flight on Concorde,
dropping by Buckingham Palace and finding out what could form a film just 230 atoms
thick. Going for gold for us this week, here's the legendary science broadcaster and
populariser Johnny Ball.
Johnny Ball
The element Gold. Gold is element 79 and its symbol is Au. Though the name is Anglo
Saxon, gold originated from Latin “Aurum“ or “shining dawn” and previously from the
Greek. It's abundance in the earth's crust is 0.004 ppm.
100% of Gold found naturally is isotope Au197. 28 other isotopes can be produced artificially
and are all radioactive.
Gold along with Silver and Copper, form a column in the periodic table. They are found
naturally and were the first three elements known to man. They were all used as primitive
money well before the first gold coins which appeared in Egypt around 3400 BC.
Most gold is ancient or comes from Central American Aztecs and South American Incas
brought to Europe by the Spanish and Portuguese in the 16th century, and which has since
been recycled over and over again. In 1830 world output was no more than 12 tonnes pa. But
around that time new gold discoveries were being made. Finds were discovered in Siberia,
in California, New South Wales and Victoria, Australia, Transvaal, South Africa, the
Klondike and Alaska, and they all produced gold rushes. The world production was then
around 150 tonnes per year. It is now around 2300 tonnes pa.
Usually it is found in its natural state and does not naturally alloy with anything else and
because it is the heaviest of all metals, sifting rock in water, the gold always falls to the
bottom and all less dense impurities are washed away.
The largest nugget was the Welcome Stranger nugget found in Victoria, Australia in 1869. It
weighed over 71 kg. This type of nugget occurrs naturally but it is very, very rare. Pure gold
is 24 karat. 18 karat must be 75% gold and 12 karat gold is 50% gold and so on.
Gold is the most malleable of all metals and soft enough to be cut with a knife. Stone age
peoples hammered gold into plates for ornamental purposes. Really quite large amounts were
gathered together. Though Tutankhamun was a minor Pharaoh and died aged 18, his coffin
alone contained 112 kg of gold. Egyptians also made thin gold sheets, utensils, vast variety of
jewellery and even gold threads. King Tut, when he was buried, had over 150 gold ornaments
on his body.
Today 1 gram of gold can be beaten into a square meter sheet just 230 atoms thick. 1 cu
centimetre would make a sheet of 18 square metres. Concord's windscreen had a layer of gold
to screen pilots from UV light and today it is often used in skyscraper windows to cut down
both heat and UV from sunlight. 1 gram can be drawn out to make 165 metres of wire just
1/200th of a millimetre thick.
The gold colour in the Buckingham Palace fence is actually gold. Gold covered, because it
lasts 30 years, whereas gold paint, which actually contains no gold at all, lasts in tip-top
conditions, only about a year or so.




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Sea Water contains around 3 parts in a billion of gold, but there's never been found an
economic means of recovering it. The Germans tried very hard during the 2nd WW but
failed miserably.
The largest modern hoard is the 30,000 tons in the US Federal Reserve Bank in New York,
which belongs to 18 different nations. It is estimated that all the world's gold gathered
together would only make a cube around 18 metres per side - about 6000 cubic metres. And
that's Gold.
Chris Smith
So now you know why pirates used to bite gold coins to see if they were real. It wasn't just
for the camera because it looked good, it was because the metal was soft enough to be marked
by teeth. That was Johnny Ball telling the story of Gold. Next time on Chemistry in its
Element Victoria Gill introduces the chemical that founded the science of photography and
also helped to launch the careers of successions of Oscar winners.............


Is there anything else you know about gold or other precious metals that wasn´t mentioned
in the listening?
At the end of the listening what elements or substances did Chris Smith say we would meet
in the following podcast? What would you expect to be mentioned there (substances,
properties, practical applications)?



Chemistry in Its Element - Plutonium

(Promo)
You're listening to Chemistry in its element brought to you by Chemistry World, the magazine
of the Royal Society of Chemistry
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Chris Smith
Hello, this week on Chemistry in its Element a substance that most people think is manmade
but in fact often turns up in the centres of stars. It also packs a huge nuclear punch when it's
in the right sort of warhead and also has the power to be a super conductor. The only
problem is it´s radioactive and that means that when it decays it tends to fall apart. It is of
course Plutonium and here to spell it out is Cambridge University's Ian Farnan.
Ian Farnan
Plutonium's often billed as the 'most toxic substance known to man'. Just the word plutonium
instils a dread in people's minds - And it's the early history of plutonium that established its
dark side - and it's a reputation that's been hard to shake-off since.
Glenn Seaborg discovered plutonium at Berkeley in 1940, and in the following spring, when
it was found that it could sustain a nuclear chain reaction, he secretly wrote to President
Roosevelt, to inform him of that this substance had the potential to be a powerful source of
nuclear energy. And from that moment the race was on to produce significant amounts to
supply a secret project codenamed the Manhattan Engineering District, the goal of which was
to produce a nuclear bomb.

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Anyone familiar with the iconic image of the mushroom cloud understands the tremendous
explosive power of a correctly controlled detonation of plutonium. The energy density is
mind-boggling: a sphere of metal 10 cm in diameter and weighing just 8 Kg is enough to
produce an explosion at least as big as the one that devastated Nagasaki in 1945.
But apart from military uses like this, plutonium also has one of the richest chemistries of any
element. There are six different forms of plutonium, known as allotropes, that all exist at
different temperatures and behave differently.
At room temperature, for instance, the plutonium is very brittle, but heated to around 100
Celsius is transforms to a much more malleable metal. Scientists have found that they can
mimic this effect by adding a small amount of gallium, which gives the room temperature
metal similar properties to its higher-temperature counterpart, and this makes it much easier to
work with.
Mixing plutonium with other metals can also produce substances with other interesting
properties. For instance, adding some cobalt and gallium can produce a material that behaves
as a super-conductor at low temperatures. Its electrons link up into a close-knit arrangement
called Cooper pairs, which allow electricity to flow freely with no resistance.
But unfortunately this arrangement doesn't last very long. Because plutonium-239 self
destructs, undergoing radioactive decay by spitting out a highly energetic alpha-particle to
produce Uranium-235.
But as the alpha-particle leaves it causes the uranium nucleus to recoil like a gun that's just
been fired, and this damages the structure of the material, disrupting the paired electrons and
slowly destroying the superconductivity.
So in this sense plutonium is its own worst enemy. Its radioactivity means that it's very
difficult to exploit the richness of its chemistry in many compounds, and as its reputation
precedes it, plutonium would also have trouble gaining acceptance as a technological
material.
But despite its tarnished reputation, some people quite literally have a place in their hearts for
plutonium because one of its isotopes, plutonium-238, generates so much heat when it decays,
that it was used as a long-lasting thermoelectric generator in early heart pacemakers.
Nowadays it's been replaced by better batteries, but it's still popular with space scientists who
use it to power probes sent to explore distant planets far from the Sun, like Cassini, that was
sent to Saturn, and New Horizons, which is on its way to Pluto.
Plutonium's in a part of the periodic table called the actinide series alongside its neighbours
thorium and protoactinium. Seaborg christened the actinides, rearranging the periodic table in
the process, on the basis of the unusual arrangements of their electrons, which give these
substances unusual magnetic properties, as well as the ability to have multiple oxidation
states. Plutonium, for instance, has five, giving it the ability to form an unusually wide range
of compounds that scientists are only just beginning to get to grips with.
Some say that plutonium's an evil element created by man, but it's actually a natural element
produced by a process known as nucleosynthesis, which takes place in supernova explosions,
when dying stars blow themselves to pieces.
There isn't much of it on the earth naturally, because the majority of its isotopes have such
short half-lives. And in the 4.6 billion years since our solar system began to form, most of
them have decayed away to infinitesimally tiny amounts. What there is mostly comes from
reactors and nuclear tests.

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There are severe hazards associated with plutonium, but as with most dangerous materials,
these can be mitigated by careful handling and rigorous safeguards.
But whatever you think about plutonium, its history, however chequered, has revealed some
fascinating chemistry. Although the mushroom cloud remains its best-known image.
Chris Smith
Ian Farnan, unpacking Plutonium. Next time on Chemistry in its Element the toxic chemical
that saves thousands of lives every year.
Peter Wothers
In his list of the then known elements, Lavoisier included the term azote meaning the absence
of life, but the compound used to explosively fill car air bags with gas is sodium azide, a
compound of just Sodium and Nitrogen. When triggered this compound explosively
decomposes freeing the Nitrogen gas, which inflates the bags. Far from destroying life, this
azotic compound has been responsible for saving thousands.
Chris Smith
Peter Wothers talking nitrogen on what promises to be an explosive edition of Chemistry in
its Element next week. I'm Chris Smith, thank you for listening, see you next time.
(Promo)
Chemistry in its element is brought to you by the Royal Society of Chemistry and produced by
thenakedscientists.com. There's more information and other episodes of Chemistry in its
element on our website at chemistryworld.org/elements.
(End promo)


Why is there so little plutonium on the Earth?
How is plutonium naturally produced?
When was plutonium discovered and who discovered it?



16 Which element/s do you consider most important/interesting and why? Try to elicit
   details about the element your friend prefers. In groups try to agree on top 3 most
   perspective elements for the future and give reasons why you think so.



PRE-READING

17 Study the word definitions, which will help you to understand the following article.

arrangement      - the manner or way in which things are arranged, a particular way things are
                    organized
bound           - tied, connected or attached firmly
column          - a vertical row
common          - united, widespread, ordinary
to contribute (to) - to give (money, food, etc.) to a common supply, fund, etc.:

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to determine      -     to conclude sth e.g. after observation
entire            -     whole
equal             -      as great as, the same as
essential         -      absolutely necessary
to focus (on)     -      to concentrate
to foil           -      to prevent the success of; frustrate
charge            -      a quantity of electricity (can be either positive or negative)
involve           -      to include as a necessary circumstance, condition, or consequence; imply;
                         entail, engage, employ
laundry           -      articles of clothing, linens, etc., that have been or are to be washed
magnitude         -       size; extent; dimensions, greatness of size or amount
noble gas          -      name of a group member of gases such as Ne, Ar etc...
nucleus            -      a fundamental arrangement of atoms, as the benzene ring, that may occur in
                           many compounds by substitution of atoms without a change in structure
plumber            -      a person who installs and repairs piping, fixtures, appliances etc
property           -      an essential or distinctive attribute or quality of a thing
question mark      -      a mark indicating a question
row                -      a number of persons or things arranged in a line, esp. a straight line
shorthand          -      a system of rapid handwriting employing symbols to represent words,
                           phrases, and letters, a system, form, or instance of abbreviated or formulaic
                           reference
sign              -        symbol, indication, any object, action, event, pattern, etc., that conveys a
                           meaning
significance       -      importance, meaning
similarity          -     the state of being similar; likeness; resemblance
to skip             -      to pass over without reading, to jump lightly over
sublevel            -     a level under another one, a level dependent on another one
to puzzle           -     to put (someone) at a loss; mystify; confuse; baffle
to pursue           -     to continue, to follow in order to complete, catch or kill sth, to go on with


18 Look at the title of the following article and guess what the text is about.


19 Read the article and compare it with your assumptions.

Strange Molecule In The Sky Cleans Acid Rain, Scientists Discover
ScienceDaily (Aug. 13, 2008) — Researchers have discovered an unusual molecule that is
essential to the atmosphere's ability to break down pollutants, especially the compounds that
cause acid rain.

It's the unusual chemistry facilitated by this molecule, however, that will attract the most
attention from scientists.

Marsha Lester, the University of Pennsylvania's Edmund J. Kahn Distinguished Professor,
and Joseph Francisco, William E. Moore Distinguished Professor of Chemistry at Purdue
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University, found the molecule, which had puzzled and eluded scientists for more than 40
years.

A technical paper describing the molecule is published this week in a special edition of the
Proceedings of the National Academy of Science.

Somewhat like a human body metabolizing food, the Earth's atmosphere has the ability to
"burn," or oxidize pollutants, especially nitric oxides emitted from sources such as factories
and automobiles. What doesn't get oxidized in the atmosphere falls back to Earth in the form
of acid rain.

"The chemical details of how the atmosphere removes nitric acid have not been clear,"
Francisco says. "This gives us important insights into this process. Without that knowledge
we really can't understand the conditions under which nitric acid is removed from the
atmosphere."

Francisco says the discovery will allow scientists to better model how pollutants react in the
atmosphere and to predict potential outcomes.

"This becomes important in emerging industrial nations such as China, India and Brazil where
there are automobiles and factories that are unregulated," Francisco says. "This chemistry will
give us insight into the extent that acid rain will be a future concern."

Lester says the molecule had been theorized by atmospheric chemists for 40 years and that
she and Francisco had pursued it for the past several years.

"We've speculated about this unusual atmospheric species for many years, and then to actually
see it and learn about its properties was very exciting," she says.

What makes the molecule so unusual is its two hydrogen bonds, which are similar to those
found in water.

Chemists know that although water is one of the most common substances found on the
planet, it has unusual properties. For example, the solid form - ice - is lighter than the liquid
form and floats. Water also boils at a much higher temperature than would be expected from
its chemical structure.

The cause of these strange behaviors are weak hydrogen bonds that hold water molecules
together.

The new atmospheric molecule has two hydrogen bonds, which allows it to form a six-sided
ring structure. Hydrogen bonds are usually weaker than the normal bonds between atoms in a
molecule, which are known as covalent bonds. In fact, covalent bonds are 20 times stronger
than hydrogen bonds. But in this case, these two hydrogen bonds are strong enough to affect
atmospheric chemistry, Francisco says.

Lester says the new molecule exhibits its own unusual properties.

"The reaction involving this molecule proceeds faster as you go to lower temperatures, which
is the opposite of most chemical reactions," she says. "The rate of reaction also changes
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depending on the atmospheric pressure, and most reactions don't depend on external pressure.
The molecule also exhibits unusual quantum properties."

Lester says the unusual properties prevented scientists from being able to model the reaction
for so long.

"This is not how we explain chemistry to high school students," she says. Francisco says that
this discovery will be used in areas other than atmospheric chemistry.

"Here's a situation where we were studying this purely environmental problem, but, because
the findings are so fundamental, it may have broader ramifications to biological systems that
depend on hydrogen bonds," he says.

The breakthrough was enabled by laser-based laboratory techniques at the University of
Pennsylvania and the supercomputing resources available at Purdue, Francisco says. The
computation was done on an SGI Altix supercomputer operated by the Office of Information
Technology at Purdue.

"The key is knowing where to look and how to identify new chemical entities, and with the
computing resources we have at Purdue we can help identify processes to within experimental
uncertainty," he says. "We couldn't have done this without the supercomputing power that we
have available."

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/08/080812213935.htm




VOCABULARY

20 Make adjectives from the following nouns:

chemistry
molecule
attention
puzzle
oxide
pollutant
nation
theory
atmosphere
biology
laboratory
experiment

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21 Match the words with their dictionary definitions:

A    to facilitate                opposite of strong

B to elude                        to offer or expose to view, to display

C essential                       to come or appear from/out of somewhere

D insight                         an effect or result

E to predict                      to see and describe sth. in advance

F outcome                         the power of using one’s mind to understand something
                                  deeply

G to emerge                       to influence

H species                         a group of plants or animals of the same kind

I   bond                          necessary

J   to float                      to stay at the top of liquid or fly in air without sinking

K behaviour                       a quality, power or effect that belongs naturally to sth.

L weak                            to make sth. easy or easier

M to affect                       to stop sb/sth from doing sth

N property                        the way a person acts toward other people

O to proceed                      to begin and continue some course of action, to advance

P to exhibit                      to evade or escape from, to escape the understanding

Q ramifications                   any significant or sudden advance, development,
                                  achievement, or increase, as in scientific knowledge or
                                  diplomacy, that removes a barrier to progress

R breakthrough                    a development or consequence growing out of and
                                  sometimes complicating a problem, plan, or statement

S to enable                       to make possible or to make able

T to prevent                      a connection between two or more atoms




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COMPREHENSION

22 What do you think about this article? What could some possible benefits of this
   discovery be?

23 Decide whether the following statements are true or false:

a/   This molecule has been known for more than 40 years.
b/   The atmosphere has an ability to reduce pollutants.
c/   Two hydrogen bonds make the molecule unusual.
d/   It was not possible to model the reaction of the molecule earlier.
e/   The breakthrough is based on laser technology.
f/    The unusual properties enabled scientists to model the reaction.
g/   This discovery may be used also in other areas than atmospheric chemistry.


24 Answer the questions according to the text:
a/   What is so special about the molecule?
b/   Why is it important?
c/   Why was it so complicated to detect the molecule?


d/   What will this discovery allow the scientists to do?
e/   Where was this discovery published?
f/ Under what conditions does this reaction proceed faster?
g/ What enabled the discovery?
h/ According to the researchers what is the atmosphere capable of?



25 Fill in the missing words:
Francisco says that this discovery will be used .... areas other ......... atmospheric chemistry.
"Here's a situation where we were studying this purely environmental problem, but, because
the findings are so fundamental, it may have broader ramifications ..... biological systems that
depend ...... hydrogen bonds," he says.
The breakthrough was enabled ...... laser-based laboratory techniques ...... the University of
Pennsylvania and the supercomputing resources available at Purdue, Francisco says. The
computation was done ...... an SGI Altix supercomputer operated ........... the Office of
Information Technology at Purdue.


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"The key is knowing ............... to look and how to identify new chemical entities, and with the
computing resources we have at Purdue we can help identify processes to within experimental
uncertainty," he says. "We couldn't have done this .............. the supercomputing power that
we have available."




GRAMMAR

26 Find examples of relative clauses in the text in ex. 19 and decide if they are defining
   or non-defining.

27 Try to retell contents of the article using relative pronouns and clauses.

     Reference: Grammar File - Relative clauses – explanation + exercises




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WARM UP

28 What vocabulary connected to chemistry can you remember? Use brainstorming
   and make a list of 10 verbs, 10 nouns and 10 adjectives from the field of chemistry.


29 Answer the following questions:
    How would you define chemistry?
    What is interesting about chemistry for you?
    What was your first encounter with chemistry?
    Do you remember your first chemical experiment?



                                   Chemistry basics
So you're asking, what is CHEMISTRY? Well... Here's our best definition. Chemistry is the
study of MATTER and the changes that take place with that matter.

Don't ask us why that matters. It just does. A lot. Everything on Earth, everything in our solar
system, everything in our galaxy, and everything in the universe is made up of matter. Matter
is the name that scientists have given to everything that you can touch, or see, or feel, or
smell. Go take a look!

Matter is the Stuff Around You

Matter is everything around you. Matter is anything made of atoms and molecules. Matter is
anything that has a mass. Matter is also related to light and electromagnetic radiation. Even
though matter can be found all over the universe, you usually find it in just a few forms. As of
1995, scientists have identified five states of matter. They may discover one more by the
time you get old.

You should know about solids, liquids, gases, plasmas, and a new one called Bose-Einstein
condensates. The first four have been around a long time. The scientists who worked with the
Bose-Einstein condensate received a Nobel Prize for their work in 1995. But what makes a
state of matter? It's about the physical state of molecules and atoms.

Changing States of Matter

Elements and compounds can move from one physical state to another and not change.
Oxygen (O2) as a gas still has the same properties as liquid oxygen. The liquid state is colder
and denser but the molecules are still the same. Water is another example. The compound
water is made up of two hydrogen (H) atoms and one oxygen (O) atom. It has the same
molecular structure whether it is a gas, liquid, or solid. Although its physical state may
change, its chemical state remains the same.

So you ask, "What is a chemical state?" If the formula of water were to change, that would be
a chemical change. If you added another oxygen atom, you would make hydrogen peroxide

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(H2O2). Its molecules would not be water anymore. Changing states of matter is about
changing densities, pressures, temperatures, and other physical properties. The basic chemical
structure does not change.




                              STATES OF MATTER

There are five main states of matter. Solids, liquids, gases, plasmas, and Bose-Einstein
condensates are all different states of matter. Each of these states is also known as a phase.
Elements and compounds can move from one phase to another phase when special physical
forces are present. One example of those forces is temperature. The phase or state of matter
can change when the temperature changes. Generally, as the temperature rises, matter moves
to a more active state.




Phase describes a physical state of matter. The key word to notice is physical. Things only
move from one phase to another by physical means. If energy is added (like increasing the
temperature or increasing pressure) or if energy is taken away (like freezing something or
decreasing pressure) you have created a physical change.




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One compound or element can move from phase to phase, but still be the same substance.
You can see water vapor over a boiling pot of water. That vapor (or gas) can condense and
become a drop of water. If you put that drop in the freezer, it would become a solid. No
matter what phase it was in, it was always water. It always had the same chemical properties.
On the other hand, a chemical change would change the way the water acted, eventually
making it not water, but something completely new.

http://www.chem4kids.com/“



COMPREHENSION

30 Go through the chapter “States of matter” once again and underline all verbs.

31 How many details can you remember from the text you have read so far? Use your
   own words to summarise the chapter


VOCABULARY

32 Create adjectives from the following words:

physics –
science –
liquid –
to create –
to boil –
to differ –
chemistry –
sun –
molecule –
atom –
gas –




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                                          Atoms Around Us
If you want to have a language, you will need an alphabet. If you want to build proteins, you will need
                             amino acids. Other examples in chemistry are not any different. If you
                             want to build molecules, you will need elements. Each element is a little
                             bit different from the rest. Those elements are the alphabet to the language
                             of molecules.

                               Why are we talking about elements? This is the section on atoms.

                               Let's stretch the idea a bit. If you read a book, you will read a language.
                               Letters make up that language. But what makes those letters possible?
                               Ummm... Ink? Yes! You need ink to crate the letters. And for each letter, it
                               is the same type of ink.

                               Confused? Don't be. Elements are like those letters. They have something
                               in common. That's where atoms come in. All elements are made of atoms.
                               While the atoms may have different weights and organization, they are all
built in the same way. Electrons, protons, and neutrons make the universe go.
If you want to do a little more thinking, start with particles of matter. Matter, the stuff around us, is used
to create atoms. Atoms are used to create the elements. Elements are used to create molecules. It just
goes on. Everything you see is built by using something else.

You could start really small...
- Particles of matter
- Atoms
- Elements
- Molecules
- Macromolecules
- Cell organelles
- Cells
- Tissues
- Organs
- Systems
- Organisms
- Populations
- Ecosystems
- Biospheres
- Planets
- Planetary Systems with Stars
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- Galaxies
- The Universe
  and finish really big.
Wow. All of that is possible because of atoms.


                            ATOMS = BUILDING BLOCKS
 Atoms are the basis of chemistry. They are the basis for everything in the Universe. You
 should start by remembering that matter is composed of atoms. Atoms and the study of atoms
 are a world unto themselves. We're going to cover basics like atomic structure and bonding
 between atoms.

                               SMALLER THAN ATOMS?
 Are there pieces of matter that are smaller than atoms? Sure there are. Atoms are composed of
 pieces like neutrons, electrons, and protons. But guess what? There are even smaller particles
 moving around in atoms. These super-small particles can be found inside the protons and
 neutrons. Scientists have many names for those pieces, but you may have heard of nucleons
 and quarks. Nuclear chemists and physicists work together with particle accelerators to
 discover the presence of these tiny, tiny, tiny pieces of matter.

 Even though those super tiny atomic particles exist, there are three basic parts of an atom. The
 parts are the electrons, protons, and neutrons. What are electrons, protons, and neutrons? A
 picture works best. You have a basic atom. There are three pieces to an atom. There are
 electrons, protons, and neutrons. That's all you have to remember. Three things! As you
 know, there are over 100 elements in the periodic table. The thing that makes each of those
 elements different is the number of electrons, protons, and neutrons. The protons and neutrons
 are always in the center of the atom. Scientists call the center of the atom the nucleus. The
 electrons are always found spinning around the center in areas called orbitals.

 You can also see that each piece has either a "+", "-", or a "0." That symbol refers to the
 charge of the particle. You know when you get a shock from a socket, static electricity, or
 lightning? Those are all different types of electric charges. There are even charges in tiny
 particles of matter like atoms. The electron always has a "-" or negative charge. The proton
 always has a "+" or positive charge. If the charge of an entire atom is "0", that means there are
 equal numbers of positive and negative pieces, equal numbers of electrons and protons. The
 third particle is the neutron. It has a neutral charge (a charge of zero).




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COMPREHENSION AND WRITING

33 Write down five sentences summarising this part of the text dealing with atoms and
   their structure.

34   True or false?
a/   Protons and neutrons are always in the centre of the atom in its normal state
b/   Molecules are the basic „bricks“ of all substances
c/   Atoms have four basic parts: protons, positrons, nuclides and neutrons
d/   Electrons spin around the center in orbitals
e/   Electron has always a positive charge


GRAMMAR

35 Fill the missing prepositions, then check with the original text:

Are there pieces .... matter that are smaller .......... atoms? Sure there are. Atoms are composed
of pieces like neutrons, electrons, and protons. But guess what? There are even smaller
particles moving around ..... atoms. These super-small particles can be found ............. the
protons and neutrons. Scientists have many names ....... those pieces, but you may have heard
of nucleons and quarks. Nuclear chemists and physicists work together ............ particle
accelerators ........ discover the presence of these tiny, tiny, tiny pieces of matter.



READING

36 Read the following text.




                                 LOOKING AT IONS

Ions are atoms with either extra electrons or missing electrons. A normal atom is called a
neutral atom. That term describes an atom with a number of electrons equal to the atomic
number.

What do you do if you are a sodium (Na) atom? You have eleven electrons, one too many to
have your shell filled. You need to find another element who will take that electron away
from you. Bring in chlorine (Cl). Chlorine (Cl) will take that electron away and leave you
with 10 electrons inside of two filled shells. You are a happy atom. Now you are also an ion
and missing one electron. You are a sodium ion (Na+). You have one less electron than your
atomic number.
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                              ION CHARACTERISTICS

So now you've become a sodium ion (Na+). Now you have ten electrons. That's the same
number as neon (Ne). But you aren't neon (Ne). Since you're missing an electron you aren't
really a complete sodium (Na) atom either. You are now something completely new. An ion.
Your whole goal as an atom was to become a "happy atom" with completely filled electron
orbitals. Now you have those filled shells. You are stable. What do you do that's so special
now? Now that you have given up the electron, you are quite electrically attractive. Other
electrically charged atoms (ions) are now looking at you and seeing a good partner to bond
with. That's where chlorine comes in.



                                  ELECTROVALENCE

Don't get worried about the big word. Electrovalence is just another word for something that
has given up its electron and become an ion. If you look at the periodic table, you might
notice that elements on the left side usually become positively charged ions and elements on
the right side get a negative charge. That trend means the left side has a positive valence and
the right side has a negative valence. Valence is a measure of how much an atom wants to
bond with other atoms.




There are two main types of bonding, covalent and electrovalent. Scientists also call ionic
bonds electrovalent bonds. Ionic bonds are just groups of charged ions held together by
electric forces. Scientists call these groups ionic agglomerates. When in the presence of other
ions, the electrovalent bonds are weaker because of outside electrical forces and attractions.




Look at sodium chloride (table salt) as an example. Salt is a very strong bond when it is sitting
on your table. It would be nearly impossible to break those ionic bonds. However, if you put
that salt into some water the bonds break very quickly. It happens easily because of the
electrical attraction of the water. Now you have sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) ions.
Remember that ionic bonds are normally strong but very weak in water.




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VOCABULARY REVISION

37 Unscramble the words below:

1 tamso           _______________

2 mass            _______________

3 unmpcdoo _______________

4 iluidq          _______________

5 tuceursrt       _______________

6 rsrpseeu        _______________

7 ags             _______________

8 ntseeeml        _______________

9 patlirec        _______________

10 gchera         _______________

11 obtilra        _______________

12 nisp           _______________

13 dnob           _______________

14 eforc          _______________

15 oin            _______________



GRAMMAR

38 Read the following two chapters. Can you find examples of passive voice?


                                COMPOUND BASICS

Compounds are groups of two or more elements that are bonded together. (By the way do you
remember the definition of an element? Answer: A chemical element, or an element, is a
material which cannot be broken down or changed into another substance using chemical
means. Elements may be thought of as the basic chemical building blocks of matter.
Depending on how much evidence you require to prove a new element has been created, there
are 117 or 118 known elements.)
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Ok, now back to the compounds and their bonds. There are two main types of bonds that hold
those atoms together, covalent and electrovalent/ionic bonds. Covalent compounds happen
when the atoms share the electrons, and ionic compounds happen when electrons are donated
from one atom to another.

We talked about compounds and molecules in the matter tutorials. When we discuss phase
changes to matter, physical forces create the changes. When we talk about compounds, bonds
are built and broken down by chemical forces. Physical forces (unless you're inside of the
Sun or something extreme) cannot break down compounds. Chemical forces are forces
caused by other compounds or molecules that act on substances.

There are millions of different compounds around you. Chances are everything you can see is
one type of compound or another. When elements join and become compounds, they lose
their individual traits. Sodium alone is very reactive. But when sodium and chlorine combine,
they form a non-reactive substance called sodium chloride (Salt, NaCl). The compound has
none of the properties or the original elements. The new compound is not as reactive as the
original elements. It has a new life of its own.


                                DIFFERENT BONDS ABOUND

Most compounds are made up of combinations of bonds. If you look at sodium chloride
(NaCl), it is held together by one ionic bond. What about magnesium chloride (MgCl2)? One
magnesium (Mg) and two chlorine (Cl) atoms. There are two ionic bonds. There's a
compound called methane (CH<SUB< sub>4). It is made up of one carbon (C) and four
hydrogens (H). There are four bonds and they are all covalent. Those examples are very
simple compounds, but most compounds are combinations of ionic and covalent bonds.

Let's look at sodium hydroxide (Na-OH)?




You can see that on the left is the sodium (Na) part and the right has the oxygen/hydrogen
(-OH) part. The bond that binds the hydrogen (H) to the oxygen (O) is covalent. The sodium
(Na) is bonded to the hydroxide part of the compound with an ionic bond. This is a very good
example of how there can be different types of bonds within one compound.

Reference: Grammar File – Passive voice – explanation + exercises

Hmwk: names of elements – ref. http://www.elementsdatabase.com/
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


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                           Elements as Building Blocks – periodic table
As you probably saw, the periodic table is organized like a big grid. The elements are placed
in specific places because of the way they look and act. If you have ever looked at a grid, you
know that there are rows (left to right) and columns (up and down). The periodic table has
rows and columns, too, and they each mean something different.


                                    You've got Your Periods...
Even though they skip some squares in between, all of the rows go left to right. When you
look at a periodic table, each of the rows is considered to be a different period (Get it? Like
PERIODic table.). In the periodic table, elements have something in common if they are in
the same row. All of the elements in a period have the same number of atomic orbitals. Every
element in the top row (the first period) has one orbital for its electrons. All of the elements in
the second row (the second period) have two orbitals for their electrons. It goes down the
periodic table like that. At this time, the maximum number of electron orbitals or electron
shells for any element is seven.




...and Your Groups
Now you know about periods. The periodic table has a special name for its columns, too.
When a column goes from top to bottom, it's called a group. The elements in a group have the
same number of electrons in their outer orbital. Every element in the first column (group one)
has one electron in its outer shell. Every element on the second column (group two) has two
electrons in the outer shell. As you keep counting the columns, you'll know how many
electrons are in the outer shell. There are some exceptions to the order when you look at the
transition elements, but you get the general idea.




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SPEAKING
39 Do you remember anything interesting or special about any element of the periodic
   table?



LISTENING
Gold   http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/podcast/element.asp

40 Listen to the recording and answer the following questions: Where does most gold
come from?

        How thick is the thinnest film we can make?
        Why is it used in Concorde planes?
        When and where were the first gold coins used?
        Who brought most of ancient gold to Europe?
        Why did pirates bite gold coins? Did it work?


Now check your answers with the transcript below and answer the additional questions.


Transcript:

Chemistry in Its Element - Gold
(Promo)
You're listening to Chemistry in its element brought to you by Chemistry World, the
magazine of the Royal Society of Chemistry
(End promo)


Chris Smith
Hello, in this week's episode of Chemistry in its Element, we're taking a flight on Concorde,
dropping by Buckingham Palace and finding out what could form a film just 230 atoms
thick. Going for gold for us this week, here's the legendary science broadcaster and
populariser Johnny Ball.
Johnny Ball
The element Gold. Gold is element 79 and its symbol is Au. Though the name is Anglo
Saxon, gold originated from Latin “Aurum“ or “shining dawn” and previously from the
Greek. It's abundance in the earth's crust is 0.004 ppm.
100% of Gold found naturally is isotope Au197. 28 other isotopes can be produced artificially
and are all radioactive.
Gold along with Silver and Copper, form a column in the periodic table. They are found
naturally and were the first three elements known to man. They were all used as primitive
money well before the first gold coins which appeared in Egypt around 3400 BC.

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Most gold is ancient or comes from Central American Aztecs and South American Incas
brought to Europe by the Spanish and Portuguese in the 16th century, and which has since
been recycled over and over again. In 1830 world output was no more than 12 tonnes pa. But
around that time new gold discoveries were being made. Finds were discovered in Siberia,
in California, New South Wales and Victoria, Australia, Transvaal, South Africa, the
Klondike and Alaska, and they all produced gold rushes. The world production was then
around 150 tonnes per year. It is now around 2300 tonnes pa.
Usually it is found in its natural state and does not naturally alloy with anything else and
because it is the heaviest of all metals, sifting rock in water, the gold always falls to the
bottom and all less dense impurities are washed away.
The largest nugget was the Welcome Stranger nugget found in Victoria, Australia in 1869. It
weighed over 71 kg. This type of nugget occurrs naturally but it is very, very rare. Pure gold
is 24 karat. 18 karat must be 75% gold and 12 karat gold is 50% gold and so on.
Gold is the most malleable of all metals and soft enough to be cut with a knife. Stone age
peoples hammered gold into plates for ornamental purposes. Really quite large amounts were
gathered together. Though Tutankhamun was a minor Pharaoh and died aged 18, his coffin
alone contained 112 kg of gold. Egyptians also made thin gold sheets, utensils, vast variety of
jewellery and even gold threads. King Tut, when he was buried, had over 150 gold ornaments
on his body.
Today 1 gram of gold can be beaten into a square meter sheet just 230 atoms thick. 1 cu
centimetre would make a sheet of 18 square metres. Concord's windscreen had a layer of gold
to screen pilots from UV light and today it is often used in skyscraper windows to cut down
both heat and UV from sunlight. 1 gram can be drawn out to make 165 metres of wire just
1/200th of a millimetre thick.
The gold colour in the Buckingham Palace fence is actually gold. Gold covered, because it
lasts 30 years, whereas gold paint, which actually contains no gold at all, lasts in tip-top
conditions, only about a year or so.
Sea Water contains around 3 parts in a billion of gold, but there's never been found an
economic means of recovering it. The Germans tried very hard during the 2nd WW but
failed miserably.
The largest modern hoard is the 30,000 tons in the US Federal Reserve Bank in New York,
which belongs to 18 different nations. It is estimated that all the world's gold gathered
together would only make a cube around 18 metres per side - about 6000 cubic metres. And
that's Gold.
Chris Smith
So now you know why pirates used to bite gold coins to see if they were real. It wasn't just
for the camera because it looked good, it was because the metal was soft enough to be marked
by teeth. That was Johnny Ball telling the story of Gold. Next time on Chemistry in its
Element Victoria Gill introduces the chemical that founded the science of photography and
also helped to launch the careers of successions of Oscar winners.............

Additional questions:

What is the Welcome stranger?

Why is the fence around Buckingham palace painted with the paint containing real gold?
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Is there any gold in sea water? Why don´t we extract it?



GRAMMAR

41 Create 3 sentences with relative clauses about periodic table using where,
   which or that.


Reference: Grammar File - Relative clauses – explanation + exercises

HMWK English names of elements – see http://www.elementsdatabase.com/



FACT READING

42 Study the following texts on the history and the basics of English chemistry
   nomenclature and compare it to the Czech one.
     HMWK English names of elements – see http://www.elementsdatabase.com/


                                            History
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IUPAC_nomenclature#History

The history of chemical nomenclature is unclear. However, it is supposed that it originates
from early alchemy and their needs to classify and name substances and compounds they
were using.
The nomenclature of alchemy is rich in description, but does not effectively meet the aims
outlined above. Opinions differ whether this was deliberate on the part of the early
practitioners of alchemy or whether it was a consequence of the particular (and often esoteric)
theoretical framework in which they worked.
While both explanations are probably valid to some extent, it is remarkable that the first
"modern" system of chemical nomenclature appeared at the same time as the distinction (by
Lavoisier) between elements and compounds, in the late eighteenth century.
The French chemist Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau published his recommendations in
1782, hoping that his "constant method of denomination" would "help the intelligence and
relieve the memory". The system was refined in collaboration with Berthollet, de Fourcroy
and Lavoisier, and promoted by the latter in a textbook which would survive long after his
death at the guillotine in 1794. The project was also espoused by Jöns Jakob Berzelius who
adapted the ideas for the German-speaking world.
The recommendations of Guyton covered only what would be today known as inorganic
compounds. With the massive expansion of organic chemistry in the mid-nineteenth century
and the greater understanding of the structure of organic compounds, the need for a less ad
hoc system of nomenclature was felt just as the theoretical tools became available to make
this possible. An international conference was convened in Geneva in 1892 by the national
chemical societies, from which the first widely accepted proposals for standardization arose.

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A commission was set up in 1913 by the Council of the International Association of Chemical
Societies, but its work was interrupted by World War I. After the war, the task passed to the
newly formed International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, which first appointed
commissions for organic, inorganic and biochemical nomenclature in 1921 and continues to
do so to this day.
The IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry is a systematic method of naming
inorganic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and
Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Ideally, every inorganic compound should have a name from
which an unambiguous formula can be determined. There is also an IUPAC nomenclature of
organic chemistry.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) (IPA: /aɪjuːpæk/ or ay-
yoo-pec) is an international non-governmental organization established in 1919 devoted to the
advancement of chemistry. It has as its members national chemistry societies. It is most well
known as the recognized authority in developing standards for the naming of the chemical
elements and their compounds, through its Interdivisional Committee on Nomenclature and
Symbols (IUPAC nomenclature). It is a member of the International Council for Science
(ICSU).
In addition to nomenclature guidelines, the IUPAC sets standards for international spelling in
the event of a dispute; for example, it ruled that international aluminium is preferable to the
American aluminium and American sulfur is preferable to the British sulphur.
Many IUPAC publications are available over the Internet. For example, Quantities, Units and
Symbols in Physical Chemistry (the "Green Book") can be downloaded in its entirety, while
Compendium of Chemical Terminology is fully searchable online.


Basics of English inorganic chemistry nomenclature
Naming binary compounds

- these are compounds consisting of two elements
- the second name ends with –ide (chloride, oxide etc..)

The formation of the whole name of the substance depends on whether or not the given binary
compound contains a metal (if it contains a semimetal, the rules are the same as for
metals)
When a compound contains a metal e.g FeCl2 we today use the so-called stock system
where we write the basic form of the first element (in our case iron) and the number of its
oxidation state (identified by a Roman numeral) and then add the second element ending
with –ide. Thus, FeCl2 is written as: iron (II) chloride, which is read as „iron two (normal
number) chloride“. The older system which today remains only in technical names used the
suffixes –ic or –ous, the former referring to a higher oxidation state and the latter to a lower
one. Thus FeCl2 could be also called ferrous chloride (compare with FeCl3 = ferric chloride).
However, today this system only prevails in the nomenclature of oxoacids and their salts and
will hopefully soon disappear completely as it requires to know what oxidation states the
given element actually achieves before it can be used. In conclusion: endings –ous and –ic are
still used in technical names usually in the combination with the Latin name of the given
element but the stock system (which uses the English names of elements wherever possible) is
strongly preferred for the systematic naming of inorganic binary compounds containing either
a metal or a semimetal.
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When the binary compound contains neither a metal nor a semimetal, we write not only
the basic form of the first element but also of the second one and use Latin prefixes (mono-,
di-, tri- etc.) to express the real number of atoms (not the oxidation state!!!), Thus, for
example, CO2 is therefore called carbon dioxide. Similarly N2O3 is then called dinitrogen
trioxide etc.
The main difference is that when a binary compound contains a metal or a semimetal we use
Roman numerals after the name of the first element to express its oxidation state, but if there
is no metal or semimetal in a binary compound we use Latin prefixes to express the real
amount of atoms and place them in front of the name of the relevant element.


                                 Nomenclature of acids
Nonoxygenous acids
- without oxygen
- e.g. HCl – hydrogen is expressed by the prefix hydro + the name of the main element ending
with –ic because they are only in one form (hydrochloric acid) or the same rule applies as for
binary nonmetallic compounds (hydrogen chloride). Similarly HF is either hydrofluoric acid
or hydrogen fluoride etc.

Oxoacids
- contain hydrogen, an element forming their name and oxygen
- here we meet the older and rather unfortunate way of naming substances which was briefly
mentioned in the chapter about naming binary compounds containing a metal. As you may
remember it uses the endings –ic or –ous, the former referring to a higher oxidation state and
the latter to a lower one. So H2SO4 is called sulphuric acid (higher oxidation state of sulphur)
and H2SO3 is sulphurous acid (lower oxidation state). The problem, as you probably feel, is
that here you need to know what oxidation states that element really achieves or, more



precisely, which oxoacids it really forms. However, it is still used this way although the
IUPAC (organisation that sets rules for nomenclature) is taking steps to change it.

If an element forms more than two oxoacids the prefixes hypo- and per- are employed

So e.g. HClO is hypochlorous acid (hypo- refers to a lower oxidation state than the one
                                   marked with the ending –ous)
        HClO2 is chlorous acid

         HClO3 is chloric acid      (-ic referring to a higher oxidation state than –ous)

         HClO4 is perchloric acid   (per- meaning a higher oxidation state than an acid with
                                     just –ic at the end)

Salts of oxoacids are formed in a very similar way (using partly this older method and partly
the stock system). Once we know the name of the acid we keep it and simply change the
ending: –ous into –ite and –ic into –ate.

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         Oxidation state      Cations and acids          Anions


         Lowest               hypo- -ous                 hypo- -ite


                              -ous                       -ite


                              -ic                        -ate


         Highest              per- -ic                   per- -ate



Thus, for example, NaClO is called natrium hypochlorite (element natrium or sodium is
obvious, we know the name of hypochlorous acid, so we just change its ending from –ous to –
ite).
Or Fe(ClO3)2 is called iron (II) chlorate (we mark the oxidation state of iron in the same way
as in the stock system of binary compounds with a metal, then we take the name of chloric
acid (HClO3) and change its ending from –ic to –ate).



RULE PRACTICE

43 Name the following compounds:

N2O3
CuCl2
H2CO3
CaCO3
KNO3
Fe(OH)3
HBrO3
Au(ClO4)3
HF
KOH
Na2S
Na2SO3


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44 Create formulas for the names of the following compounds:
iron (II) oxide
hydrobromic acid
bromic acid
sulphuric acid
gold (III) bromide
gold (III) bromite
diphosphorus pentaoxide
carbon (mono)oxide
chlorous acid
calcium (II) hypochlorite
periodic acid
sulphur tetraiodide
lead (II) iodide

45 Study the mathematical expressions and chemical formulas.
Basic mathematical symbols
                Name
 Symbol                         Read as                     Explanation                Examples
                                          Category
                equality
                                                     x = y means x and y represent the
      =                    is equal to; equals
                                                     same thing or value.
                                                                                       1+1=2
                                        everywhere
                inequation                        x ≠ y means that x and y do not
      ≠           is not equal to; does not equal represent the same thing or          1≠2
                                                  value.
                                      everywhere


      <         strict inequality

                                                    x < y means x is less than y.
                  is less than, is greater than, is                                    3<4
                                                                                       5>4
      >               much less than, is much
                            greater than
                                                    x > y means x is greater than y.



                order theory


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                   addition

      +                             plus                4 + 6 means the sum of 4 and 6. 2 + 7 = 9
                                           arithmetic
                   sub(s)traction
                                                        9 − 4 means the sub(s)traction of
       -                          minus                 4 from 9.
                                                                                          8−3=5

                                           arithmetic
                   multiplication
      .                 times, multiplied by            3 · 4 means the multiplication of
                                                                                          7 · 8 = 56
                                                        3 by 4.
    (x)                                    arithmetic
                   division
      :, ÷                    divided by                6 ÷ 3 or 6 ⁄ 3 means the division
                                                                                            2 ÷ 4 = .5
                                                        of 6 by 3.
(/)                                        arithmetic
                                                                                            12 ⁄ 4 = 3

                   resulting in
-->                    give(s), leads to, yields
                                                        Na+Cl ---> means Na and Cl
                                                        give.....
                                                                                            H2 + Cl2-->
                                                                                            2HCl
                                  chemical equations

Note: chemical formulas can also be read with the help of spelling: e.g. 2 FeCl3 could be read
as two molecules of [ef i: si: el ri:]


Mathematical expressions:
32   three squared, three to the power of two, three to the second (power)
  3
3    three cubed, three to the power of three, three to the third (power)
34   three to the power of four, three to the fourth (power)
      the n-th root of z
3/5   three divided by five, three fifths
3.25 three point two five
4,034 four thousand and thirty four
524th five hundred and twenty-fourth


Some punctuation marks:
,     comma
.          full stop (GB), period (AM)
:          colon
;          semi-colon
!          exclamation mark



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?        question mark
-        hyphen
−        dash
/        slash, stroke, oblique
""       double quotes, quotation marks, inverted commas
´´       single quotes
()       brackets, parentheses
´        apostrophe


VOCABULARY

Rovnice          –
               equation
Plus            –
               plus
Mínus            –
               minus
Krát            –
               times
Děleno          –
              divided by
Mocnina        power (42 = four to the second (power) – pozn. slovo power zde být nemusí,
                –
               ale je nutná řadová číslovka a tedy i určitý člen)
Odmocnina – root (toto slovo nelze vynechat a opět nutná řadová číslovka)
Desetinná tečka – point

Pozn.: čárka u čísel značí v Aj řády: 5,812 (five thousand and twelve)
Hundred, thousand, million nemá za číslem množný tvar – 400 = four hundred (ne hundreds)
Mezi desítkami a dalším řádem píšeme pomlčku: 23 = twenty-three; vyšší řád než desítky se
napojuje na nižší pomocí „and“, tj. 4,256 = four thousand two hundred and fifty-six; 4,006 =
four thousand and six atd.


46 Check if you can read and write the expressions correctly:
                                                                         6
a/ read the following: 5,023; 15.012; 3/5; 6H2O2; 3H2SO3;     ; 45/173; 7 ; 15,123,014;
                       1.012; 2KClO3 -> 2KCl + 3O2

b/ write in full:
14.023
144th
7/6
17x30
25,306
14-2
4H3PO4
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13th
204x15




47 Match the correct chemical formula with the name and the correct definitiv.

     1) MgO                 citric acid        a)   it is a white crystalline solid; it is a major
                                                    chemical in the world and one of the most
                                                    damaging salts in structure conservation;
                                                    the hydrate is known as Glauber´s Salt

     2) HCL                 acetylene          b)   in the lower atmosphere is an air pollutant
                                                    with harmful effects on the respiratory
                                                    systems of animals, it can burn sensitive
                                                    plants; it is a pale blue gas soluble in water

     3) CaCl2              sodium chloride     c)   it is used for relief of heartburn and sore
                                                    stomach ; to improve symptoms of
                                                    indigestion

     4) CO2                sodium sulphate     d) it is a colourless gas which forms white
                                                  fumes ; skin contact can cause redness,
                                                  pain, severe skin burns

    5) C2H2                trioxygen           e)   it is a weak organic acid and a natural
                                                    preservative; it is also used to add an
                                                    acidic, or sour taste to food and soft
                                                    drinks; it exists in a variety of fruits

    6) NaCl                magnesium oxide      f) it is a colourless gas widely used as a
                                                   fuel; it s mainly manufactured by the
                                                   particial combustion of methane; it has
                                                   explosive character and ability to poison

    7) Na2SO4              ethanol              g) it is solid at room temperature; it can be
                                                   produced directly from limestone; as an
                                                   ingredient it is listed as a permitted food
                                                   additive in EU as E509

    8) O3                  hydrogen chloride    h) it is a gas at standard temperature and
                                                   pressure; it exists in Earth´s atmosphere
                                                   in this state; it is known as a part of
                                                   photosynthesis




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  9) C2H5OH                calcium chloride   i)     it is essential for animal life in small
                                                      quantities; it can be harmful to animals
                                                      and plants in excess; it is used for food
                                                      preservation

  10) C6H8O7               carbon dioxide          j) it is also called pure alcohol; it is
                                                      a flammable, colourless liquid, known as
                                                      an essential solvent; it is used in
                                                      medicines, food industry, etc.




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                                                                Unit 3 – Laboratory




                                  UNIT 3
                               LABORATORY


WARM UP

1 What comes to your mind when you hear the word laboratory?
  Do you know the names of any items you can see below and which can be found in a
  common chemical laboratory?




The ……….. ………...               The …….. is used             The Erlenmeyer ……..
is used to ……………..             e.g. to …………..               is used as a mixing
the volume of liquids in ml.   liquids during heating.      vessel or a container.




The ……… is used The ……… are used This ……… is used The ………….. can
to ……… your face to …….. your eyes for ……... or holding be used as a beaker
from broken glass,                 chemicals.           cover or for heating
chemicals and flames.                                   or evaporating ……..




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The …….. is used      …………. are used         …….. are used for        The …… …… is used
to remove undissolved for storing chemicals. mixing or holding        to hold chemicals
solids from a liquid                         chemicals. They give     during heating or other
mixture or to help                           only approximate          reactions.
…… a liquid into a                           ……………. of
container.                                   volume.




……….. are used to        The …… measures               The ………….. ….. is The ……. …..
measure liquids. ……..    …………….. .                     used to stir chemicals. can speed up
…….. are used to measure                                                       filtration.
one amount only. ………
…….. measure many
different amounts.




The ………. ……. is used        The …….. ….. is used            The ………. is used
to ………. a liquid from       for ………… reactions              during heating at high
some chemicals.             that occur in the wells.        ………… . You can use
                                                            it with a cover to keep oxygen
                                                            out of the reaction.




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………. are used to …… The ……. ……. …..…                    The ……… is used for The …… ..…..
…. small items.     supports the test tubes.            ………….. . We might is used to ……
                                                        use the flint ligther glassware.
                                                        to ……….. the flame.




The …. ….. ….. holds a          The ….. …… is used to hold         .… …… are used to pick up
test tube during heating.       e.g. a funnel during filtering.     and hold a ……… .




The ….. …… is used to support The …. ……. can support                    ….……. are used to
or hold e.g. a crucible during e.g. a beaker or a flask during          …….. our hands.
heating or a ……… during        …….. . It spreads the flame
filtering.                     evenly.




The …. ……. can              The …….. is a dish and the …….
……… glassware.              is the grinder. They are used to …..
                            or grind chemicals.
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2 You can see the pictures of the most frequently used pieces of glassware, porcelain
  vessels and tools and other utilities. Look at them briefly and say:

       -which of them you know
       -which of them you have never seen
       -which of them you like to work with

3 a) Sort this laboratory equipment into the columns:

goggles                       lab tongs                pestle                            cylinder              spot plate
Petri dish                    thermometer              balance                           funnel                flask
mortar                        polarography             evaporating dish                  test tube             beaker
dissicator                    furnace                  stirring rod                      watch glass           pipet
centrifuge                    crucible                 hydrometer                        ring clamp            wire
gauze                         burner                   flint lighter                     wash bottle           hood
conductivity tester           spatula                  weighing paper                    filter paper


     glassware                porcelain                 tools and utilities                         apparatuses
      ...............         ...............           ............................                ...................
      ...............         ................          ..............................              ...................
      ................        ................          .............................               ...................
      ................        ...............           ...............................             ...................
      ...............         ...............            ............................               ...................
      ...............         ................          ..............................              ...................
      ................        ................           .............................              ..................
      ................        ...............           ...............................             ...................
      ................        ...............           ...............................             ...................
      ................        ...............           ...............................             ...................


 b) Work with a dictionary: find expressions concerning the laboratory equipment that
    you still miss in the previous table and add them to the list.

 c) Make sentences using the following verbs in connection with the laboratory
    equipment from exercise 3a). Work in pairs.


 place                   heat              evaporate          remove                     dissolve              pour
 splash                  scratch           attach             pick up                    insert                support
 dispense                measure           rinse              separate                   crush                 grind
 collect                 weigh             fill               stir                       fold                  ignite



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4    Work in pairs or make a competition in teams. Choose 5 items of the lab equipment,
     prepare their description (material, shape colour, usage). Take turns in describing
     and guessing the defined objects.


5   Work in pairs or small groups: You are supposed to equip a chemical laboratory for
    the first year training at our school. Your financial and space possibilities are
    limited, you have to agree on a list of 15 items that are indispensable.
    When discussing it, use various ways of expressing agreement or disagreement:
    e.g.: I can’t agree, it can be replaced by....
    Absolutely.
    I agree with you, but...

6    Match the following verbs in column A with the nouns in column B.

 A                                 B
 1.to evaporate                    A your eyes
 2.to pour                         B a glass vessel
 3. to measure                     C electricity
 4. to separate                    D some water
 5. to protect                     E a liquid into a container
 6. to collect                     F gases inside
 7. to conduct                     G chemicals
 8. to support                     H the mass of an object
 9. to scratch                     I a mixture
10.to transfer                     J the test tubes

7 Instructions for an experiment / Reporting actions (See Supplementary texts to
  Unit 3)


PRE-READING DISCUSSION

8 Discuss in pairs or small groups:
   Have you ever seen a mobile laboratory? What purpose did it serve?
   What could be the possible advantages of a mobile lab compared to a traditional one?
   What equipment do you expect to find in such a laboratory,
   Where does the laboratory take water, gas, electricity?
   Would you like to work in a mobile lab? Why/ why not?




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WARM UP


9    Draw at least four signs you would put on the door of a chemical laboratory to
     inform the laboratory workers how to behave inside. Let your colleague guess the
     meaning of your signs. (Use the modal verbs to express prohibition,
     recommendation....)

10 Decide whether the following safety rules and recommendations are a GOOD/ BAD
   or even DANGEROUS piece of advice.

          1. If you want to dilute sulphuric acid, pour water slowly into the acid.
          2. For work with unpleasant or dangerous vapours plug your nose with cotton
             properly.
          3. If any chemicals get in your eyes, flush them with running water and inform the
             teacher or colleague
             what happened.
          4. In case of fire try to find some good shelter (e.g. under the sink) and wait.
          5. If you want to warm some meal in the lab, don´t put it in the furnace together with
             any chemicals.

11 Discuss the following questions:
        Did you get any special training or preparation course before starting your
         laboratory sessions?
        Did you have to pass any exam or obtain a credit connected with lab safety rules?
        Have you ever witnessed any breaking of the safety rules in the lab. What happened?




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                           Lab Safety Rules


GENERAL GUIDELINES           1. Conduct yourself in a responsible manner at all times in the
                             laboratory.

                             2. Follow all written and verbal instructions carefully. If you do
                             not understand a direction or part of a procedure, ASK YOUR
                             TEACHER BEFORE PROCEEDING WITH THE ACTIVITY.

                             3. Never work alone in the laboratory. No student may work in
                             the science classroom without the presence of the teacher.

                             4. When first entering a science room, do not touch any
                             equipment, chemicals, or other materials in the laboratory area
                             until you are instructed to do so.

                             5. Perform only those experiments authorized by your teacher.
                             Carefully follow all instructions, both written and oral.
                             Unauthorized experiments are not allowed.

                             6. Do not eat food, drink beverages, or chew gum in the
                             laboratory. Do not use laboratory glassware as containers for
                             food or beverages.



                             7. Be prepared for your work in the laboratory. Read all
                             procedures thoroughly before entering the laboratory. Never
                             fool around in the laboratory. Horseplay, practical jokes, and
                             pranks are dangerous and prohibited.

                             8. Always work in a well-ventilated area.

                             9. Observe good housekeeping practices. Work areas should
                             be kept clean and tidy at all times.

                             10. Be alert and proceed with caution at all times in the
                             laboratory. Notify the teacher immediately of any unsafe
                             conditions you observe.

                             11. Dispose of all chemical waste properly. Never mix
                             chemicals in sink drains. Sinks are to be used only for water.
                             Check with your teacher for disposal of chemicals and
                             solutions.

                             12. Labels and equipment instructions must be read carefully
                             before use. Set up and use the equipment as directed by your
                             teacher.

                             13. Keep hands away from face, eyes, mouth, and body while
                             using chemicals or lab equipment. Wash your hands with soap
                             and water after performing all experiments.




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                           14. Experiments must be personally monitored at all times. Do
CLOTHING                   not wander around the room, distract other students, startle
                           other students or interfere with the laboratory experiments of
                           others.

                           15. Know the locations and operating procedures of all safety
                           equipment including: first aid kit(s), and fire extinguisher. Know
                           where the fire alarm and the exits are located.

                           16. Know what to do if there is a fire drill during a laboratory
                           period; containers must be closed, and any electrical equipment
                           turned off.


                           17. Any time chemicals, heat, or glassware are used, students
                           will wear safety goggles. NO EXCEPTIONS TO THIS RULE!

                           18. Contact lenses may be not be worn in the laboratory.

                           19. Dress properly during a laboratory activity. Long hair,
                           dangling jewelry, and loose or baggy clothing are a hazard in the
                           laboratory. Long hair must be tied back, and dangling jewelry
                           and baggy clothing must be secured. Shoes must completely
                           cover the foot. No sandals allowed on lab days.

                           20. A lab coat or smock should be worn during laboratory
                           experiments.




ACCIDENTS AND INJURIES
                           21. Report any accident (spill, breakage, etc.) or injury (cut,
                           burn, etc.) to the teacher immediately, no matter how trivial it
                           seems. Do not panic.

                           22. If you or your lab partner is hurt, immediately (and loudly)
                           yell out the teacher's name to get the teacher's attention. Do not
                           panic.

                           23. If a chemical should splash in your eye(s) or on your skin,
                           immediately flush with running water for at least 20 minutes.
                           Immediately (and loudly) yell out the teacher's name to get the
                           teacher's attention.



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HANDLING CHEMICALS                         24. All chemicals in the laboratory are to be considered
                                           dangerous. Avoid handling chemicals with fingers. Always use a
                                           tweezer. When making an observation, keep at least 1 foot away
                                           from the specimen. Do not taste, or smell any chemicals.

                                           25. Check the label on all chemical bottles twice before
                                           removing any of the contents. Take only as much chemical as
                                           you need.

                                           26. Never return unused chemicals to their original container.

                                           27. Never remove chemicals or other materials from the
                                           laboratory area.




READING COMPREHENSION

12 Study the text Lab Safety Rules and underline the expressions you are not familiar
   with. Can you guess their meaning from the context? If not, consult the dictionary.

13 Did any of the rules surprise you?



TEAM WORK

14 Work in pairs or small groups and decide which of the rules are of the utmost
   importance. Make a TOP TEN list. Explain why. Then report to the rest of the class.


15 Make a summary of the most important laboratory safety rules concerning the
   following facts:

               -dress code for a laboratory worker
               -refreshment during the lab period
               -working with chemicals
               -working with hot glassware
               -what to do in case of injury
               -what to do in case of fire


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FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS

16 Read the instructions on how to produce aspirin.

How to Make Aspirin - Acetylsalicylic Acid - Introduction and History
        1. Accurately weigh 3.00 grams of salicylic acid and transfer to a dry Erlenmeyer
            flask. If you will be calculating actual and theoretical yield, be sure to record how
            much salicylic acid you actually measured.
        2. Add 6 mL of acetic anhydride and 5-8 drops of 85% phosphoric acid to the flask.
        3. Gently swirl the flask to mix the solution. Place the flask in a beaker of warm water
            for ~15 minutes.
        4. Add 20 drops of cold water dropwise to the warm solution to destroy the excess
            acetic anhydride.
        5. Add 20 mL of water to the flask. Set the flask in an ice bath to cool the mixture and
            speed crystallization.
        6. When the crystallization process appears complete, pour the mixture through a
            Buckner funnel.
        7. Apply suction filtration through the funnel and wash the crystals with a few
            milliliters of ice cold water. Be sure the water is near freezing to minimize loss of
            product.
        8. Perform a recrystallization to purify the product. Transfer the crystals to a beaker.
            Add 10 mL of ethanol. Stir and warm the beaker to dissolve the crystals.
        9. After the crystals have dissolved, add 25 mL of warm water to the alcohol solution.
            Cover the beaker. Crystals will reform as the solution cools. Once crystallization
            has started, set the beaker in an ice bath to complete the recrystallization.
        10. Pour the contents of the beaker into a Buckner funnel and apply suction filtration.
        11. Remove the crystals to dry paper to remove excess water.
        12. Confirm you have acetylsalicylic acid by verifying a melting point of 135°C.


VOCABULARY

yield          - the quantity of product formed by the interaction of two or more substances
swirl          - to move around or along with a whirling motion
excess         - the fact of exceeding something else in amount or degree
suction        - to draw out or remove by aspiration
loss           - something that is lost
confirm         - to acknowledge with definite assurance
verify         - to prove the truth of, as by evidence or testimony; confirm


17 Make a list of all the items of laboratory equipment you need for this experiment.


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18    Match the verbs describing the process with the nouns.
         transfer                   excess water
          mix                       the crystals
          remove                    a funnel
          dissolve                  to a flask
          pour through               loss of product
          minimize                   the solution


19 Write down the KEY WORDS from each instruction. Then try to cover the text and
   reconstruct the procedure using your key words.


WRITING

20 Choose one of the experiments you really performed in the laboratory and write
   down the instructions of the procedure. (minimum: 10 steps)




DESCRIBING PROCEDURES

21 Study the procedure for homemade soap

          SOAP DISH: HOMEMADE SOAP BROUGHT UP TO DATE
By Niki Hayden

Just as bread bakers yearn for the impeccable crust and wine sommeliers search for the right
bouquet, soap makers attempt the perfect bar. Gentle or astringent, perfumed or unscented,
soap is an ancient craft.

If making soap is a reminder of pioneer women stirring giant vats of lard and wood ashes,
you’ve studied history. Soap making has a messy past based on a chemical reaction that
appeared magical. Fat combines with lye (wood ashes contain a simple lye) resulting in
saponification. The substance no longer is fat or lye, but a new product capable of cleaning
dirt from skin and clothes.

Saponification remains the basic chemistry. But modern soap makers experiment with exotics
like avocado or walnut oils. Although tallow and lard are available, the mixture of vegetable
oils like olive, palm or coconut has become a favorite.

Homemade soap is nothing like the chalky bars of pioneer days. It may look like stained glass
or be studded with oatmeal. Modern soap makers have turned soap into a hobby that produces
the finest, silkiest bars. Perfumed with essential oils such as lavender, clary sage, citrus or
rose, home soaps look, and feel, luxurious.



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In commercial soap, one of the by-products, glycerin, is siphoned and sold to cosmetic
companies. That simple emollient will remain in your home made soap. You can design a
creamy soap for dry skin, tingly for oily. Have a skin allergy? You can decide exactly what
goes into soap.

TAKE PRECAUTIONS

Soap contains lye. With that comes a caution: lye will burn your skin and blind you if it
splashes in your eyes. Vinegar is an antidote, but it cannot undo the damage of spilled lye. In
soap making, few accidents happen because soap makers are cautioned extensively to wear
goggles, long sleeves, long pants and rubber gloves. Never use lye around children or pets.
Once this basic lesson is taught, the rest of soap is easy.

Unlike bread, where you can dabble with the basic ingredients, soap isn’t cooking. It’s a
complicated chemical reaction. You measure just the right amount of lye and water. Those are
mixed outside or in a well-ventilated room then added to oils and stirred until a trace is
formed. A trace is when the mixture has thickened. When a little is dribbled over the surface,
the dribble line sits on the surface without sinking into it. An essential oil is stirred into the
mixture. The mixture is poured into trays, wrapped in a blanket for warmth and allowed to sit
for about 24 hours. Saponification continues for several days and the soap will feel warm to
the touch. The soap is not suitable for use until at least a week later and possibly longer. It
will cure and harden in a few weeks.

GETTING STARTED

Soap isn’t difficult to make, but everyone will have at least one batch that doesn’t turn out. If
the bars are streaked with chalky lines, then either too much lye was added or the ingredients
were not mixed long enough to create a trace. This is a common beginner’s mistake. When
the oils and lye are mixed, the liquid changes consistency before your eyes. It thickens, turns
whiter, almost like a cream. But it’s not truly mixed enough until a clear tracing line is
formed. A rule of thumb is to dribble a circle or star on the surface. If the outline floats clearly
on the surface and forms a pattern, you’ve got a trace. Then you can add the essential oils, stir
vigorously and pour into molds.

Here’s another beginner’s mistake. The ingredients must be measured exactly. That means
that using a chemist’s scale is far more accurate than a simple kitchen scale. Measurements
are usually in grams, again for accuracy. Longtime soap makers know that investing in a high
quality scale will make the difference between many lost batches and a successful batch each
time.

To make soap, you’ll need a non-aluminium pan, something like an enamel or stainless steel
pot, plastic spoons, and thermometers (to check the temperature of the oils and the lye). An
electric mixer is the easiest way to mix well. A series of plastic food containers will serve as
molds. Leftover plastic yogurt cups make round soap if they are filled half way. Molds must
be plastic, or a wooden tray lined in plastic wrap. Lined with freezer paper, the hardened soap
will be easy to life out. Peel away from the paper and cut into bars. About 24 hours after the
soap starts to harden, it has the consistency of half frozen butter and will be easy to cut.




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A SIMPLE RECIPE

Most soap recipes make about 15 bars of soap. But to start out, think small. Here’s a recipe
for one bar of soap:

        17.9 grams of lye (.5 ounces)
        45.4 grams of distilled water (1.5 ounces)
        42.2 grams of olive oil (1.4 ounces)
        36.2 grams of coconut oil (1.2 ounces)
        42.2 grams palm oil (1.4 ounces)
        ¼ teaspoon of essential oil

Both coconut and palm oil are usually ordered from soap making or chemical firms. In a
pinch, you may substitute Crisco shortening. Again, the advantage to taking a course is that
you will have all the appropriate ingredients for your first bar of soap.

Measure the distilled water. Measure the lye. Take both outside to a safe place and pour the
lye into the water. Never pour water into lye; it’s highly dangerous. Next, it will heat up—to
175 degrees. Leave it alone to cool in a place where it will not be touched by anyone or, if
safer, place in a sink.

Measure the oils and pour them into an enamel pan. Warm the oils to 90 degrees. Wait until
the lye cools to 90 degrees. Pour the lye slowly into the oils and begin stirring. Here’s where a
mixer becomes handy. But for this one bar, mixing by hand will be fine. Mix until a trace is
formed. Add your essential oil and stir well. Pour into a mold, like a yogurt cup. Insulate with
an old blanket for 24 hours. Then you may remove the bar and allow it to cure for two weeks.

GIVING GIFTS

If you’d like to give your soap as a gift, here are a few ideas. Cut thin strips of wrapping
paper; wrap around each bar and tape the back. Or, use raffia and thin satin ribbon as a tie
around each bar. In our photo, dried pansies, violas and violets are pressed into the soft soap.
Press flowers such as pansies or violets between the leaves of a thick book until they are dried
and flat. Dampen a side on the soap and the dried flower will stick.


VOCABULARY

impeccable        -   perfect, with no problems or bad parts
astringent        -   contracting
vat               -   a large container, as a tub or tank, used for storing or holding liquids
lard              -   the rendered fat of hogs
lye               -   a highly concentrated, aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide or sodium
                      hydroxide
tallow            -   the fatty tissue or suet of animals
oatmeal           -   meal made from ground or rolled oats, a grayish-fawn color
clary sage        -   fresh leaves used in omelets and fritters and with lamb
emollient         -   having the power of softening or relaxing, as a medicinal substance

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tingle            - to have a sensation of slight prickles, stings, or tremors, as from cold, a sharp
                     blow
antidote          - a medicine or other remedy for counteracting the effects of poison, disease
dabble            - to play and splash in or as if in water
dribble            - to fall or flow in drops or small quantities; a small quantity of anything
trace             - an extremely small amount of some chemical component
vigorous          - strong; active; robust
mold              - a hollow form or matrix for giving a particular shape to something in a
                      molten or plastic state

22 Answer the following questions:

        What is the history of soap making?
        What is glycerin, where is it used?
        Is there any risk in soap making?
        What is the essence of saponification?
        What are the most typical mistakes in home soap making?
        What tools and equipment do you need to prepare soap at home?

23 Try to describe the procedure of soap making.

24 Make a list of all the verbs expressing the procedure of soap making and then use at
   least five of them in your own sentences.


LISTENING

25 Before listening, discuss the following questions:
      Do you use any plasticware in your laboratory?
      What are the advantages of tools and vessels made of plastic?
      Do you expect plasticware to be affected by chemicals more easily than
         glassware?

26 Listen to the recording and decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F).
   Correct the false ones.

  a.     The scientists expected the influence of ammonium chloride concentration in reaction
         with an enzyme linked to Parkinson’s desease.
  b.     This influence has been confirmed.
  c.     The scientists found several chemicals that came out of the polypropylene containers.
  d.     Di HEMDA is used to stop anything growing in the container.
  e.     Oleamide has similar usage as Di HEMDA.
  f.     These experiments prooved plasticware not to be generally suitable for laboratory
         work.
  g.     Plasticware will not be used in laboratories in future.
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27    Listening – chemical laboratory:

Task 1:        Listen to the text and try to express what the interview says about using plasticware
               in the laboratory

Task 2:        Listen again, this time follow the transcription of the interview and fill in the
               missing words.

Interviewer - Chris Smith
Now to a way in which our experiments could be thrown into disarray, Matt tell us about this.
Interviewee - Matt Wilkinson
Yes, a team of Canadian ………………….. led by Andrew Holt at the University of Alberta
have shown how chemicals leaching from plasticware can actually ………………….. the
reactions that you do in them dramatically.
Interviewer - Chris Smith
So what were they doing? How did they find it?
Interviewee - Matt Wilkinson
Well, they were initially studying how an enzyme linked to Parkinson's disease, reacted with
ammonium chloride, and surprisingly they found that it didn't seem to …………………..,
how much they diluted that ammonium chloride, the ………………….. were still there.
Interviewer - Chris Smith
So something was amiss. How did they try to find out what it really was?
Interviewee - Matt Wilkinson
What they did was that they started off by seeing if they could extract anything from the
………………….. themselves and they found that there were two chemicals in particular that
came out of the polypropylene containers, while they were doing these reactions that seemed
to inhibit the enzyme. One of these is the disinfectant DiHEMDA, which is used to stop
anything growing in the containers, while they're in ………………….. and the other is the
lubricant, oleamide, that's used to stop the packages from sticking together during the
………………….. process.
Interviewer - Chris Smith
So where were these chemicals coming from? Were they actually in the plastic itself?
Interviewee - Matt Wilkinson
They're actually in the plastic themselves.
Interviewer - Chris Smith
And do we know how they were interfering with the chemical reaction that the researchers
were trying to …………………..?
Interviewee - Matt Wilkinson
They've actually found that both of these chemicals are inhibitors of the enzyme itself.

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Interviewer - Chris Smith
And this is obviously a bit of a canary in the cages, saying there are things in these plastic
containers that could affect other reactions. Do they speculate as to how well this could
throw a spanner in your scientific works?
Interviewee - Matt Wilkinson
Well, yes it kind of throws a spanner into any reaction that you're doing, that's
………………….. sensitive. If you're using any kind of plasticware from a container,
through to a pipette, any plastic has the potential to leach some of its constituent chemicals
out of it, the most interesting thing, I think, about this of course is that people have started
using ………………….. plasticware to avoid the problems of incomplete cleaning of
glassware.
Interviewer - Chris Smith
So, is this the death knell for laboratory plasticware then?
Interviewee - Matt Wilkinson
No, absolutely not, I think that it really emphasizes the need to run controlled experiments as
we all should do anyway and you need to seriously control the plasticware that you do use, so
that you can actually make sure that conditions are kept exactly the same.
Interviewer - Chris Smith
So maybe it's not always true the bad workman blame their tools. Thank you for that Matt.


Task 3:        Use the words you filled into the text in your own sentences



GRAMMAR LINKS

28    Study two sections of the Grammar File – Word Formation and Infinitive.




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                                  UNIT 4
                               ENVIRONMENT

WARM UP


1 Answer the following quiz:

  1)   Climate change will probably make Europe more susceptible to...
  a)   drought in central Europe and floods in southern Europe
  b)   floods in the summer and drought in the winter in both central and southern Europe
  c)   floods in central Europe and drought in southern Europe
  d)   probably we will only see minor climate changes in this part of the globe

  2) Which of the following effects is the least likely consequence of more frequent
     floods in Europe?
  a) less nutrient-rich soil because of erosion
  b) more moisture in the soil and therefore better harvests
  c) more radioactive soil
  d) farmers change to crops better suited to moist conditions

  3) A hotter climate may make some animal and plant life...
  a) move south and down toward sea level
  b) move north and up to higher altitudes
  c) move, but presently we cannot say how or where
  d) All plants and animals are robust, and will not be affected by hotter climate

  4) In case of climate change, poor countries may suffer greater damage than rich
     ones because they...
  a) cause more pollution
  b) often have a wetter climate
  c) have smaller adaptability
  d) Poor countries will not suffer greater damage

  5)   Which of the following diseases do we expect to spread as the climate gets hotter?
  a)   HIV/AIDS
  b)   influenza
  c)   tuberculosis
  d)   malaria




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SPEAKING

2 Discuss in pairs or small groups the following questions.
   What are the different types of alternative energy sources that you know?
   What are their pros and cons?

3 Find as many words that are connected to each of the energy sources as you can.



PRE-READING

4 Match the following words with their synonyms.
A arid                      to satisfy
B to face                   extensive
C severe                    flood
D shortage                  to provide
E to balloon                tension
F to quench                 cruel
G pressure                  ecological
H harvest                   to rise
I hurdle                    to solve
J widespread                crop
K toll                      loss
L residue                   dry
M to dispose of             not to be able to afford
N battered                  remainder
O run-off                   instead of
P to ill afford             demolished
Q sludge                    to solve, to get rid of
R to focus                  mud
S to implement              obstacle
T to supply                 concentrate
U to drain                  to pump out, to exhaust
V plant                     factory
W to settle                 meet, confront
X green                     carry out, execute
Y in lieu of                lack




READING


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5 Now read the following text, trying to understand the new vocabulary in context.

               Can Ocean Desalination Solve the World's Water Shortage?
    Environmentalists concerned about long-term effects of desalination
   (By Larry West, About.com)

        Fresh water scarcity is already posing major problems for more than a billion people
around the world, mostly in arid developing countries. The World Health Organization
predicts that by mid-century, four billion of us—nearly two-thirds of the world’s present
population—will face severe fresh water shortages.
        With human population expected to balloon another 50 percent by 2050, resource
managers are increasingly looking to alternative scenarios for quenching the world's growing
thirst. Desalination—a process whereby highly pressurized ocean water is pushed through
tiny membrane filters and distilled into drinking water—is being held forth by some as one of
the most promising solutions to the problem. But critics point out it doesn't come without its
economic and environmental costs.
        According to the non-profit Food & Water Watch, desalinated ocean water is the most
expensive form of fresh water out there, given the infrastructure costs of collecting, distilling
and distributing it. The group reports that, in the U.S., desalinated water costs at least five
times as much to harvest as other sources of fresh water. Similar high costs are a big hurdle
to desalination efforts in poor countries as well, where limited funds are already stretched too
thin.
        On the environmental front, widespread desalination could take a heavy toll on ocean
biodiversity. "Ocean water is filled with living creatures, and most of them are lost in the
process of desalination, even some fairly large organisms…part of the hidden cost of doing
business," says Sylvia Earle, one of the world's foremost marine biologists and a National
Geographic Explorer-in-Residence.
        Earle also points out that the very salty residue left over from desalination must be
disposed of properly, not just dumped back into the sea. Food & Water Watch concurs,
warning that coastal areas already battered by urban and agricultural run-off can ill afford to
absorb tons of concentrated saltwater sludge.
        Food & Water Watch advocates instead for better fresh water management practices.
"Ocean desalination hides the growing water supply problem instead of focusing on water
management and lowering water usage," the group reports, citing a recent study which found
that California can meet its water needs for the next 30 years by implementing cost-effective
urban water conservation. Desalination is "an expensive, speculative supply option that will
drain resources away from more practical solutions," the group says.
        Despite such arguments, the practice is becoming more common. Ted Levin of the
Natural Resources Defence Council says that more than 12,000 desalination plants already
supply fresh water in 120 nations, mostly in the Middle East and Caribbean. Environmental
advocates may just have to settle for pushing to "green" the practice as much as possible in
lieu of eliminating it altogether.




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READING COMPREHENSION

6 Answer the following questions:
        What are the pros and cons of ocean desalination?
        What are the main arguments claimed by Food & Water Watch?
        How could desalination influence the oceans and the organisms that live in there?
        Where is the area that supports and uses the desalination plants?
        How do you understand the last sentence of the article? Is it derogatory,
         complimentary or neutral towards the environmental activists?

7 Fill in the missing word(s), using some of those that occur in the previous text:
The manager of the company felt certainly under _________ when he was told about the
__________ finance shortages. __________ contacting his ________ he decided to take the
matter in his hands. He contacted other companies in the same field which seemed to _______
a noticeable help for his ________. Yet, the company ________ more and more _________
and in the end _________ such ______ that the manager could ___________ to carry on in
his job.

pose               ill afford       severe       plant       tolls           ballooned
         hurdles            in lieu of     advocates   faced          pressure


8    Work with the text in the Supplementary materials: Great Barrier Reef


                                        Lexicon
Words in the News
(http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/newsenglish/witn/2008/04/080428_csp.s
html)

9    Look at these words and phrases. Their explanations were scrambled. Try to correct
     the matchings.

 A                         a single plant          be the first to react
 B                         meet the electricity    a very large amount of money
                           needs
 C                         breakthrough            increases the power of st.
 D                         intensifies             produce all the necessary electricity
 E                         forge new               one factory by itself
                           partnerships
 F                         take the lead           layers
 G                         seeing their own        make new business partners
                           future at stake
 H                         stacks                  new and important development
 I                         huge investment         realizing that the future is uncertain


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10 Read the following text and try to fill out the gaps with the correct word or phrase
   from above.

        Concentrating Solar Power is a ______________ in energy production. Using
_______ of mirrors, it ________ sunlight so much that a _________ can provide the needs of
a modern city.
        CSP scientists are hoping to develop especially the Sahara - the world's largest hot
desert. CSP mirrors across only one per cent of the Sahara, they say, would
____________________ of the whole world - with no pollution and no greenhouse gasses.
        The first CSP tower is already producing, at Seville in southern Spain, where Europe
almost touches the Maghreb. Similar projects are planned in Morocco, in Egypt, and the Gulf
States. Eventually, the idea is to export electricity to Europe. Algeria is already in talks with
Germany about selling clean, green power.
        The projects will of course take______________. CSP scientists hope that European
countries     will     ______________         and       ________________         with     Africa,
__________________________.




11 Try to explain the following compounds in English.

     eco-city
     ecospecies
     ecosystem
     ecotourism
     ecotype
     ecosphere
     eco-terrorism
     eco-doom
     eco-trekker




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12 This crossword will help you learn some new words or revise those that you should
   already know.




Across

2. the most abundant element in the universe; it can be used as a fuel
   source
5. energy that can be reused an infinite number of times
6. the government agency which monitors environmental issues (acronym)
7. a car that uses a combination of electricity and gasoline
8. an interdependent community of organisms including plants, animals, water, air and the
   ground
9. the term given to food sold in supermarkets and grown without synthetic
   fertilizers, chemicals and antibiotics
10.another name for buyers; they can influence what products are carried in
   stores

Down

1. the most abundant energy capable of being harnessed by humans
3. the name given to gasses that trap heat and cause global warming
4. one of the factors that causes global warming, desertification




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LEXICAL EXERCISE

13 Fill the gaps with the correct derived form of the word on the right.

Mercury in Fish: Does Eating Seafood Help or Harm Your Health?
(http://environment.about.com/od/health/Environmental_Issues_Focus_on_Food.htm)

Commercial seafood contains higher levels of mercury than most people ______, suspicion
and neither government regulators nor the seafood _____ are doing much        industrial
to educate or protect ______ from the health hazards of eating seafood        consume
laced with mercury, according to a study by the Chicago Tribune.

The next time you start ______ a tuna sandwich for lunch or a swordfish steak  order
as your dinner entrée, give some ________ to the research study. Mercury is    think
a highly toxic heavy metal that can damage the central ______ system of        nerve
children and unborn foetuses, slowing ___________ of walking and talking       develop
and decreasing ________ and attention span. Adults may experience headaches, memorize
fatigue, lack of ________ , and numbness in their hands and feet.             concentrate
According to the newspaper, some studies ________ that men may face           suggestion
an _________ risk of heart attack.                                            increase

The ________ by the Tribune also found that _______ regulators and            investigate, govern
the seafood industry are doing little to protect _______ health and, in fact,         publicity
have been placing consumers at _______ for decades.                                    risking


PHRASAL VERBS

14 Study the structure of phrasal verbs.


 Phrasal verbs:
     can be literal or idiomatic
     are formed by verb + particle: The plan didn't work out., The plans fell through.
     or verb + particle + object: He took away the materials., They put off the meeting.,
       Do not let me down., He came across an anti-eco ad.
     or verb + particle + particle: I am looking forward to leading the campaign., How
       can you put up with their policy?




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15 Fill in the gaps to form appropriate phrasal verbs.

1. Our cities would be cleaner if cars could run ___ electricity instead of petrol.
   A on                      B in                           C at
2. Human beings are the main cause of plant and animal species dying ___ .
   A for                   B back                        C out
3. All non-renewable fuels will eventually run ___ .
   A down to                        B out at                 C out
4. I would like to work ___ Prague water and sewerage company.
   A for                     B under                    C up
5. The government is planing to phase ___ all diesel powered cars by the year 2015.
   A     off                  B on                           C out
6. The recyclable material is sorted ___ and carried to another location for recycling.
   A out                      B up                         C in
7. Phytoremediation is a relatively new approach to cleaning ___ various types of
   environmental contamination.
   A on                       B up                        C out
8. It is necessary to drive ___ carbon dioxide emissions.
   A up                        B away                     C down


16 Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the phrasal verbs below.
   give off / look into / cut down on / cut down / give up

1. If the trees in the world's rainforests are               , there will be disastrous
   environmental consequences.
2. Safety is an important issue for petro-chemical companies. Some of the chemicals they
   produce                      toxic fumes, so they have to ensure they are not spilt or released
   into the environment.
3. The U.S. government has refused to                         the amount of pollution the
   country produces.
4. It's too easy to criticise governments and companies for polluting - are you willing to
                         using your car?
5. I think we should spend more money on research to                          alternatives
   to using petrol.




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LISTENING

                                Production of Biofuels Set to Rise
                         (http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/0805/080530-biofuel.html)

Before the listening:

17 Look at these causes of rising food prices. Discuss what the world should do to stop
   the rises. Write your ideas in the table. (Think of OPEC, oil pipelines, cartels,
   contraception, the materials for the production of biofuels, pollution etc.)

rising oil prices
population increase
biofuels
global warming


18 Match the following synonyms from the article:

1.    set                                                     a.   to push up
2     rapidly                                                 b.   disadvantaged
3.    to boost                                                c.   appearing
4.    fueling                                                 d.   quickly
5.    springing up                                            e.   to form
6.    critics                                                 f.   ready
7.    to make up                                              g.   difference
8.    to influence                                            h.   stimulating
9.    gap                                                     i.   to affect
10.   have-nots                                               j.   commentators


19 Now listen and fill in the gaps:
The world’s production of biofuels ____________ rapidly over the next ten years. This is
according to a new report by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. The
report stated that ________global demand for biofuels will “boost international trade” over
___________. This is because of rising concerns about global warming and the ________ for
alternative energies. Governments around the world are desperate to reduce the amount of
fossil fuels they use _____________ meet their CO2 targets. The current record price of oil is
_________ the scramble for biofuels. New biofuel production plants are springing up in
developed countries all over the world. The race is on to produce clean and economically-
friendly biofuels that will provide up to 20 per cent ___________ needs in the major world
economies.
Biofuels _______ without their critics. Many people believe they are a major cause
___________rise in food prices. Industry analysts disagree and say biofuels make up only
five percent of these increases, and that supply and demand _________ to blame. However, it


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seems that a sharp rise in biofuel production ____________________ influence food prices.
This is because more wheat, seeds, palm oil and sugar would go into making biofuels instead
of feeding people and farm animals. There is a danger _____________ riots could spread
across the world, even to rich countries. People would have cheaper fuel for __________ but
more expensive food on store shelves. This would greatly increase the gap between the haves
and _____________. In October 2007, a United Nations spokesperson called biofuels a
"crime against humanity".


READING COMPREHENSION

20 Look at the article’s headline and guess whether these sentences are true (T)
   or false (F):

a.   The production of biofuels will more than double over the next decade.                     T/F
b.   The demand for biofuels will help increase global trade.                                   T/F
c.   Governments are extremely keen to replace fossil fuels with biofuels.                      T/F
d.   There are no critics of biofuels.                                                          T/F
e.   Analysts believe biofuels are a major cause of rising food prices.                         T/F
f.   It’s possible that food riots might break out in developed countries.                      T/F
g.   A UN official said biofuels were a crime against humanity.                                 T/F


21 Read the following article about Oil Processing. Then, try to work out the crossword
   below, where you can find some new expressions connected to this topic.

                                            Oil Processing
Crude oil usually consists of a mixture of hydrocarbons having varying molecular weights and
differing from one another in structure and properties. These various species are separated
into groups, or fractions, by a process of distillation called refining. The oil is first heated to a
vapour, then passed upward through a tower containing trays at various levels. The vapours
are very hot at the bottom, but become cooler as the rise, so that different fractions condense
in the trays at different heights. The lighter the fraction the higher up it condenses. In an
average crude oil the fractions, beginning with the lightest, are: (1) dissolved gases, (2)
petroleum ether, (3) gasoline, (4) kerosene, (5) gas oil, (6) lubricating oils, (7) fuel oils, and
(8) asphalt.

                                   Because so much gasoline is needed, ways were developed
                                   to break down the larger molecules of the heavier fractions
                                   to produce it. This process is called "cracking" and may be
                                   accomplished by subjecting these fractions to high
                                   temperature and pressure, or by employing a chemical
                                   catalyst (in the picture; photo courtesy Phillips Petroleum
                                   Company), which is used to speed up the cracking reaction.


                                   (http://www.bydesign.com/fossilfuels/links/html/oil/oil_process.html




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Across
3. One of the most abundant elements in petroleum.
4. Chemicals produced from petroleum.
8. The ability of a liquid to evaporate.
10. The type of oil composed of hydrocarbons.
11. A compound composed mostly of hydrogen and carbon.
12. Another word for crude oil; a hydrocarbon mixture found underground.

Down
1. The process of separating liquids by boiling.
2. A measure of the pore space in rocks.
5. The type of a tower that cools water with air.
6. Crude oil is found in this type of rock.
7. A solid material similar to coal that can be produced from processing of oil.
9. An alcohol made from the destructive distillation of wood.




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22    A visit to a wastewater-treatment plant: Primary treatment of wastewater.
                           (http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/wwvisit.html)




Here's a step-by-step guide describing what happens at each stage of the treatment process
and how pollutants are removed to help keep our waterways clean. This information is
courtesy of the Greater Vancouver Regional District.

1. Screening

Wastewater entering the treatment plant includes items like wood, rocks, and even dead
animals. Unless they are removed, they could cause problems later in the treatment process.
Most of these materials are sent to a landfill.

2. Pumping

The wastewater system relies on the force of gravity to move sewage from your home to the
treatment plant. So wastewater-treatment plants are located on low ground, often near a river
into which treated water can be released. If the plant is built above the ground level, the
wastewater has to be pumped up to the aeration tanks (item 3). From here on, gravity takes
over to move the wastewater through the treatment process.

3. Aerating

One of the first steps that a water treatment facility can do is to just shake up the sewage and
expose it to air. This causes some of the dissolved gases (such as hydrogen sulfide, which
smells like rotten eggs) that taste and smell bad to be released from the water. Wastewater
enters a series of long, parallel concrete tanks. Each tank is divided into two sections. In the
first section, air is pumped through the water.

As organic matter decays, it uses up oxygen. Aeration replenishes the oxygen. Bubbling
oxygen through the water also keeps the organic material suspended while it forces 'grit'
(coffee grounds, sand and other small, dense particles) to settle out. Grit is pumped out of the
tanks and taken to landfills.

4. Removing sludge

Wastewater then enters the second section or sedimentation tanks. Here, the sludge (the
organic portion of the sewage) settles out of the wastewater and is pumped out of the tanks.
Some of the water is removed in a step called thickening and then the sludge is processed in
large tanks called digesters.

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5. Removing scum

As sludge is settling to the bottom of the sedimentation tanks, lighter materials are floating to
the surface. This 'scum' includes grease, oils, plastics, and soap. Slow-moving rakes skim the
scum off the surface of the wastewater. Scum is thickened and pumped to the digesters along
with the sludge.

Many cities also use filtration in sewage treatment. After the solids are removed, the liquid
sewage is filtered through a substance, usually sand, by the action of gravity. This method
gets rid of almost all bacteria, reduces turbidity and color, removes odors, reduces the amount
of iron, and removes most other solid particles that remained in the water. Water is sometimes
filtered through carbon particles, which removes organic particles. This method is used in
some homes, too.

6. Killing bacteria

Finally, the wastewater flows into a 'chlorine contact' tank, where the chemical chlorine is
added to kill bacteria, which could pose a health risk, just as is done in swimming pools. The
chlorine is mostly eliminated as the bacteria are destroyed, but sometimes it must be
neutralized by adding other chemicals. This protects fish and other marine organisms, which
can be harmed by the smallest amounts of chlorine. The treated water (called effluent) is then
discharged to a local river or the ocean

R. Wastewater Residuals

Another part of treating wastewater is dealing with the solid-waste material. These solids are
kept for 20 to 30 days in large, heated and enclosed tanks called 'digesters.' Here, bacteria
break down (digest) the material, reducing its volume, odors, and getting rid of organisms that
can cause disease. The finished product is mainly sent to landfills, but sometimes can be used
as fertilizer.



Writing: What is the major aim of wastewater treatment?
         Why should we treat wastewater?

Comprehension: Summarize briefly each step of the wastewater treatment.




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GRAMMAR

23 Read this “thank-you letter” and choose the correct verb form.

                                                  December 15, 2008
Dear Mr Jelinek,
I just wanted to say/saying thank you for to have/having me as your guest at your faculty.
I enjoyed meeting/to meet your colleagues and to discuss/discussing the environmental issues
with your students. You all made me feel/to feel so welcome. You were so kind that I soon
stopped to feel/feeling like a stranger and started to enjoy/enjoying my research fellowship
stay. I would love to reach/reaching you online sometime. Would you mind to give/giving
me your skype details? What is a good time for me to call?
On the way to my home institution I stopped to visit/visiting my research consultant in
Paris. It was lovely to talk/talking to him again. He very much wanted that I stay/me to
stay longer and give a lecture on my desalination project, but I wanted to join/joining my
colleagues in Marseilles. Well, he has invited me to come/coming back any time. I would
love to do/doing that. I am thinking of go/going next year.
I am looking forward to hear/hearing from you soon. Let me know/to know about your
lecture on the negative effects of biofuels. Was it successful or controversial?
Yours sincerely, Allen Parker

REFERENCE: Grammar File – Verb patterns



DISCUSSION

24    Discuss the environmental problems shown below.




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25 Answer the following questions with your partner.
    What are some of the causes of the environmental problems in the pictures?
    Which of these environmental issues are most difficult to deal with? Support your
      opinion with specific reasons.
    How can an individual help?
    If you wanted to join an environmental organisation, which would you choose and
      why?

This table offers you some useful language:
 oil spill               dumping toxic waste    deforestation           air/water/noise
                                                                        pollution
 to destroy the eco-     to contaminate         to harm wildlife        to conserve energy
 system / beaches
 clean-up campaign       to face extinction     forest fires            smog
 animal rights           to build wildlife      to plant trees          to exhaust fumes
                         reserves
 organic farm            recycling plant        endangered species      acid rain
 animals endangered      active environmental   conservation of         global warming
                         organizations          natural habitat
 raising                 local council          hunted by poachers      natural resources
 environmental
 awareness




WRITING

26 Choose one of the two topics to write about.

    1. Write approximately four paragraphs concerned with possible solutions that you
       would suggest for each of the discussed problems.
    2. Imagine you are organizing an Environmental Awareness Day for the local council.
       You were given some suggestions for the event by the local authorities (see below).
       Discuss which two of them you would use for raising the environmental awareness,
       why, and how. (To support your choice think about how healthy your city is to live in,
       what needs to be changed in order to improve the quality of life in the area, what could
       the individuals and the government do, what environmental problems might the city
       face in the future etc.)




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        Recycling Fashion Show
        Hilarious Marathon to Raise Money for the Environmental Organizations
        A Concert in Open Air to Raise Money for the Environmental Education
        Planting Trees
        Recycling at Schools – Competition
        Art Festival to Raise Money for the Environmental Problems Solutions
        No Car Day




Useful phrases

One of the main problems/issues is…
The main cause is…
Another solution is…
I don’t know much about…
I’m not sure…
I don’t know a lot about that, but I think …
I reckon/guess/suppose…
I suggest…, I agree …, I cannot comprehend…, I refer to…




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